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1.
BMC Med Ethics ; 23(1): 53, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902384

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid ethical access to personal health information (PHI) to support research is extremely important during pandemics, yet little is known regarding patient preferences for consent during such crises. This follow-up study sought to ascertain whether there were differences in consent preferences between pre-pandemic times compared to during Wave 1 of the COVID-19 global pandemic, and to better understand the reasons behind these preferences. METHODS: A total of 183 patients in the pandemic cohort completed the survey via email, and responses were compared to the distinct pre-pandemic cohort (n = 222); all were patients of a large Canadian cancer center. The survey covered (a) broad versus study-specific consent; (b) opt-in versus opt-out contact approach; (c) levels of comfort sharing with different recipients; (d) perceptions of commercialization; and (e) options to track use of information and be notified of results. Four focus groups (n = 12) were subsequently conducted to elucidate reasons motivating dominant preferences. RESULTS: Patients in the pandemic cohort were significantly more comfortable with sharing all information and biological samples (90% vs. 79%, p = 0.009), sharing information with the health care institution (97% vs. 83%, p < 0.001), sharing information with researchers at other hospitals (85% vs. 70%, p < 0.001), sharing PHI provincially (69% vs. 53%, p < 0.002), nationally (65% vs. 53%, p = 0.022) and internationally (48% vs. 39%, p = 0.024) compared to the pre-pandemic cohort. Discomfort with sharing information with commercial companies remained unchanged between the two cohorts (50% vs. 51% uncomfortable, p = 0.58). Significantly more pandemic cohort patients expressed a wish to track use of PHI (75% vs. 61%, p = 0.007), and to be notified of results (83% vs. 70%, p = 0.012). Thematic analysis uncovered that transparency was strongly desired on outside PHI use, particularly when commercialization was involved. CONCLUSIONS: In pandemic times, patients were more comfortable sharing information with all parties, except with commercial entities, where levels of discomfort (~ 50%) remained unchanged. Focus groups identified that the ability to track and receive results of studies using one's PHI is an important way to reduce discomfort and increase trust. These findings meaningfully inform wider discussions on the use of personal health information for research during global crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Records, Personal , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Informed Consent , Pandemics , Patient Preference
2.
Sci Adv ; 8(21): eabn3481, 2022 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865136

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become an immense global health crisis. However, the lack of efficient and sensitive on-site testing methods limits early detection for timely isolation and intervention. Here, we present a quantitative and ultrasensitive in situ immunoassay technology for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection in saliva (QUIT SARS-CoV-2). Our nanoporous membrane resonator generates a rapid oscillating flow to purify and concentrate fully intact SARS-CoV-2 virus in saliva by 40-fold for in situ detection of viral antigens based on chemiluminescent immunoassay within 20 min. This method can not only achieve a detection sensitivity below 100 copies/ml of virus, comparable to the bench-top PCR equipment; it can also improve detection specificity via direct monitoring of viral loads. The integrated portable QUIT SARS-CoV-2 system, which enables rapid and accurate on-site viral screening with a high-throughput sample pooling strategy, can be performed in primary care settings and substantially improve the detection and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoassay , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity , Technology
4.
Lab Invest ; 102(8): 814-825, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795821

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic evolves, much evidence implicates the heart as a critical target of injury in patients. The mechanism(s) of cardiac involvement has not been fully elucidated, although evidence of direct virus-mediated injury, thromboembolism with ischemic complications, and cytokine storm has been reported. We examined suggested mechanisms of COVID-19-associated heart failure in 21 COVID-19-positive decedents, obtained through standard autopsy procedure, compared to clinically matched controls and patients with various etiologies of viral myocarditis. We developed a custom tissue microarray using regions of pathological interest and interrogated tissues via immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was detected in 16/21 patients, in cardiomyocytes, the endothelium, interstitial spaces, and percolating adipocytes within the myocardium. Virus detection typically corresponded with troponin depletion and increased cleaved caspase-3. Indirect mechanisms of injury-venous and arterial thromboses with associated vasculitis including a mixed inflammatory infiltrate-were also observed. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were present in the myocardium of all COVID-19 patients, regardless of injury degree. Borderline myocarditis (inflammation without associated myocyte injury) was observed in 19/21 patients, characterized by a predominantly mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate. Edema, inflammation of percolating adipocytes, lymphocytic aggregates, and large septal masses of inflammatory cells and platelets were observed as defining features, and myofibrillar damage was evident in all patients. Collectively, COVID-19-associated cardiac injury was multifactorial, with elevated levels of NETs and von Willebrand factor as defining features of direct and indirect viral injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Myocytes, Cardiac
5.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics ; 22(6):4201-4236, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1771559

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 lockdown had a large impact on anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants and particularly on nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While the overall NO2 decline over some large cities is well-established, understanding the details remains a challenge since multiple source categories contribute. In this study, a new method of isolation of three components (background NO2, NO2 from urban sources, and NO2 from industrial point sources) is applied to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on each of them. The approach is based on fitting satellite data by a statistical model with empirical plume dispersion functions driven by a meteorological reanalysis. Population density and surface elevation data as well as coordinates of industrial sources were used in the analysis. The tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) values measured by the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) on board the Sentinel-5 Precursor over 261 urban areas for the period from 16 March to 15 June 2020 were compared with the average VCD values for the same period in 2018 and 2019. While the background NO2 component remained almost unchanged, the urban NO2 component declined by -18 % to -28 % over most regions. India, South America, and a part of Europe (particularly, Italy, France, and Spain) demonstrated a-40 % to -50 % urban emission decline. In contrast, the decline over urban areas in China, where the lockdown was over during the analysed period, was, on average, only -4.4±8 %. Emissions from large industrial sources in the analysed urban areas varied greatly from region to region from -4.8±6 % for China to -40±10 % for India. Estimated changes in urban emissions are correlated with changes in Google mobility data (the correlation coefficient is 0.62) confirming that changes in traffic were one of the key elements in the decline in urban NO2 emissions. No correlation was found between changes in background NO2 and Google mobility data. On the global scale, the background and urban components were remarkably stable in 2018, 2019, and 2021, with averages of all analysed areas all being within ±2.5 % and suggesting that there were no substantial drifts or shifts in TROPOMI data. The 2020 data are clearly an outlier: in 2020, the mean background component for all analysed areas (without China) was -6.0%±1.2 % and the mean urban component was -26.7±2.6 % or 20σ below the baseline level from the other years.

6.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1208-1212, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757896

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in catastrophic damage worldwide. Accordingly, the development of powerful, safe, easily accessible vaccines with long-term effectiveness is understood as an urgently needed countermeasure against this ongoing pandemic. Guided by this strong promise of using AAVs, we here designed, optimized, and developed an AAV-based vaccines (including AAV-RBD(max), AAV-RBD(wt), AAV-2xRBD, and AAV-3xRBD) that elicit strong immune responses against the RBD domain of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. These immunogenic responses have proven long-lived, with near peak levels for at least six months in mice. Notably, the sera immunized with AAV-3xRBD vaccine contains powerful neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Further evidence proven that potent specific antibodies could also be elicited in canines after vaccination with AAV-3xRBD vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dogs , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-vaccination myopericarditis is reported after immunization with COVID-19 mRNA-vaccines. The effect of accidental intravenous injection of this vaccine on the heart is unknown. METHODS: We compared the clinical manifestations, histopathological changes, tissue mRNA expression and serum levels of cytokine/chemokine in Balb/c mice at different time points after intravenous(IV) or intramuscular(IM) vaccine injection with normal saline(NS) control. RESULTS: Though significant weight loss and higher serum cytokine/chemokine levels were found in IM group at 1 to 2 days post-injection(dpi), only IV group developed histopathological changes of myopericarditis as evidenced by cardiomyocyte degeneration, apoptosis and necrosis with adjacent inflammatory cell infiltration and calcific deposits on visceral pericardium, while evidence of coronary artery or other cardiac pathologies was absent. SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen expression by immunostaining was occasionally found in infiltrating immune cells of the heart or injection site, in cardiomyocytes and intracardiac vascular endothelial cells, but not skeletal myocytes. The histological changes of myopericarditis after the first IV-priming dose persisted for 2 weeks and were markedly aggravated by a second IM- or IV-booster dose. Cardiac tissue mRNA expression of IL-1ß, IFN-ß, IL-6 and TNF-α increased significantly from 1dpi to 2dpi in IV but not IM group, compatible with presence of myopericarditis in IV group. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was consistently found in IV group. All other organs appeared normal. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided in-vivo evidence that inadvertent intravenous injection of COVID-19 mRNA-vaccines may induce myopericarditis. Brief withdrawal of syringe plunger to exclude blood aspiration may be one possible way to reduce such risk.

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 116: 258-267, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693397

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The mortality rate for critically ill COVID-19 cases was more than 80%. Nonetheless, research about the effect of common respiratory diseases on critically ill COVID-19 expression and outcomes is scarce. DESIGN: We performed proteomic analyses on airway mucus obtained by bronchoscopy from patients with severe COVID-19, or induced sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and healthy controls. RESULTS: Of the total identified and quantified proteins, 445 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were found in different comparison groups. In comparison with COPD, asthma, and controls, 11 proteins were uniquely present in COVID-19 patients. Apart from DEPs associated with COPD versus controls and asthma versus controls, there was a total of 59 DEPs specific to COVID-19 patients. Finally, the findings revealed that there were 8 overlapping proteins in COVID-19 patients, including C9, FGB, FGG, PRTN3, HBB, HBA1, IGLV3-19, and COTL1. Functional analyses revealed that most of them were associated with complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, or iron metabolism, and anemia-related pathways. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides fundamental data for identifying COVID-19-specific proteomic changes in comparison with COPD and asthma, which may suggest molecular targets for specialized therapy.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Critical Illness , Humans , Microfilament Proteins/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum
10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315164

ABSTRACT

Background: In this study, we aimed to find out the features of the maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Blood Purification Center of Wuhan No.1 Hospital, Hubei Province, China, and provide evidences for clinical treatment. Methods: : We collected the data of all the MHD patients in this hemodialysis center by February 20, 2020, including those infected with COVID-19. These patients were divided into three groups: the control group (537 cases), confirmed group (66 cases) and suspected group (24 cases). We compared the relevant data of the three groups and analyzed the factors that may affect the possibility of catching COVID-19. Results: : 1. By February 20, 2020, there were 627 MHD patients in the Hemodialysis Center of Wuhan No.1 Hospital. The prevalence rate of the COVID-19 was 14.35% (90/627, including 66 confirmed cases and 24 suspected cases);the fatality rate 13.33% (12/90, including 12 death cases);the mortality rate 1.91% (12/627). 2. The comparison between the three groups revealed the following results: weekly hemodialysis duration (WHD), ultrafiltration volume (UFV) and ultrafiltration rate (UFR) of the confirmed group were obviously lower than those of the control and suspected groups ( P <0.05);the neutrophil ratio (N%), neutrophil (N#), monocyte (M#) and total carbon dioxide (TCO 2 ) were significantly higher than those of the control group while the lymphocyte ratio (L%) was much lower ( P <0.05). 3. The lung CT scans found three common features: bilateral abnormalities (81.54%), multiple abnormalities (84.62%) and patchy opacity (61.54%). 4. The binary logstic regression analysis showed that diabetes ( OR =5.404,95% CI 1.950~14.976, P =0.001) and hypertension ( OR =3.099,95% CI 1.380~6.963, P =0.006) are independent risk factors for MHD patients to be infected with COVID-19;WHD ( OR =0.846,95% CI 0.737~0.970, P =0.017), UFR ( OR =0.012,95% CI 0.002~0.058, P <0.001) and serum ferritin (SF, OR =0.823,95% CI 0.748~0.906, P <0.001) are independent protective factors. Conclusion: MHD patients with diabetes or hypertension are more likely to be infected with COVID-19. In clinical treatment, hemodialysis duration, UFR and SF levels should be controlled appropriately to reduce the risk of infection.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325217

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continuously poses a serious threat to public health, highlighting an urgent need for simple and efficient early detection and prediction. Methods: : We comprehensively investigated and reanalyzed the published indexes and models for predicting severe illness among COVID‑19 patients in our dataset, and validated them on an independent dataset. Results: : 696 COVID-19 cases in the discovery stage and 337 patients in the validation stage were involved. The AuROC of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (0.782) was significantly higher than that of the other 11 independent risk indexes in severe outcome prediction. The combination of NLR and oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) (NLR+SaO 2 ) showed the biggest AuROC calculations with a value of 0.901;with a cut-off value of 0.532, it exhibited 84.2% sensitivity, 88.4% specificity and 86.8% correct classification ratio. Moreover, we first identified that principal component analysis (PCA) is an effective tool to predict the severity of COVID-19. We obtained 86.5% prediction accuracy with 86% sensitivity when PCA was applied to predict severe illness. In addition, to evaluate the performance of NLR+SaO 2 and PCA, we compared them with currently published predictive models in the same dataset. Conclusions: : It showed that NLR+SaO 2 is an appropriate and promising method for predicting severe illness, followed by PCA. We then validated the results on an independent dataset and revealed that they remained robust accuracy in outcome prediction. This study is significant for early treatment, intervention, triage and saving limited resources.

13.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 202: 113978, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661800

ABSTRACT

The development of reliable, sensitive, and fast devices for the diagnosis of COVID-19 is of great importance in the pandemic of the new coronavirus. Here, we proposed a new principle of analysis based on a combination of reverse transcription and isothermal amplification of a fragment of the gene encoding the S protein of the SARS-CoV-2 and the CRISPR/Cas13a reaction for cleavage of the specific probe. As a result, the destroyed probe cannot be detected on an immunochromatographic strip using quantum fluorescent dots. Besides, the results can be obtained by an available and inexpensive portable device. By detecting SARS-CoV-2 negative (n = 25) and positive (n = 62) clinical samples including throat swabs, sputum and anal swabs, the assay showed good sensitivity and specificity of the method and could be completed within 1 h without complicated operation and expensive equipment. These superiorities showed its potential for fast point-of-care screening of SARS-CoV-2 during the outbreak, especially in remote and underdeveloped areas with limited equipment and resources.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Quantum Dots , Chromatography, Affinity , Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats , Humans , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 198: 105532, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616704

ABSTRACT

In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China, the yak is an animal of particular economic interest, which provides protein and income for herders in daily life. Brucellosis is a bacterial disease that can infect humans and animals, including yaks. It can damage the yak reproductive system, causing miscarriage and orchitis. At the same time, brucellosis threatens the health of herders. We performed this meta-analysis using R software to explore the combined prevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in yak in China. Variability was assessed by the I2 statistic and Cochran Q statistic. We identified 52 publications of related research from four databases (Wanfang Data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and of PubMed). The pooled prevalence of yak brucellosis was 8.39 %. Prevalence was highest in Southwestern China (11.1 %). The point estimate of brucellosis in yak from 2012 to 2016 was the highest (11.47 %). The point estimate of age ≤ 12 months (1.44 %) was lower than that of age > 12 months (15.6 %). This study shows that yak brucellosis is serious, and its incidence is higher than before 2012. We recommend carrying out large-scale yak brucellosis investigations in Western China and conducting comprehensive testing planning. The detection of brucellosis in adult animals should be strengthened to reduce the economic loss caused by brucellosis to herders and to improve public health.


Subject(s)
Brucellosis , Cattle Diseases , Animals , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/veterinary , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Incidence , Male , Prevalence , Tibet
15.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295204

ABSTRACT

Earlier studies [1] comparing Covid-19 simulations using extended SIR model [2] with observed new cases in New Jersey and United States showed good agreement between simulated results and observational data. The parameters of the SIR model controlling the behavior of the model have to be manually adjusted until the modelled results and observations reach good agreement. The parameter tuning process is tedious and time consuming. In this work, we have developed an approach using genetic algorithm [3] to automatically select the most optimal set of parameters to minimize the residual between simulated result and observational data. The parameter tuning process applying SIR model can now be automated without tedious and time consuming manual intervention.

16.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010113, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553552

ABSTRACT

Emerging coronaviruses (CoVs) pose a severe threat to human and animal health worldwide. To identify host factors required for CoV infection, we used α-CoV transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) as a model for genome-scale CRISPR knockout (KO) screening. Transmembrane protein 41B (TMEM41B) was found to be a bona fide host factor involved in infection by CoV and three additional virus families. We found that TMEM41B is critical for the internalization and early-stage replication of TGEV. Notably, our results also showed that cells lacking TMEM41B are unable to form the double-membrane vesicles necessary for TGEV replication, indicating that TMEM41B contributes to the formation of CoV replication organelles. Lastly, our data from a mouse infection model showed that the KO of this factor can strongly inhibit viral infection and delay the progression of a CoV disease. Our study revealed that targeting TMEM41B is a highly promising approach for the development of broad-spectrum anti-viral therapeutics.


Subject(s)
CRISPR-Cas Systems , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Membrane Proteins/physiology , Organelles/virology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/genetics , Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine/transmission , Membrane Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Swine
17.
Front Psychol ; 12: 712703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551531

ABSTRACT

Cyberchondria is considered "the anxiety-amplifying effects of online health-related searches." During the COVID-19 pandemic, people are likely to search health-related information online for reassurance because of fear and related physical symptoms, while cyberchondria may be triggered due to the escalation of health anxiety, different online seeking behavior preference, information overload, and insufficient e-health literacy. This study aimed to investigate the status and influencing factors of cyberchondria in residents in China during the epidemic period of COVID-19. The participants were 674 community residents of Nanyang city surveyed from February 1 to 15, 2020. We administered online measures, including the Chinese Short Form of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (C-CSS-12), Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI), eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and COVID-19-related online information seeking behavior questionnaire. In our study, the average C-CSS-12 total score of residents was 30.65 ± 11.53 during the virus epidemic; 25% of participants scored 22 or below, 50% scored 23 to 38, and 21.9% scored 39 to 60. The SHAI total score (ß = 0.598 > 0, P < 0.001), the use of general search engines (ß = 1.867 > 0, P = 0.039), and searching for information on how to diagnose COVID-19 (ß = 2.280 > 0, P = 0.020) were independent risk factors for cyberchondria, while searching lasting less than 10 min each (ß = -2.992 < 0, P = 0.048), the use of traditional media digital platforms (ß = -1.650 < 0, P = 0.024) and professional medical communication platforms (ß = -4.189 < 0, P = 0.007) were independent protective factors. Our findings showed that nearly a quarter of the participants scored 39 or higher on the C-CSS-12 in Nanyang city during the pandemic, which should be taken seriously. Health anxiety and COVID-19-related online information seeking behavior including online duration, topics and choice on different information channels were important influencing factors of cyberchondria. These findings have implications for further research and clinical practice on cyberchondria in China.

20.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 524-528, 2021 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497385

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccine, as one of the critical measures to control the pandemic, has been administered in nearly all countries. However, the new-onset and relapsing glomerular diseases associated with COVID-19 vaccination have become a new concern. Both mRNA vaccine and inactivated vaccine may cause new-onset and relapsing glomerular diseases; these diseases would occur after the first dose vaccination or the second dose. New-onset glomerular disease is mainly minimal change glomerulopathy, which is mostly sensitive to steroid, while relapsing cases have good prognosis, and some cases can be spontaneously remitted. The pathogenesis of these vaccine-associated diseases is possibly due to the humoral and cellular immune responses. In this article, we provide a general review of the new-onset and relapsing glomerular diseases related to COVID-19 vaccination, and make suggestions for patients with kidney diseases to receive COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
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