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1.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 2022 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639477

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an evolving global health crisis. Currently, a number of risk factors have been identified to have a potential impact on increasing the morbidity of COVID-19 in adults, including old age, male sex, pre-existing comorbidities, and racial/ethnic disparities. In addition to these factors, changes in laboratory indices and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as possible complications, could indicate the progression of COVID-19 into a severe and critical stage. Children predominantly suffer from mild illnesses due to COVID-19. Similar to adults, the main risk factors in pediatric patients include age and pre-existing comorbidities. In contrast, supplementation with a healthy diet and sufficient nutrition, COVID-19 vaccination, and atopic conditions may act as protective factors against the infection of SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 vaccination not only protects vulnerable individuals from SARS-CoV-2 infection, more importantly, it may also reduce the development of severe disease and death due to COVID-19. Currently used therapies for COVID-19 are off-label and empiric, and their impacts on the severity and mortality of COVID-19 are still unclear. The interaction between asthma and COVID-19 may be bidirectional and needs to be clarified in more studies. In this review, we highlight the clinical evidence supporting the rationale for the risk and protective factors for the morbidity, severity, and mortality of COVID-19.

2.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1314-1328, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559292

ABSTRACT

The lung is the primary organ targeted by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making respiratory failure a leading coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related mortality. However, our cellular and molecular understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 infection drives lung pathology is limited. Here we constructed multi-omics and single-nucleus transcriptomic atlases of the lungs of patients with COVID-19, which integrate histological, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses. Our work reveals the molecular basis of pathological hallmarks associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in different lung and infiltrating immune cell populations. We report molecular fingerprints of hyperinflammation, alveolar epithelial cell exhaustion, vascular changes and fibrosis, and identify parenchymal lung senescence as a molecular state of COVID-19 pathology. Moreover, our data suggest that FOXO3A suppression is a potential mechanism underlying the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition associated with COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. Our work depicts a comprehensive cellular and molecular atlas of the lungs of patients with COVID-19 and provides insights into SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary injury, facilitating the identification of biomarkers and development of symptomatic treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Lung/metabolism , Transcriptome/genetics , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis/pathology , Fibrosis/virology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
Allergy ; 76(2): 533-550, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, with 10%-20% of severe cases and over 508 000 deaths worldwide. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to address the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 patients and the mortality of severe patients. METHODS: 289 hospitalized laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in this study. Electronic medical records, including patient demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory tests results, and radiological materials, were collected and analyzed. According to the severity and outcomes of the patients, they were divided into three groups: nonsurvived (n = 49), survived severe (n = 78), and nonsevere (n = 162) groups. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were compared among these groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to reduce the dimensionality and visualize the patients on a low-dimensional space. Correlations between clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters were investigated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to determine the risk factors associated with mortality in severe patients. Longitudinal changes of laboratory findings of survived severe cases and nonsurvived cases during hospital stay were also collected. RESULTS: Of the 289 patients, the median age was 57 years (range, 22-88) and 155 (53.4%) patients were male. As of the final follow-up date of this study, 240 (83.0%) patients were discharged from the hospital and 49 (17.0%) patients died. Elder age, underlying comorbidities, and increased laboratory variables, such as leukocyte count, neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), D-dimer, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on admission, were found in survived severe cases compared to nonsevere cases. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, elder age, a higher number of affected lobes, elevated CRP levels on admission, increased prevalence of chest tightness/dyspnea, and smoking history were independent risk factors for death of severe patients. A trajectory in PCA was observed from "nonsevere" toward "nonsurvived" via "severe and survived" patients. Strong correlations between the age of patients, the affected lobe numbers, and laboratory variables were identified. Dynamic changes of laboratory findings of survived severe cases and nonsurvived cases during hospital stay showed that continuing increase of leukocytes and neutrophil count, sustained lymphopenia and eosinopenia, progressing decrease in platelet count, as well as high levels of NLR, CRP, PCT, AST, BUN, and serum creatinine were associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: Survived severe and nonsurvived COVID-19 patients had distinct clinical and laboratory characteristics, which were separated by principle component analysis. Elder age, increased number of affected lobes, higher levels of serum CRP, chest tightness/dyspnea, and smoking history were risk factors for mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. Longitudinal changes of laboratory findings may be helpful in predicting disease progression and clinical outcome of severe patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Allergy ; 76(2): 510-532, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has made widespread impact recently. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 children with different severities and allergic status. METHODS: Data extracted from the electronic medical records, including demographics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, laboratory and immunological results, and radiological images of 182 hospitalized COVID-19 children, were summarized and analyzed. RESULTS: The median age was 6 years, ranging from 3 days to 15 years, and there were more boys (male-female ratio about 2:1) within the studied 182 patients. Most of the children were infected by family members. Fever (43.4%) and dry cough (44.5%) were common symptoms, and gastrointestinal manifestations accounted for 11.0%, including diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, and vomiting. 71.4% had abnormal chest computed tomography (CT) scan images, and typical signs of pneumonia were ground-glass opacity and local patchy shadowing on admission. Laboratory results were mostly within normal ranges, and only a small ratio of lymphopenia (3.9%) and eosinopenia (29.5%) were observed. The majority (97.8%) of infected children were not severe, and 24 (13.2%) of them had asymptomatic infections. Compared to children without pneumonia (manifested as asymptomatic and acute upper respiratory infection), children with pneumonia were associated with higher percentages of the comorbidity history, symptoms of fever and cough, and increased levels of serum procalcitonin, alkaline phosphatase, and serum interleukins (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α. There were no differences in treatments, duration of hospitalization, time from first positive to first negative nucleic acid testing, and outcomes between children with mild pneumonia and without pneumonia. All the hospitalized COVID-19 children had recovered except one death due to intussusception and sepsis. In 43 allergic children with COVID-19, allergic rhinitis (83.7%) was the major disease, followed by drug allergy, atopic dermatitis, food allergy, and asthma. Demographics and clinical features were not significantly different between allergic and nonallergic groups. Allergic patients showed less increase in acute phase reactants, procalcitonin, D-dimer, and aspartate aminotransferase levels compared with all patients. Immunological profiles including circulating T, B, and NK lymphocyte subsets, total immunoglobulin and complement levels, and serum cytokines did not show any difference in allergic and pneumonia groups. Neither eosinophil counts nor serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels showed a significant correlation with other immunological measures, such as other immunoglobulins, complements, lymphocyte subset numbers, and serum cytokine levels. CONCLUSION: Pediatric COVID-19 patients tended to have a mild clinical course. Patients with pneumonia had higher proportion of fever and cough and increased inflammatory biomarkers than those without pneumonia. There was no difference between allergic and nonallergic COVID-19 children in disease incidence, clinical features, and laboratory and immunological findings. Allergy was not a risk factor for developing and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection and hardly influenced the disease course of COVID-19 in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 192: 111357, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-773414

ABSTRACT

There is a great deal of debate on the question of whether or not we know what ageing is (Ref. Cohen et al., 2020). Here, we consider what we believe to be the especially confused and confusing case of the ageing of the human immune system, commonly referred to as "immunosenescence". But what exactly is meant by this term? It has been used loosely in the literature, resulting in a certain degree of confusion as to its definition and implications. Here, we argue that only those differences in immune parameters between younger and older adults that are associated in some definitive manner with detrimental health outcomes and/or impaired survival prospects should be classed as indicators of immunosenescence in the strictest sense of the word, and that in humans we know remarkably little about their identity. Such biomarkers of immunosenescence may nonetheless indicate beneficial effects in other contexts, consistent with the notion of antagonistic pleiotropy. Identifying what could be true immunosenescence in this respect requires examining: (1) what appears to correlate with age, though generality across human populations is not yet confirmed; (2) what clearly is part of a suite of canonical changes in the immune system that happen with age; (3) which subset of those changes accelerates rather than slows aging; and (4) all changes, potentially population-specific, that accelerate agig. This remains an immense challenge. These questions acquire an added urgency in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, given the clearly greater susceptibility of older adults to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunosenescence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged
6.
Cell Res ; 31(4): 415-432, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759580

ABSTRACT

Aging is a major risk factor for many diseases, especially in highly prevalent cardiopulmonary comorbidities and infectious diseases including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Resolving cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with aging in higher mammals is therefore urgently needed. Here, we created young and old non-human primate single-nucleus/cell transcriptomic atlases of lung, heart and artery, the top tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2. Analysis of cell type-specific aging-associated transcriptional changes revealed increased systemic inflammation and compromised virus defense as a hallmark of cardiopulmonary aging. With age, expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was increased in the pulmonary alveolar epithelial barrier, cardiomyocytes, and vascular endothelial cells. We found that interleukin 7 (IL7) accumulated in aged cardiopulmonary tissues and induced ACE2 expression in human vascular endothelial cells in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Furthermore, treatment with vitamin C blocked IL7-induced ACE2 expression. Altogether, our findings depict the first transcriptomic atlas of the aged primate cardiopulmonary system and provide vital insights into age-linked susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that geroprotective strategies may reduce COVID-19 severity in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transcriptome , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Interleukin-7/metabolism , Interleukin-7/pharmacology , Macaca fascicularis , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , RNA-Seq , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/drug effects
7.
Protein Cell ; 11(10): 740-770, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709445

ABSTRACT

Age-associated changes in immune cells have been linked to an increased risk for infection. However, a global and detailed characterization of the changes that human circulating immune cells undergo with age is lacking. Here, we combined scRNA-seq, mass cytometry and scATAC-seq to compare immune cell types in peripheral blood collected from young and old subjects and patients with COVID-19. We found that the immune cell landscape was reprogrammed with age and was characterized by T cell polarization from naive and memory cells to effector, cytotoxic, exhausted and regulatory cells, along with increased late natural killer cells, age-associated B cells, inflammatory monocytes and age-associated dendritic cells. In addition, the expression of genes, which were implicated in coronavirus susceptibility, was upregulated in a cell subtype-specific manner with age. Notably, COVID-19 promoted age-induced immune cell polarization and gene expression related to inflammation and cellular senescence. Therefore, these findings suggest that a dysregulated immune system and increased gene expression associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility may at least partially account for COVID-19 vulnerability in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/genetics , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Lineage , Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytokines/genetics , Disease Susceptibility , Flow Cytometry/methods , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Immune System/cytology , Immune System/growth & development , Immunocompetence/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Inflammation/immunology , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Transcriptome , Young Adult
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