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1.
Journal of Social Computing ; 3(2):158-170, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026289

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 (COIVD-19) outbreak, China repeatedly stressed that the response to the pandemic required action at all levels of government, including the issuance of Pandemic Bonds to help the country return to work and production. However, studies on the effectiveness of Pandemic Bonds during that period are rare. Starting with China's national financial bond market data after COVID-19 in 2020, this paper focuses on the correlation between the Credit Spreads of the relevant bonds and the corresponding bond market rate of return, based on the Copula model. The empirical analysis is also carried out for multiple dimensional groupings such as enterprises, industries, provinces, and bond maturities. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between the Credit Spreads of Pandemic Bonds and market returns. In addition, the market correlation is higher for Pandemic Bonds issued in Hubei Province, which is at the center of the 2020 pandemic, and the shorter the maturity of the Pandemic Bond issued, the stronger the relationship with market returns. Finally, this paper provides recommendations for financial regulators and policy makers to consider in their decisions on how to build a more resilient financial system under heavy economic, fiscal, and social pressures. © 2020 Tsinghua University Press.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10:966847, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants with mutations in the spike protein has risen concerns about the efficacy of infection- or vaccine-induced antibodies and has posed a serious threat to global public health, education, travel and economy. Few studies have described the detailed characterizations of highly cited articles on SARS-CoV-2 variants. OBJECTIVE: To identify and characterize the 100 most-cited articles in SARS-CoV-2 variants research. DESIGN AND METHODS: Articles published recently were extracted from the web of science core collection database using a query based on MeSH terms and topics of SARS-CoV-2 and variants. Characteristics of the 100 most-cited articles were analyzed via the following parameters: publication number over year, number of citations, type of articles, authors, journal, journal impact factor, country, and topics covered in articles. In addition, clinical trials in these articles were also analyzed. RESULTS: The majority of articles (66%) were published in 2021. Number of citations of the 100 most cited articles ranged from 1720 to 75 (median: 178.5). Mutations in the S protein such as D614G mutation and the B.1.1.7 (UK) and B.1.351 (South Africa) were the dominant variants in the 100 most cited articles. The United States, the United Kingdom, and South Africa had the strongest collaboration in the contribution of publication. Science, Cell, Nature and New England Journal of Medicine were mostly cited and the main direction in these top journals were vaccine neutralizing tests and efficacy evaluation studies. Response of antibody neutralization tests against variants was always weakened due to the presence of variants but the results of clinical trials were encouraging. Genomics information, spike protein structure confirmation and neutralization studies evaluating antibody resistance were highly represented in the 100 most cited articles in SARS-CoV-2 variants literature. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Altogether, genomic information, epidemiology, immune neutralization, and vaccine efficacy studies of COVID-19 variants are the main research orientations in these articles and relevant results have been published in influential journals. Given the continuous evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 and the constant development in our understanding of the impact of variants, current working strategies and measures may be periodically adjusted.

3.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022989

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAs unprecedented and prolonged crisis, healthcare workers (HCWs) are at high risk of developing psychological disorders. We investigated the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on HCWs. MethodsThis cross-sectional study randomly recruited 439 HCWs in Hunan Cancer Hospital via a web-based sampling method from June 1st 2021 to March 31st 2022. Anxiety and depression levels were measured using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) was used to assess the presence and severity of PTSD. Fear was measured by modified scale of SARS. Data were collected based on these questionnaires. Differences in fear, anxiety, depression and PTSD among HCWs with different clinical characteristics were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance. The Cronbach's alpha scores in our samples were calculated to evaluate the internal consistency of HADS, fear scale and PCL-5. ResultsThe prevalence of anxiety, depression, and PTSD in HCWs was 15.7, 9.6, and 12.8%, respectively. Females and nurses were with higher fear level (P < 0.05) and higher PTSD levels (P < 0.05). Further analysis of female HCWs revealed that PTSD levels in the 35-59 years-old age group were higher than that in other groups;while married female HCWs were with increased fear than single HCWs. The internal consistency was good, with Cronbach's alpha = 0.88, 0.80 and 0.84 for HADS, fear scale, and PCL, respectively. ConclusionGender, marital status, and age are related to different level of psychological disorders in HCWs. Clinical supportive care should be implemented for specific group of HCWs.

4.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018961

ABSTRACT

At present, COVID-19 is still spreading and affecting millions of people worldwide. Minimizing the need for travel can significantly reduce the probability of infection and improve patients’quality of life. The wireless body area network (WBAN) transmits the patients’physiological data to the doctor remotely through the sensors in a way that minimizes physical contact with others. However, existing WBAN security authentication schemes have core limitation that includes weak authentication performance and over-consumption of resources that precludes their widespread adoption in practical applications. Therefore, in this paper, an enhanced dual-factor authentication system that address the mentioned drawbacks is proposed for securing WBAN resources. By combining iris and electrocardiogram (ECG) features, users would be required to pass the first-level iris authentication before performing the second-level ECG authentication, thus enhancing the overall security scheme of a WBAN system. Furthermore, we examined the existing Inter-Pulse-Intervals (IPI) encoding methods and propose a more efficient ECG IPI encoding algorithm which can effectively shorten the encoding time without affecting the overall encoding performance. Finally, extensive experiments were performed to verify the performance of the proposed dual-factor iris and ECG based WBAN authentication system using public iris and ECG databases. The experimental results show that the false acceptance rate (FAR) is close to 0.0% and the false rejection rate (FRR) is close to 3.2%. Findings from this study suggest that the proposed dual-factor authentication scheme could aid adequate deployment of security schemes to protect WBAN resources in practical applications. IEEE

5.
Analytical Chemistry ; 94(35):12095-12102, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016504

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic's disruptions to daily routines and services have proven especially challenging for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their families. The current retrospective study aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic's social environmental changes on parental ratings of personal and child concerns about family conflict, opportunities for social interaction, and loss of institutional support (school and therapy services). Analyses of responses from families with ASD in the US determined differences in concerns across three time points which were measured simultaneously: prior to COVID-19, at the start of COVID-19, and at the time of survey completion. From our sample of 246 school-aged children, parents retrospectively reported significantly increasing levels of concern for both themselves and their children over time, with parents' personal concern levels rated consistently higher than their ratings of their child's level of concern. Concerns about loss of institutional support were higher for parents of children reported as having co-occurring intellectual disability. Further, parents of younger children also reported more concerns about loss of services, as well as more social concerns. For parent ratings of child concerns, children who were reportedly aware of COVID-19 were determined to have higher levels of social concerns and concerns about loss of institutional support. Meanwhile, the child's age and gender did not impact their parent ratings of child concerns. The increased level of parental and child-perceived concerns over the course of the pandemic suggests a need for improved service delivery and support for these families. The high levels of concerns observed in the current study provide support for the need to assess families' priorities and tailor services to best meet families' needs. This will potentially increase the quality of life of family members, and improve ASD services across the lifespan, and improve outcomes.

6.
J Med Virol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2013654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused extensive loss of life worldwide. Further, the COVID-19 and influenza mix-infection had caused great distress to the diagnosis of the disease. To control illness progression and limit viral spread within the population, a real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assay for early diagnosis of COVID-19 was developed, but detection was time-consuming (4-6 h). METHODS: To improve the diagnosis of COVID-19 and influenza, we herein developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method for simple and rapid amplification of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 and Influenza A (H1N1, H3N2) and B (influenza B). Genes encoding the matrix protein (M) for H1N1, and the hemagglutinin (HA) for H3N2, and the polymerase A (PA) for Influenza B, and the nucleocapsid protein (N), the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase (RdRP) in the open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) region, and the envelope protein (E) for SARS-CoV-2 were selected, and specific primers were designed. We validated our method using SARS-CoV-2, H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B pseudovirus standards and RNA samples extracted from COVID-19 and Influenza A/B (RT-PCR-verified) positive patients. RESULTS: The method could detect SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus standard DNA quantitatively between 10(2) and 10(5) copies/mL with a log linearity of 0.99 in 22 min. And this method also be very effective in simultaneous detection of H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B. Clinical validation of 100 cases revealed a sensitivity of 100% for differentiating COVID-19 patients from healthy controls when the specificity was set at 90%. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that this nucleic acid testing method is advantageous compared with traditional PCR and other isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods in terms of time and portability. This method could potentially be used for detection of SARS-CoV-2, H1N1, H3N2 and influenza B, and adapted for point-of-care (POC) detection of a broad range of infectious pathogens in resource-limited settings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Medical Virology ; 02:02, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013638

ABSTRACT

Prazuck et al. evaluated an innovative two-step self-test, the AAZ COVID-VIRO ALL IN R, switching from the classic nasal swab to a nasal sponge. We notice that the agreement between COVID-VIRO ALL IN R and RT-PCR was not assessed. Although the authors had evaluated the overall agreement between COVID-VIRO ALL IN R and RT-PCR, applying overall agreement to evaluate intra-rater consistency is not always appropriate. Our second concern is about the precise number of patients. Thinking the exact number of patients is a prerequisite for statistical analysis, we would be grateful if the authors could explain their data in detail and clarify the misunderstanding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009603

ABSTRACT

Background: Comprehensive real-world evidence of the virulence of COVID-19 Omicron, Delta, and Alpha variants as well as the effectiveness of booster vaccinations in patients with cancer are lacking. We aimed to fill in these gaps for cancer patients and provide essential insights on the management of the fast-evolving pandemic by leveraging the nationally-representative electronic medical records from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) registry. Methods: The virulence of COVID-19 variants was examined according to severe outcomes of infected patients with cancer, compared with non-cancer patients, using the N3C data between 12/01/2020 and 02/03/2022. Variants were inferred according to the time periods of variant dominance at > 95% accuracy. The Cox proportional hazards model was employed to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 variants, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, geographic regions, vaccination status, cancer types, smoking status, cancer treatments, and adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Results: Our study cohort included 114,195 COVID-19 patients with cancer and 160,493 without cancer as control. Among them, 52,539 (21%) were infected by Omicron, 82,579 (33%) by Delta, and 115,200 (46%) by Alpha variants. Prior to the COVID-19 breakthrough infection, 7%, 22%, 3%, and 69% were vaccinated with 1 dose, 2 doses, a booster, or unvaccinated respectively. The proportions of hospitalization and death among patients with vs without cancer were 40% and 7% vs 18% and 0.4%, respectively. Characteristics of the cancer subcohort are summarized in the Table. Our analysis showed dramatically lower risks of severe outcomes for patients who were infected by Omicron (HR 0.42, 95%CI: 0.38 - 0.46) and slightly lower risks for Delta (HR 0.93, 95%CI: 0.89 - 0.98) compared with those infected by Alpha, after adjusting for other demographic clinical risk factors, and vaccination status. This trend remained similar in subgroups of patients with solid tumors, hematologic malignancies, or without cancer. Similar associations were observed when virulence was evaluated in association with mortality. The effectiveness of booster vaccinations varied across sub-cohorts stratified by variants and cancer types. Booster shots reduced the risk of severe outcomes for patients with solid tumors infected by Omicron variant or hematologic malignancies infected by Delta variants. Conclusions: Our work provides up-to-date and comprehensive real-world evidence of the virulence of COVID-19 variants in patients with cancer. Omicron variant showed significantly reduced virulence for different cancer types.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009525

ABSTRACT

Background: Post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 or long COVID, is characterized by persistence of symptoms and/or emergence of new symptoms post COVID-19 infection. As evidence accumulates and national initiatives arise to address this increasingly prevalent syndrome, characterization of specific patient groups is still lacking including patients with cancer. Using a nationally representative sample of over 4.3M COVID-19 patients from the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), we aim to describe characteristics of patients with cancer and long COVID. Methods: We employed two approaches to identify long COVID patients within N3C: i) patients presenting to a long COVID clinic at four N3C sites and ii) patients diagnosed using the recently introduced ICD-10 code: U09.9 Post COVID- 19 condition, unspecified. We included patients with at least one positive COVID-19 diagnosis between 1/1/2020 and 2/3/2022. Patients had to survive at least 90 days from the date of their COVID- 19 diagnosis. Analyses were performed in the N3C Data Enclave on the Palantir platform. Results: A total of 1700 adult patients with long COVID were identified from the N3C cohort;634 (37.3%) were cancer patients and 1066 were non-cancer controls. The most common represented cancers were skin (21.9%), breast (17.7%), prostate (8.3%), lymphoma (8.0%) and leukemia (5.7%). Median age of long-COVID cancer patients was 64 years (Interquartile Range: 54-72), 48.6% were 65 years or older, 60.4% females, 76.8% non-Hispanic White, 12.3% were Black, and 3% Hispanic. A total of 41.1% were current or former smokers, 27.7% had an adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0, 18.6% score of 1 and 11.2% score of 2. A total of 57.2% were hospitalized for their initial COVID-19 infection, the average length of stay in the hospital was 9.6 days (SD: 16.7 days), 9.1% required invasive ventilation, and 13% had acute kidney injury during hospitalization. The most common diagnosis among the non-cancer long COVID patients was asthma (26%), diabetes (17%), chronic kidney disease (12%), heart failure (9.4%), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (7.8%). Among long COVID patients, compared to non-cancer controls, cancer patients were more likely to be older (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.1-5.4, p = 0.03), have comorbidities (OR = 4.3, 95%CI: 2.9-6.2, p < 0.0001), and to be hospitalized for COVID-19 (OR = 1.3, 95%CI: 1.0-1.7, p = 0.05), adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and smoking history. Conclusions: In a nationally representative sample of long COVID patients, there was a relative overrepresentation of patients with cancer. Compared to non-cancer controls, cancer patients were older, more likely to have more comorbidities and to be hospitalized for COVID-19 warranting further investigation to identify risk factors for long COVID in patients with cancer.

11.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005665

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM), an age-dependent neoplasm of antibody-producing plasma cells, have compromised immune systems due to multiple factors that may increase the risk of severe COVID-19. The NCATS' National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) is a centralized data resource representing the largest multi-center cohort of ∼12M COVID-19 cases and controls nationwide. In this study, we aim to analyze risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity and death in MM patients using the N3C database. Methods: Our cohort included MM patients within the N3C registry diagnosed with COVID-19 based on positive PCR or antigen tests or ICD-10-CM. The outcomes of interest include all-cause mortality (including discharge to hospice) during the index encounter, and clinical indicators of severity (hospitalization/ED visit, use of mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation/ECMO). Results: As of 09/10/2021, the N3C registry included 690371 cancer patients, out of which 17791 were MM patients (4707 were COVID-19+). The mean age at diagnosis was 65.9yrs, 57.6% were >65yo, 46.4% were females, and 21.8% were Blacks. 25.6% had a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score of ≥2. 55.6% required an inpatient or ED visit, and 3.65% required invasive ventilation. 11.4% developed acute kidney injury during hospitalization. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed histories of pulmonary disease (OR 2.2;95%CI: 1.7-2.8), renal disease (OR 1.8;95%CI: 1.4-2.4), and black race (p<0.001) were associated with higher risk of severity. Interestingly, smoking status was significantly associated with a lower risk of severity (OR 0.7;95%CI: 0.5-0.9). Further, protective association was also observed between COVID-19 severity and blood or marrow transplant (BMT) (OR 0.52;95%CI: 0.4-0.7), daratumumab therapy (OR 0.64;95%CI: 0.42- 0.99) and COVID-19 vaccination (OR 0.28;95%CI: 0.18-0.44). IMiDs were associated increase in the risk of COVID-19 severity (OR 2.1;95%CI: 1.6-2.7). 2.3% of N3C-myeloma COVID-19+ patients died within the first 10 days, while 4.95% died within 30 days of COVID-19 hospitalization. Overall, the survival probability was 90.5% across the course of the study. Multivariate cox proportional hazard model showed that CCI score ≥2 (HR 4.4;95%CI: 2.2-8.8), hypertension (HR 1.6;95%CI: 1.02- 2.4), IMiD (HR 2.6;95%CI: 1.8-3.8) and proteasome inhibitor (HR 1.6;95%CI: 1.1-2.5) therapy were associated with worse survival. COVID-19 vaccination (HR 0.195;95%CI: 0.09-0.45) and BMT (HR 0.65;95%CI: 0.4-0.995) were associated with lower risk of death. Conclusions: We have identified previously unpublished potential risk factors for COVID-19 severity and death in MM as well as validated some published ones. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest nationwide study on multiple myeloma patients with COVID-19.

12.
Health and Place ; 77, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2004102

ABSTRACT

Tackling mental health has become a priority for governments around the world because it influences not only individuals but also the whole society. As people spend a majority of their time (i.e., around 90%) in buildings, it is pivotal to understand the relationship between built environment and mental health, particularly during COVID-19 when people have experienced recurrent local and national lockdowns. Despite the demonstration by previous research that the design of the built environment can affect mental health, it is not clear if the same influence pattern remains when a ‘black swan’ event (e.g., COVID-19) occurs. To this end, we performed logistic regression and hierarchical regression analyses to examine the relationship between built environment and mental health utilising a data sample from the United Kingdom (UK) residents during the COVID-19 lockdown while considering their social demographics. Our results show that compared with depression and anxiety, people were more likely to feel stressed during the lockdown period. Furthermore, general house type, home workspace, and neighbourhood environment and amenity were identified to have significantly contributed to their mental health status. With the ensuing implications, this study represents one of the first to inform policymakers and built environment design professionals of how built environment should be designed to accommodate features that could mitigate mental health problems in any future crisis. As such, it contributes to the body of knowledge of built environment planning by considering mental health during the COVID-19 lockdown.

13.
Nat Nanotechnol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000903

ABSTRACT

The global emergency caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic can only be solved with effective and widespread preventive and therapeutic strategies, and both are still insufficient. Here, we describe an ultrathin two-dimensional CuInP(2)S(6) (CIPS) nanosheet as a new agent against SARS-CoV-2 infection. CIPS exhibits an extremely high and selective binding capacity (dissociation constant (K(D)) < 1 pM) for the receptor binding domain of the spike protein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern, including Delta and Omicron, inhibiting virus entry and infection in angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-bearing cells, human airway epithelial organoids and human ACE2-transgenic mice. On association with CIPS, the virus is quickly phagocytosed and eliminated by macrophages, suggesting that CIPS could be successfully used to capture and facilitate virus elimination by the host. Thus, we propose CIPS as a promising nanodrug for future safe and effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapy, and as a decontamination agent and surface-coating material to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infectivity.

14.
Epidemiology & Infection ; : 1-19, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000838
16.
60th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) ; : 2824-2829, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868529

ABSTRACT

This paper studies the distributed link removal problem for controlling epidemic spreading in a networked meta-population system. A deterministic networked susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model is considered to describe the epidemic evolving process. To curb the spread of epidemics, we reformulate the original topology design problem into a minimization program of the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue of the matrix involving the network topology and transition rates. A modified distributed link removal strategy is developed such that it can be applied to the SIR model with heterogeneous transition rates on weighted digraphs. The proposed approach is implemented to control the COVID-19 pandemic by using the infected and recovered data reported by the German federal states. The numerical experiment shows that the infected percentage can be significantly reduced by employing the distributed link removal strategy.

17.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816919

ABSTRACT

Cancer patients display immunomodulation related to malignancy and anti-cancer therapies, but how these factors impact COVID-19 remains unknown. To investigate immune responses in cancer patients with COVID-19, we undertook a prospective case-control study, enrolling hospitalized solid tumor patients with acute COVID-19, as well as age-, gender-, and comorbidity-matched COVID-19 patients without cancer as controls. Using biospecimens collected during hospitalization, we performed virologic measurements as well as in-depth immunophenotyping of cellular, antibody and cytokine responses. We enrolled 17 cancer patients (cases) admitted to Yale-New Haven Hospital between March 15 and June 30, 2020 with COVID-19, as well as 17 matched non-cancer patients (controls) admitted with COVID-19. No significant differences were observed between cases and controls based on patient characteristics (age, gender, race, co-morbidities, smoking history, days from symptom onset to COVID-19 diagnosis) or outcomes (COVID-19 severity, length of hospital stay, rate of intubation or mortality). The most common primary tumor sites were lung (4/17) and gastrointestinal (4/17);all cases had received cancer-directed therapy within 6 months of COVID-19 diagnosis, with 13/17 receiving treatment less than 1 month prior to hospitalization. Three of 17 cases had received immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies. Despite having similar SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA loads at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis when compared with controls, cancer cases had increased viral RNA abundance during hospitalization, suggesting slower clearance. Antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were preserved in cancer cases, with cases displaying similar levels of IgM and IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2 epitopes compared to controls. Cytokine profiling revealed higher plasma levels of CCL3, IL1A and CXCL12 in cancer cases compared to controls. Using flow cytometric immunophenotyping, we found that innate immune and non-T cell adaptive immune parameters were similar between cases and controls hospitalized with COVID-19. However, among cancer cases on conventional therapies, T cell lymphopenia was more profound, and these cases demonstrated higher levels of CD8+ exhausted (CD8+CD45RA-PD1+TIM3+ ), CD8+GranzymeB+ and CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ activated T cells when compared with controls;interestingly, these differences were not observed in patients who had received immune checkpoint inhibition. Thus, we found reduced viral RNA clearance and specific alterations in T cell and cytokine responses in cancer patients hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with matched controls with COVID-19. This dysregulated T cell response in cancer patients, which may reflect immune modulation due to chronic antigen stimulation as well as cancer therapies, may lead to altered virologic and clinical outcomes in this population.

18.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333683

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women appear to be at increased risk for severe outcomes associated with COVID-19, but the pathophysiology underlying this increased morbidity and its potential impact on the developing fetus is not well understood. In this study of pregnant women with and without COVID-19, we assessed viral and immune dynamics at the placenta during maternal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Amongst uninfected women, ACE2 was detected by immunohistochemistry in syncytiotrophoblast cells of the normal placenta during early pregnancy but was rarely seen in healthy placentas at full term. Term placentas from women infected with SARS-CoV-2, however, displayed a significant increase in ACE2 levels. Using immortalized cell lines and primary isolated placental cells, we determined the vulnerability of various placental cell types to direct infection by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro . Yet, despite the susceptibility of placental cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection, viral RNA was detected in the placentas of only a subset (~13%) of women in this cohort. Through single cell transcriptomic analyses, we found that the maternal-fetal interface of SARS-CoV-2-infected women exhibited markers associated with pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, and robust immune responses, including increased activation of placental NK and T cells and increased expression of interferon-related genes. Overall, this study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is associated with immune activation at the maternal-fetal interface even in the absence of detectable local viral invasion. While this likely represents a protective mechanism shielding the placenta from infection, inflammatory changes in the placenta may also contribute to poor pregnancy outcomes and thus warrant further investigation.

19.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; 37(7):911-916, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1792324

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that COVID-19 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have severe pulmonary inflammation and cytokine storm, so the treatment of cytokine storm is an important part of rescuing critically ill patients with COVID-19. As an important cause of death, the preclinical study of cytokine storm is essential, and related experiments in vivo and in vitro are also the only way to develop new drugs for COVID-19 in the future. This paper reviews the in vitro and in vivo experimental methods of cytokine storm research articles at home and abroad in recent years, including the establishment of animal models, cell evaluation methods, pharmacodynamic evaluation indicators, etc., in order to provide reference and guidance for the experimental design methods of cytokine storm. © 2021 Publication Centre of Anhui Medical University. All rights reserved.

20.
Pediatric Medicine ; 5, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1780390

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Children with SARS-CoV-2 infection were paid little attention to during the early stages of the outbreak because of low morbidity as well as mild clinical symptoms. Since late April 2020, reports regarding Kawasaki-like syndrome and hyperinflammatory response in children associated with COVID-19 have rapidly emerged. Till now, no certain relationship between multisystem inflammatory syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and Kawasaki Disease (KD) has been determined, which should be explored through continuous study. Methods: In order to synthesize key findings for the objectives of this review, we searched English literature published up to November 16, 2020 using PubMed with the following keywords: Kawasaki disease 2020, Kawasaki-like disease, MIS-C, PIMS, PMIS and PIMS-TS. Key Content and Findings: Based on current researches, KD is regarded as an immune disorder induced by multiple unidentified pathogens, while MIS-C is confirmed to be associated with the infection of COVID-19. In addition, KD is popular in East Asian children under 3 years old, while MIS-C is reported more in older adolescents from Europe and North America. On the basis of multiple cohort studies, gastrointestinal symptoms, mechanical ventilation and inotropic support are more common in MIS-C. Instead, coronary arterial damage is more pronounced in KD. Moreover, the treatment regimen for MIS-C is more aggressive than KD because the cytokine storm is more violent and lasting. Conclusions: MIS-C is likely to be a distinct immunopathogenic illness associated with SARS-CoV-2 based on current studies, which could be used as a reference to help us better understand KD. In addition, MIS-C is an emerging syndrome for pediatricians, so the lack of relevant knowledge may result in under-diagnosis. Some individuals may fulfill full or partial criteria for KD but all should be reported if they meet the case definition for MIS-C. © 2022 AME Publishing Company. All right reserved.

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