Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 43
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338360

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (3CLpro) has an indispensable role in the viral life cycle and is a therapeutic target for the treatment of COVID-19. The potential of 3CLpro-inhibitors to select for drug-resistant variants needs to be established. Therefore SARS-CoV-2 was passaged in vitro in the presence of increasing concentrations of ALG-097161, a probe compound designed in the context of a 3CLpro drug discovery program. We identified a combination of amino acid substitutions in 3CLpro (L50F E166A L167F) that is associated with > 20x increase in EC 50 values for ALG-097161, nirmatrelvir (PF-07321332) and PF-00835231. While two of the single substitutions (E166A and L167F) provide low-level resistance to the inhibitors in a biochemical assay, the triple mutant results in the highest levels of resistance (6- to 72-fold). All substitutions are associated with a significant loss of enzymatic 3CLpro activity, suggesting a reduction in viral fitness. Structural biology analysis indicates that the different substitutions reduce the number of inhibitor/enzyme interactions while the binding of the substrate is maintained. These observations will be important for the interpretation of resistance development to 3CLpro inhibitors in the clinical setting.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0265377, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869167

ABSTRACT

To perform a mental health evaluation and an early psychological intervention for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, an online survey was conducted among 3055 HCWs in the paediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of 62 hospitals in China on March 26, 2020, by the Neurology and Sedation Professional Group, Emergency Department, Paediatrics Branch, Chinese Medical Association. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, including general information, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). The results show that a total of 970 HCWs (45.99%) were considered to meet the clinical cut-off scores for posttraumatic stress (PTS), and the proportions of participants with mild to extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress were 39.69%, 36.46% and 17.12%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the psychological impact among HCWs of different genders. Married HCWs were 1.48 times more likely to have PTS than unmarried HCWs (95% Cl: 1.20-1.82, p <0.001). Compared with junior professional title participants, the PTS-positive rate of HCWs with intermediate professional titles was 1.91 times higher (90% Cl: 1.35-2.70, p<0.01). Those who had been in contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases were 1.40 times (95% Cl: 1.02-1.92, p <0.05) more likely to have PTS than those who did not have contact with COVID-19 cases or did not know the relevant conditions. For depression, the proportion of HCWs with intermediate professional titles was significantly higher, at 1.65 times (90% Cl: 1.17-2.33, p <0.01) that of those with junior professional titles. The depression of HCWs at work during the epidemic was 1.56 times that of HCWs on vacation (95% Cl: 1.03-2.37, p <0.05), and their anxiety was 1.70 times greater (95% Cl: 1.10-2.63, p <0.05). Participants who had been in contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases had more pronounced anxiety, 1.40 times that of those who did not have contact with COVID-19 cases or did not know the relevant conditions (95% Cl: 1.02-1.92, p <0.05). There was no significant correlation between the variables and the positive results of stress symptoms. In total, 45.99%, 39.69%, 36.46% and 17.12% of PICU HCWs were affected by PTS, depression, anxiety and stress, respectively, to varying degree. Married status, intermediate professional titles and exposure history were independent risk factors for PTS. Intermediate professional titles and going to work during the epidemic were independent risk factors for depression, and going to work and exposure history during the epidemic were independent risk factors for anxiety. In the face of public health emergencies, HCWs not only specialize in paediatric intensive care but also, as a high-risk group, must actively take preventive measures and use mitigation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Male
3.
Environ Pollut ; 307: 119510, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851033

ABSTRACT

Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an important reactive gas pollutant harmful to human health. The spatiotemporal coverage provided by traditional NO2 monitoring methods is insufficient, especially in the suburban and rural areas of north China, which have a high population density and experience severe air pollution. In this study, we implemented a spatiotemporal neural network (STNN) model to estimate surface NO2 from multiple sources of information, which included satellite and in situ measurements as well as meteorological and geographical data. The STNN predicted NO2 with high accuracy, with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.89 and a root mean squared error of 5.8 µg/m3 for sample-based 10-fold cross-validation. Based on the surface NO2 concentration determined by the STNN, we analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal trends of NO2 pollution in north China. We found substantial drops in surface NO2 concentrations ranging between 9.1% and 33.2% for large cities during the 2020 COVID-19 lockdown when compared to those in 2019. Moreover, we estimated the all-cause deaths attributed to NO2 exposure at a high spatial resolution of about 1 km, with totals of 6082, 4200, and 18,210 for Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Provinces in 2020, respectively. We observed remarkable regional differences in the health impacts due to NO2 among urban, suburban, and rural areas. Generally, the STNN model could incorporate spatiotemporal neighboring information and infer surface NO2 concentration with full coverage and high accuracy. Compared with machine learning regression techniques, STNN can effectively avoid model overfitting and simultaneously consider both spatial and temporal correlations of input variables using deep convolutional networks with residual blocks. The use of the proposed STNN model, as well as the surface NO2 dataset, can benefit air quality monitoring, forecasting, and health burden assessments.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Nitrogen Dioxide/analysis , Particulate Matter/analysis
4.
Computers in Biology and Medicine ; : 105601, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1850901

ABSTRACT

Background The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is currently a major challenge threatening the global healthcare system. Respiratory virus infection is the most common cause of asthma attacks, and thus COVID-19 may contribute to an increase in asthma exacerbations. However, the mechanisms of COVID-19/asthma comorbidity remain unclear. Methods The “Limma” package or “DESeq2” package was used to screen differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Alveolar lavage fluid datasets of COVID-19 and asthma were obtained from the GEO and GSV database. A series of analyses of common host factors for COVID-19 and asthma were conducted, including PPI network construction, module analysis, enrichment analysis, inference of the upstream pathway activity of host factors, tissue-specific analysis and drug candidate prediction. Finally, the key host factors were verified in the GSE152418 and GSE164805 datasets. Results 192 overlapping host factors were obtained by analyzing the intersection of asthma and COVID-19. FN1, UBA52, EEF1A1, ITGB1, XPO1, NPM1, EGR1, EIF4E, SRSF1, CCR5, PXN, IRF8 and DDX5 as host factors were tightly connected in the PPI network. Module analysis identified five modules with different biological functions and pathways. According to the degree values ranking in the PPI network, EEF1A1, EGR1, UBA52, DDX5 and IRF8 were considered as the key cohost factors for COVID-19 and asthma. The H2O2, VEGF, IL-1 and Wnt signaling pathways had the strongest activities in the upstream pathways. Tissue-specific enrichment analysis revealed the different expression levels of the five critical host factors. LY294002, wortmannin, PD98059 and heparin might have great potential to evolve into therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 and asthma comorbidity. Finally, the validation dataset confirmed that the expression of five key host factors were statistically significant among COVID-19 groups with different severity and healthy control subjects. Conclusions This study constructed a network of common host factors between asthma and COVID-19 and predicted several drugs with therapeutic potential. Therefore, this study is likely to provide a reference for the management and treatment for COVID-19/asthma comorbidity.

5.
American journal of translational research ; 14(4):2244-2255, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837503

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 epidemic quickly under control in China in the early stage of 2020, global cooperation/communications may pose great challenges to epidemic control and prevention in the country. Large-scale spread by asymptomatic carriers was a concern. We obtained data on new cluster outbreak regions with COVID-19 caused by asymptomatic carriers from June 2020 to May 2021 in China, and reported the epidemiological characteristics, the possible routes of viral transmission and infection, and different control strategies. These results show the importance of regular screening for high-risk populations and differential management strategies for epidemic control, which provide an objective basis for suppressing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These experiences can be used as a reference to minimize the subsequent spread of virus mutants in various places.

6.
Atmosphere ; 13(4):569, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776116

ABSTRACT

Background: Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are substances with oxidizing ability in the atmosphere. Only considering the impact of a single substance is not comprehensive. However, people's understanding of 'total oxidation capacity';(Ox) and 'weighted average oxidation';(Oxwt) is limited. Objectives: This investigation aims to assess the impact of Ox and Oxwt on the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We also compared the relationship between the different calculation methods of Ox and Oxwt and the COVID-19 infection rate. Method: We recorded confirmed COVID-19 cases and daily pollutant concentrations (O3 and NO2) in 34 provincial capital cities in China. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the nonlinear relationship between confirmed COVID-19 cases and Ox and Oxwt. Result: Our results indicated that the correlation between Ox and COVID-19 was more sensitive than Oxwt. The hysteresis effect of Ox and Oxwt decreased with time. The most obvious statistical data was observed in Central China and South China. A 10 µg m−3 increase in mean Ox concentrations were related to a 23.1% (95%CI: 11.4%, 36.2%) increase, and a 10 µg m−3 increase in average Oxwt concentration was related to 10.7% (95%CI: 5.2%, 16.8%) increase in COVID-19. In conclusion, our research results show that Ox and Oxwt can better replace the single pollutant research on O3 and NO2, which is used as a new idea for future epidemiological research.

7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(3): 1268-1276, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732501

ABSTRACT

Many restrictive measures were implemented in China from January-February 2020 to control the rapid spread of COVID-19. Many studies reported that the COVID-19 lockdown impacted PM2.5, SO2, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc. VOCs play important roles in the production of ozone and PM2.5. Ambient VOCs in Xiong'an were measured from December 25, 2019 to January 24, 2020 (prior to epidemic prevention, P1) and from January 25, 2020 to February 24, 2020 (during epidemic prevention, P2) through a VOCs online instrument. In the study, VOCs characteristics and ozone generation potential (OFP) of ambient VOCs were analyzed, and source apportionment of VOCs were analyzed by using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The results showed that φ(TVOCs) during epidemic prevention and control was 45.1×10-9, which was approximately half of that before epidemic prevention and control (90.5×10-9). The chemical composition of VOCs showed significant changes after epidemic prevention and control, the contribution rate of alkanes increased from 37.6% to 53.8%, and the contribution rate of aromatic hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons decreased from 13.3% and 12.0% to 7.5% and 7.8%, respectively. Aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, and OVOCs decreased by more than 60%. Seven types of the top ten species were the same before and during the epidemic prevention and control, mainly low-carbon alkanes, olefins, aldehydes, and ketones. Dichloromethane, trichloromethane, and BTEXs decreased significantly. The OPP was 566 µg·m-3 and 231 µg·m-3 in P1 and P2, respectively. The OPP of VOCs decreased by more than 30%. The proportion of OFP contribution of aromatic hydrocarbons decreased significantly after the epidemic prevention and control, and the proportion of OFP contribution of alkanes and alkynes increased significantly. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was then applied for VOCs sources apportionment. Six sources were identified, including background sources, oil-gas volatile sources, combustion sources, industrial sources, solvent use sources, and vehicle exhaust sources. The results showed that after the epidemic prevention and control, the contribution rate of solvent use sources to TVOCs decreased from 24% to 9%. The contribution rates of background sources, oil-gas volatile sources, and combustion sources increased from 13%, 34%, and 24% to 6%, 14%, and 13%, respectively. The relative contributions of vehicle exhaust sources before and after epidemic prevention and control were 21% and 18%, respectively. The observation points were affected by the emission of VOCs from paroxysmal industrial sources before the epidemic prevention and control. The emission was stopped after the epidemic prevention and control, and its contribution rate was reduced from 22% before the epidemic prevention and control to 1%. The concentrations of industrial sources, solvent sources, motor vehicle tail gas sources, and combustion sources decreased by 97%, 82%, 61%, and 15%, respectively, after the epidemic prevention and control. The concentration of background sources remained stable, and the concentration of oil and gas volatile sources increased by 7%. The control of production and traffic activities cannot reduce the emission of VOCs from oil and gas volatile sources, which is the focus of VOCs control in Xiong'an.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , COVID-19 , Ozone , Volatile Organic Compounds , Air Pollutants/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Humans , Ozone/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vehicle Emissions/analysis , Volatile Organic Compounds/analysis
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315570

ABSTRACT

With the COVID-19 epidemic quickly under control in China within the early months of 2020, importing the SARS-CoV-2 virus to the country now poses great challenges in epidemic control and prevention. Asymptomatic carriers play a critical role in the transmission of the virus and transmission on a large-scale poses enormous concern. We obtained data from new cluster outbreak regions with COVID-19 caused by asymptomatic carriers from June 2020 to January 2021, and reported the epidemiological characteristics, clinical data and the possible routes of viral transmission and infection. These results indicate the importance of regularly screening high-risk populations critical for epidemic control and provide the basis for suppressing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

9.
Light Sci Appl ; 11(1): 28, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683974

ABSTRACT

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments worldwide imposed lockdown measures in early 2020, resulting in notable reductions in air pollutant emissions. The changes in air quality during the pandemic have been investigated in numerous studies via satellite observations. Nevertheless, no relevant research has been gathered using Chinese satellite instruments, because the poor spectral quality makes it extremely difficult to retrieve data from the spectra of the Environmental Trace Gases Monitoring Instrument (EMI), the first Chinese satellite-based ultraviolet-visible spectrometer monitoring air pollutants. However, through a series of remote sensing algorithm optimizations from spectral calibration to retrieval, we successfully retrieved global gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO), from EMI during the pandemic. The abrupt drop in NO2 successfully captured the time for each city when effective measures were implemented to prevent the spread of the pandemic, for example, in January 2020 in Chinese cities, February in Seoul, and March in Tokyo and various cities across Europe and America. Furthermore, significant decreases in HCHO in Wuhan, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Seoul indicated that the majority of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions were anthropogenic. Contrastingly, the lack of evident reduction in Beijing and New Delhi suggested dominant natural sources of VOCs. By comparing the relative variation of NO2 to gross domestic product (GDP), we found that the COVID-19 pandemic had more influence on the secondary industry in China, while on the primary and tertiary industries in Korea and the countries across Europe and America.

10.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 124:1-10, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1665170

ABSTRACT

Recently, air pollution especially fine particulate matters (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) has become a severe issue in China. In this study, we first characterized the temporal trends of PM2.5 and O3 for Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Wuhan respectively during 2018-2020. The annual mean PM2.5 has decreased by 7.82%-33.92%, while O3 concentration showed insignificant variations by -6.77%-4.65% during 2018-2020. The generalized additive models (GAMs) were implemented to quantify the contribution of individual meteorological factors and their gas precursors on PM2.5 and O3. On a short-term perspective, GAMs modeling shows that the daily variability of PM2.5 concentration is largely related to the variation of precursor gases (R = 0.67-0.90), while meteorological conditions mainly affect the daily variability of O3 concentration (R = 0.65-0.80) during 2018-2020. The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on PM2.5 and O3 concentrations were also quantified by using GAMs. During the 2020 lockdown, PM2.5 decreased significantly for these megacities, yet the ozone concentration showed an increasing trend compared to 2019. The GAMs analysis indicated that the contribution of precursor gases to PM2.5 and O3 changes is 3-8 times higher than that of meteorological factors. In general, GAMs modeling on air quality is helpful to the understanding and control of PM2.5 and O3 pollution in China.

11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143160, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640613

ABSTRACT

Importance: Physicians self-report high levels of symptoms of anxiety and depression, and surveys suggest these symptoms have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is not known whether pandemic-related stressors have led to increases in health care visits related to mental health or substance use among physicians. Objective: To evaluate the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in outpatient health care visits by physicians related to mental health and substance use and explore differences across physician subgroups of interest. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based cohort study was conducted using health administrative data collected from the universal health system (Ontario Health Insurance Plan) of Ontario, Canada, from March 1, 2017, to March 10, 2021. Participants included 34 055 physicians, residents, and fellows who registered with the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario between 1990 and 2018 and were eligible for the Ontario Health Insurance Plan during the study period. Autoregressive integrated moving average models and generalized estimating equations were used in analyses. Exposures: The period during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 11, 2020, to March 10, 2021) compared with the period before the pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was in-person, telemedicine, and virtual care outpatient visits to a psychiatrist or family medicine and general practice clinicians related to mental health and substance use. Results: In the 34 055 practicing physicians (mean [SD] age, 41.7 [10.0] years, 17 918 [52.6%] male), the annual crude number of visits per 1000 physicians increased by 27%, from 816.8 before the COVID-19 pandemic to 1037.5 during the pandemic (adjusted incident rate ratio per physician, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.07-1.19). The absolute proportion of physicians with 1 or more mental health and substance use visits within a year increased from 12.3% before to 13.4% during the pandemic (adjusted odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). The relative increase was significantly greater in physicians without a prior mental health and substance use history (adjusted incident rate ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.60-1.85) than in physicians with a prior mental health and substance use history. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a substantial increase in mental health and substance use visits among physicians. Physician mental health may have worsened during the pandemic, highlighting a potential greater requirement for access to mental health services and system level change.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Physicians/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Anxiety , Cohort Studies , Depression , Family Practice , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders , Middle Aged , Ontario , Psychiatry , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine
12.
Remote Sensing ; 14(2):419, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1625956

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak in 2020, China’s air pollution has been significantly affected by control measures on industrial production and human activities. In this study, we analyzed the temporal variations of NO2 concentrations during the COVID-19 lockdown and post-epidemic era in 11 Chinese megacities by using satellite and ground-based remote sensing as well as in situ measurements. The average satellite tropospheric vertical column density (TVCD) of NO2 by TROPOMI decreased by 39.2–71.93% during the 15 days after Chinese New Year when the lockdown was at its most rigorous compared to that of 2019, while the in situ NO2 concentration measured by China National Environmental Monitoring Centre (CNEMC) decreased by 42.53–69.81% for these cities. Such differences between both measurements were further investigated by using ground-based multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) remote sensing of NO2 vertical profiles. For instance, in Beijing, MAX-DOAS NO2 showed a decrease of 14.19% (versus 18.63% by in situ) at the ground surface, and 36.24% (versus 36.25% by satellite) for the total tropospheric column. Thus, vertical discrepancies of atmospheric NO2 can largely explain the differences between satellite and in situ NO2 variations. In the post-epidemic era of 2021, satellite NO2 TVCD and in situ NO2 concentrations decreased by 10.42–64.96% and 1.05–34.99% compared to 2019, respectively, possibly related to the reduction of the transportation industry. This study reveals the changes of China’s urban NO2 pollution in the post-epidemic era and indicates that COVID-19 had a profound impact on human social activities and industrial production.

13.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 50(1): 111-116, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is commonly experienced by asylum seekers and refugees (ASR). Evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioural therapy-based treatments, but not in group format for this population. However, group-based treatments are frequently used as a first-line intervention in the UK. AIMS: This study investigated the feasibility of delivering a group-based, manualised stabilisation course specifically developed for ASR. The second aim was to evaluate the use of routine outcome measures (ROMs) to capture psychological change in this population. METHOD: Eighty-two participants from 22 countries attended the 8-session Moving On After Trauma (MOAT) group-based stabilisation treatment. PHQ-9, GAD-7, IES-R and idiosyncratic outcomes were administered pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: Seventy-one per cent of participants (n = 58) attended five or more of the treatment sessions. While completion rates of the ROMs were poor - measures were completed at pre- and post-intervention for 46% participants (n = 38) - a repeated-measures MANOVA indicated significant improvements in depression (p = .001, ηp2 = .262), anxiety (p = .000, ηp2 = .390), PTSD (p = .001, ηp2 = .393) and idiosyncratic measures (p = .000, ηp2 = .593) following the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence indicates that ASR who attended a low-intensity, group-based stabilisation group for PTSD experienced lower mental health scores post-group, although the lack of a comparison group means these results should be interpreted with caution. There are significant challenges in administering ROMs to individuals who speak many different languages, in a group setting. Nonetheless, groups have benefits including efficiency of treatment delivery which should also be considered.


Subject(s)
Refugees , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , Humans , Mental Health , Pilot Projects , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy
14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295633

ABSTRACT

We investigated how the transition to remote instruction amidst the COVID-19 pandemic affected students’ engagement, self-appraisals, and learning in advanced placement (AP) Statistics courses. Participants included 681 (Mage=16.7 years, SDage=.90;%female=55.4) students enrolled in the course during 2017-2018 (N=266), 2018-2019 (N=200), and the pandemic-affected 2019-2020 (N=215) year. Students enrolled during the pandemic-affected year reported a greater improvement in affective engagement but a decrease in cognitive engagement in the spring semester relative to a previous year. Females enrolled in the pandemic-affected year experienced a greater negative change in affective and behavioral engagement. Students enrolled during the pandemic-affected year reported a greater decrease in their anticipated AP exam scores and received lower scores on a practice exam aligned with the AP exam compared to a prior year. Though resilient in some respects, students’ self-appraisal and learning appeared negatively affected by pandemic circumstances.

15.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 130, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551216

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still spread and has made a severe public health threat around the world. To improve disease progression, emerging Chinese herbal compounds were used in clinical practice and some agents have proven beneficial in treating COVID-19. Here, the relevant literature from basic researches to clinical application were identified and comprehensively assessed. A variety of Chinese herbal compounds have been reported to be effective in improving symptoms and outcomes in patients with COVID-19, particularly together with routine treatment strategy. The pharmacological activities were mainly attributed to the relief of clinical symptoms, inhibition of cytokine storm, and improvement of organ function. Besides, the development of novel antiviral drugs from medicinal herbs were further discussed. The updated laboratory and clinical studies provided the evidence of Chinese herbal compounds such as Lianhua Qingwen prescription, Shufeng Jiedu prescription, and Qingfei Paidu Tang for the relief of COVID-19. However, both of the randomized controlled trials and real world researches need to be done for supporting the evidence including the efficacy and safety in fighting COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293518

ABSTRACT

We investigated how the transition to remote instruction amidst the COVID-19 pandemic affected students’ engagement, self-appraisals, and learning in advanced placement (AP) Statistics courses. Participants included 681 (Mage=16.7 years, SDage=.90;%female=55.4) students enrolled in the course during 2017-2018 (N=266), 2018-2019 (N=200), and the pandemic-affected 2019-2020 (N=215) year. Students enrolled during the pandemic-affected year reported a greater improvement in affective engagement but a decrease in cognitive engagement in the spring semester relative to a previous year. Females enrolled in the pandemic-affected year experienced a greater negative change in affective and behavioral engagement. Students enrolled during the pandemic-affected year reported a greater decrease in their anticipated AP exam scores and received lower scores on a practice exam aligned with the AP exam compared to a prior year. Though resilient in some respects, students’ self-appraisal and learning appeared negatively affected by pandemic circumstances.

17.
Sustainability ; 13(22):12900, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1538515

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at assessing the impacts of the fear of COVID-19 on consumer buying behavior toward dietary supplements. This investigation was a cross-sectional study in which literate adults regardless of gender over the age of 20 were recruited from three pharmacies in three different districts of Wuhan City, China. A total of 598 questionnaires were analyzed after excluding 10 with incomplete information. The current study demonstrated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control had a positive impact on the intention of purchasing dietary supplements. Fear of COVID-19 was related to an enhanced purchase intention toward dietary supplements. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significant factors that mediated the association between the fear of COVID-19 and the purchase intention of dietary supplements. This study helps provide practical advice for stakeholders in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries to tailor appropriate strategies for improving product promotion or healthcare-related interventions.

18.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 584, 2021 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the early stage of COVID-19 outbreak in China, most medical undergraduate programs have to eventually embrace the maneuver of transferring to nearly 100% online-learning as a new routine for different curricula. And there is a lack of empirical evidence of effective medical education curriculum that has been completely implemented in an online format. This study summarizes medical students' perspectives regarding online-learning experience during the COVID-19 outbreak and presents reflection on medical education. METHODS: From February 21st to March 14th, 2020, the authors conducted survey of a nationally representative sample of undergraduate medical students from 90 medical schools in China. Participant demographics and responses were tabulated, and independent sample t-tests as well as multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of demographic characteristics, prior online learning experience, and orientation with students' perspectives on the online learning experience. RESULTS: Among 118,030 medical students participated in the survey (response rate 52.4%), 99,559 provided valid data for the analysis. The sample is fairly nationally representative. 65.7% (65,389/99,559) supported great orientation and 62.1% (61,818/99,559) reported that they were satisfied with the ongoing online-learning experience. The most common problem students would encounter was the network congestion (76,277/99,559; 76.6%). Demographics, learning phases, and academic performance were associated with online-learning engagement and perceptions. Formal orientation and prior PU (perceived usefulness of online learning) were significantly positively associated with the satisfaction and evaluation of the online learning experience (p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Data from this national survey indicates a relatively positive role of online learning as a formal teaching/learning approach in medical education. Considerations should be made regarding such application in aspects of students' different learning phases. We suggest that further policy interventions should be taken from technological, organizational, environmental, as well as individual aspects, to help improve the outcome of online learning for future doctors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Medical , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Integr Med Res ; 10(4): 100778, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 180 million infections and 3.9 million deaths. To date, emerging clinical evidence has shown the synergetic benefits of Chinese herbal injections in treating this contagious respiratory disease. This review aims to summarize and analyze the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal injections in the therapy of COVID-19. METHODS: The literature from 3 electronic databases, PubMed, CNKI, and Web of Science, were searched using the search terms "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "traditional Chinese medicine", "herb", "herbal", and "injection". Then the identified articles were comprehensively evaluated. RESULTS: Limited data demonstrated that Chinese herbal injections could significantly improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients, especially in combination with conventional treatment strategies. The benefits of which were mainly associated with the relief of symptoms, prevention of secondary infection, regulation of inflammation and immune function. There was also evidence showing the inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Nevertheless, available real-world data suggested the increased risk of adverse event. Furthermore, the defects of existing researches and the insights for discovering novel antiviral drugs were prospectively discussed. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based advances revealed that Chinese herbal injections such as XueBiJing injection and ShenMai injection, exerted potent effects against COVID-19. Further laboratory researches and clinical evaluation are needed to gather scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety.

20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(17): 11538-11548, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397825

ABSTRACT

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured by satellites is widely used to estimate anthropogenic emissions. The Sentinel-5 Precursor (S-5P) operational SO2 product is overestimated compared to the ground-based multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements in China and shows an opposite variation to the surface measurements, which limits the application of TROPOspheric monitoring instrument (TROPOMI) products in emissions research. Radiometric calibration, a priori profiles, and fitting windows might cause the overestimation of S-5P operational SO2 product. Here, we improve the optimal-estimation-based algorithm through several calibration methods. The improved retrieval agrees reasonably well with the ground-based measurements (R > 0.70, bias <13.7%) and has smaller biases (-28.9%) with surface measurements over China and India. It revealed that the SO2 column in March 2020 decreased by 51.6% compared to March 2019 due to the lockdown for curbing the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, and there was a decrease of 50% during the lockdown than those after the lockdown, similar to the surface measurement trend, while S-5P operational SO2 product showed an unrealistic increase of 19%. In India, the improved retrieval identified obvious "hot spots" and observed a 30% decrease of SO2 columns during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL