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1.
Vaccines ; 10(3), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818222

ABSTRACT

Although numerous COVID-19 vaccines are effective against COVID-19 infection and variants of concern (VOC) in the real world, it is imperative to obtain evidence of the corresponding vaccine effectiveness (VE). This study estimates the real-world effectiveness of the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines against COVID-19 infection and determines the influence of different virus variants on VE by using test-negative design (TND) studies. We systematically searched for published articles on the efficacy of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 against COVID-19 infection. Two researchers independently selected and extracted data from eligible studies. We calculated the VE associated with different vaccine types, SARS-CoV-2 variants, and vaccination statuses, using an inverse variance random-effects model. We selected 19 eligible studies in the meta-analysis from 1651 records. For the partially vaccinated group, the VE of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 was 61% and 78% against COVID-19 infection, respectively. For the completely vaccinated group, the VE of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 was 90% and 92% against COVID-19 infection, respectively. During subgroup analyses, the overall VE of BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 against the Delta variant was 53% and 71%, respectively, for the partially vaccinated group;the respective VE values were 85% and 91% for the fully vaccinated group. Irrespective of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines, the Delta variant significantly weakened vaccine protection for the partially vaccinated group, while full vaccination was highly effective against COVID-19 infection and various VOC. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is more effective against COVID-19 infection and VOC than the BNT162b2 vaccine, especially for the partially vaccinated group. Overall, the results provide recommendations for national and regional vaccine policies.

2.
Frontiers in Medicine ; 9:799736, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817972

ABSTRACT

Background: The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak has caused millions of deaths and greatly influenced the timely diagnosis and treatment of other diseases. Throughout the pandemic, there was a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of several sexually transmitted infections. However, the impact of the ongoing pandemic on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates has not been investigated thus far. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively collected data regarding HPV and cervical cancer screening results of outpatients from gynecological clinics of a tertiary hospital from 1 December 2018 to 31 December 2020 in Wuhan. Based on the timeline of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Wuhan, we divided this period into four relatively independent stages to compare the HPV screening visit numbers and infection rates. Results: There was a 50% drop in HPV screening visits and a 10% drop in HPV infection rates throughout the pandemic when compared with the numbers collected before the pandemic. Strict lockdown measures greatly decreased the HPV infection rate (17.03 vs. 8.29, P = 0.003). During the pandemic, the most prevalent HPV genotypes were HPV 16, 52, 58, and 53. After the pandemic, the HPV infection rate recovered quickly, but it was still slightly lower than the infection rate found before the outbreak (23.3 vs. 21.2%). Conclusion: During coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cervical cancer screening visits and HPV infection rates have decreased dramatically. The HPV transmission has also decreased after strict lockdown. Effective HPV and cervical cancer screening programs should be strengthened immediately to reduce the transmission of HPV during and after the pandemic.

3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1817824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines are in short supply globally. China was among the first countries to pledge supplies of the COVID-19 vaccine as a global public product, and to date the country has provided more than 600 million vaccines to more than 200 countries and regions with low COVID-19 vaccination rates. Understanding the public's attitude in China towards the global distribution of COVID-19 vaccines could inform global and national decisions, policies and debates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes of adults living in China regarding the global allocation of COVID-19 vaccines developed in China, and how these attitudes vary across provinces and by sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among adults registered with the survey company KuRunData. The survey asked participants 31 questions on their attitudes regarding the global allocation of COVID-19 vaccines developed in China. We disaggregated responses by province and sociodemographic characteristics. All analyses used survey sampling weights. RESULTS: A total of 10,000 participants completed the questionnaire. Participants generally favored providing COVID-19 vaccines to foreign countries before fully fulfilling domestic needs (75.6%, 95% CI: 74.6% - 76.5%). Women (76.8%, OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.07 - 1.32, P = .002) and those living in rural areas (76.8%, OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.27, P = .03) were especially likely to hold this opinion. Most respondents preferred providing financial support through international platforms rather than directly offering support to individual countries (72.1%, 95% CI: 71.0% - 73.1%), while for vaccine products they preferred direct provision to relevant countries instead of via a delivery platform such as COVAX (77.3%, 95% CI: 76.3% - 78.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Among our survey sample, we find that adults are generally supportive of the international distribution of COVID-19 vaccines, which may encourage policy makers to support and implement the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines developed in China globally. Conducting similar surveys in other countries could help align policymakers' actions on COVID-19 vaccine distribution with the preferences of their constituencies.

4.
Infection & Drug Resistance ; 15:2091-2100, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817634

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Vaccination reduces the incidence of severe COVID-19 and death and effectively limits viral spread. Concerns have been raised about COVID-19 vaccine responses in the large population of HIV-infected patients. This study aims to explore the safety and immunogenicity of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in people living with HIV (PLWH). Patients and Methods: All participants in this study already had their second dose of an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine at least 14 days earlier, without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary safety outcomes were the incidence of adverse reactions and changes in CD4+ T-cell counts. SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to the D614G variant and delta variant were measured for immune response assessment. Results: Forty-seven HIV-infected patients and 18 healthy donors (HDs) were enrolled in this study. Adverse reactions were mild or self-limiting and were reported in 19.1% of HIV-infected patients. Most PLWH developed antibody responses against the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine. The longitudinal analysis of antibody responses in PLWH (median interval between detection and complete vaccination, 59 days) showed that antibodies were maintained for at least three months, though their titers were reduced. However, the antibody-positive rates in PLWH were significantly lower than those in HDs. Additionally, compared to HDs (Geomean titers (GMT) of 165 for D614G and GMT of 72 for delta), the neutralizing antibody titers against the two variants in PLWH (GMT of 43 for D614G and GMT 13 for delta) were decreased significantly (p = 0.018 and p < 0.001, respectively). HIV-infected patients with CD4+T-cell counts <=350 cells/muL appeared to exhibit a poor antibody response to inactivated vaccination. Conclusion: Inactivated COVID-19 vaccines appear to be efficacious in PLWH. However, antibody responses in HIV-infected patients are inferior to those in healthy individuals, especially PLWH with lower CD4+T-cell counts.

5.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(4):e0262426, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817470

ABSTRACT

With the tendency toward economic and strategy decoupling between China and the United States and amidst the anti-globalization trend, enterprises are facing unprecedented challenges and opportunities. In this study, we reveal how the agile intuition (AI) of top managers with respect to the external environment affects enterprise innovation behavior (IB) based on the cognition-behavior framework. Strategic learning (SL) is considered a moderator, and knowledge sharing (KS) is considered a mediator. The survey sample consists of 305 managers from 47 enterprises in China during the COVID-19 period. The empirical results show that top management agile intuition significantly promotes enterprise IB;knowledge sharing (KS) partially mediates the relationship between top manager AI and enterprise IB;and SL suppresses the promotion effect of top manager AI on enterprise IB to a certain extent, hindering blind innovation. In a surprising result, we find that strategic guidance by an external consultant does not significantly affect the enterprise IB in China.

6.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1816325

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Delta and Omicron variants have become the dominant variants worldwide, and studies focused on liver injury in these patients are limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 157 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients were enrolled, including 77 Delta variant-infected patients and 80 Omicron variant-infected patients. Liver injury data and clinical data were summarized and compared between patients infected with the two variants, additionally, patients with or without liver injury were also compared and multivariate analysis was performed to explore the predictive factors related to liver injury in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. RESULTS: Liver injury was found in 18 (23.4%)/15 (18.8%) in Delta/Omicron variant-infected patients on admission, and 4 (5.2%)/1 (1.3%) in Delta/Omicron variant-infected patients during hospitalization, respectively. The ratios of liver injury did not differ between the two groups (χ2 = 1.571;P = 0.210). Among these patients, 17 (77.3%) and 12 (75.0%) Delta and Omicron variant-infected patients were considered to be related to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the biomarkers of liver function were mildly elevated, dominated by the parameter of cholangiocyte injury: 76.5% (13/17) and 83.3% (10/12) in Delta and Omicron variant-infected patients, and most of these patients recovered to normal during follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex [odds ratio (OR), 4.476;95% confidence interval (CI), 1.235-16.222;P = 0.023] and high levels of peak viral load in the nasopharynx (OR, 3.022;95% CI, 1.338-6.827;P = 0.008) were independent factors related to liver injury. CONCLUSION: Cholangiocyte injury biomarkers are dominated in Delta and Omicron variant-infected patients, male sex and high levels of peak viral load in the nasopharynx are predictive factors related to liver injury in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.

7.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 119:87-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814521

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy in the United States. METHODS: We developed a decision-analytic Markov model of COVID-19 to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a booster strategy of the Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 (administered 6 months after the second dose) among older adults from a healthcare system perspective. RESULTS: Compared with 2 doses of BNT162b2 without a booster, the booster strategy in a 100,000 cohort of older adults would incur an additional cost of $3.4 million in vaccination cost but save $6.7 million in direct medical cost and gain 3.7 quality-adjusted life-years in 180 days. This corresponds to a benefit-cost ratio of 1.95 and a net monetary benefit of $3.4 million. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis indicates that a booster strategy has a high chance (67%) of being cost-effective. Notably, the cost-effectiveness of the booster strategy is highly sensitive to the population incidence of COVID-19, with a cost-effectiveness threshold of 8.1/100,000 person-day. If vaccine efficacies reduce by 10%, 30%, and 50%, this threshold will increase to 9.7/100,000, 13.9/100,000, and 21.9/100,000 person-day, respectively. CONCLUSION: Offering the BNT162b2 booster to older adults aged >=65 years in the United States is likely to be cost-effective. Less efficacious vaccines and boosters may still be cost-effective in settings of high SARS-CoV-2 transmission.

8.
Front Artif Intell ; 5:827299, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1809634

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem, and is the leading cause of death from an infectious disease. A crucial step in the treatment of tuberculosis is screening high risk populations and the early detection of the disease, with chest x-ray (CXR) imaging being the most widely-used imaging modality. As such, there has been significant recent interest in artificial intelligence-based TB screening solutions for use in resource-limited scenarios where there is a lack of trained healthcare workers with expertise in CXR interpretation. Motivated by this pressing need and the recent recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the use of computer-aided diagnosis of TB in place of a human reader, we introduce TB-Net, a self-attention deep convolutional neural network tailored for TB case screening. We used CXR data from a multi-national patient cohort to train and test our models. A machine-driven design exploration approach leveraging generative synthesis was used to build a highly customized deep neural network architecture with attention condensers. We conducted an explainability-driven performance validation process to validate TB-Net's decision-making behavior. Experiments on CXR data from a multi-national patient cohort showed that the proposed TB-Net is able to achieve accuracy/sensitivity/specificity of 99.86/100.0/99.71%. Radiologist validation was conducted on select cases by two board-certified radiologists with over 10 and 19 years of experience, respectively, and showed consistency between radiologist interpretation and critical factors leveraged by TB-Net for TB case detection for the case where radiologists identified anomalies. The proposed TB-Net not only achieves high tuberculosis case detection performance in terms of sensitivity and specificity, but also leverages clinically relevant critical factors in its decision making process. While not a production-ready solution, we hope that the open-source release of TB-Net as part of the COVID-Net initiative will support researchers, clinicians, and citizen data scientists in advancing this field in the fight against this global public health crisis.

9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(4):e1009925, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1808578

ABSTRACT

Early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, there was a high level of optimism based on observational studies and small controlled trials that treating hospitalized patients with convalescent plasma from COVID-19 survivors (CCP) would be an important immunotherapy. However, as more data from controlled trials became available, the results became disappointing, with at best moderate evidence of efficacy when CCP with high titers of neutralizing antibodies was used early in infection. To better understand the potential therapeutic efficacy of CCP, and to further validate SARS-CoV-2 infection of macaques as a reliable animal model for testing such strategies, we inoculated 12 adult rhesus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 by intratracheal and intranasal routes. One day later, 8 animals were infused with pooled human CCP with a high titer of neutralizing antibodies (RVPN NT50 value of 3,003), while 4 control animals received normal human plasma. Animals were monitored for 7 days. Animals treated with CCP had detectable but low levels of antiviral antibodies after infusion. In comparison to the control animals, CCP-treated animals had similar levels of viral RNA in upper and lower respiratory tract secretions, similar detection of viral RNA in lung tissues by in situ hybridization, but lower amounts of infectious virus in the lungs. CCP-treated animals had a moderate, but statistically significant reduction in interstitial pneumonia, as measured by comprehensive lung histology. Thus overall, therapeutic benefits of CCP were marginal and inferior to results obtained earlier with monoclonal antibodies in this animal model. By highlighting strengths and weaknesses, data of this study can help to further optimize nonhuman primate models to provide proof-of-concept of intervention strategies, and guide the future use of convalescent plasma against SARS-CoV-2 and potentially other newly emerging respiratory viruses.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022:4525778, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1807689

ABSTRACT

Migrasomes are migration-dependent membrane-bound vesicular structures that contain cellular contents and small vesicles. Migrasomes grow on the tips or intersections of the retraction fibers after cells migrate away. The process of releasing migrasomes into the extracellular space is named as "migracytosis". After releasing, they can be taken up by the surrounding cells, or rupture and further release their contents into the extracellular environment. Physiologically, migrasomes provide regional cues for organ morphogenesis during zebrafish gastrulation and discard the damaged mitochondria in response to mild mitochondrial stresses. Pathologically, migrasomes are released from podocyte during early podocyte stress and/or damage, from platelets after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), from microglia/macrophages of the ischemic brain, and from tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-activated endothelial cells (ECs);thus, this newly discovered extracellular vesicle is involved in all these pathological processes. Moreover, migrasomes can modulate the proliferation of cancer cell via lateral transferring mRNA and protein. In this review, we will summarize the biogenesis, release, uptake, and rupture of migrasomes and discuss its biological roles in development, redox signalling, innate immunity and COVID-19, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, renal diseases, and cancer biology, all of these highlight the importance of migrasomes in modulating body homeostasis and diseases.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-10, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1806175

ABSTRACT

Given the high level of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, cold-chain workers are considered priority vaccination groups. To date, many studies have reported on the willingness within distinct populations to be vaccinated against COVID-19, whereas it has not been reported among cold-chain workers worldwide. To address this void, we conducted a cross-sectional survey to gather general information, COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and willingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine among cold-chain workers in Shenzhen, China. Binary logistic analyses were conducted to explore the associations between COVID-19-related KAP factors and the willingness for COVID-19 vaccination. Among 244 cold-chain workers, 76% indicated that they were willing to be vaccinated. Knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, comprehending the most effective prevention, understanding the transmission routes, and recognizing the priority vaccination groups were positively associated with willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Regarding attitude factors, perceiving the social harmfulness and severity of COVID-19 were related to a higher willingness to vaccination. Participants considering themselves a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination were more likely to get vaccinated. For practice factors, attaining more knowledge and higher self-reported compliance with maintaining adequate ventilation were also positively associated with the dependent variable. Agreement on the importance of COVID-19 vaccination was the most frequent reason for accepting the COVID-19 vaccine;additionally, concerns about side effects and insufficient understanding of efficacy were the main factors contributing to vaccine refusal. Enhancing KAP levels related to COVID-19 helps promote vaccine acceptance. Health authorities should promptly implement educational activities following the updated vaccine status among cold-chain workers.

12.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333852

ABSTRACT

The newly emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 from India (Delta variant) and South America (Lambda variant) have led to a higher infection rate of either vaccinated or unvaccinated people. We found that sera from Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine remain high reactivity toward the receptor binding domain (RBD) of Delta variant while it drops dramatically toward that of Lambda variant. Interestingly, the overall titer of antibodies of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccinated individuals drops 3-fold after 6 months, which could be one of major reasons for breakthrough infections, emphasizing the importance of potential third boost shot. While a therapeutic antibody, Bamlanivimab, decreases binding affinity to Delta variant by ~20 fold, it fully lost binding to Lambda variant. Structural modeling of complexes of RBD with human receptor, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), and Bamlanivimab suggest the potential basis of the change of binding. The data suggest possible danger and a potential surge of Lambda variant in near future.

13.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333834

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Therapeutically immunosuppressed transplant recipients exhibit attenuated responses to COVID-19 vaccines. To better understand the immune alterations that determined poor vaccine response, we correlated quantities of circulating T and B cell subsets at baseline with longitudinal serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in heart and lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Samples at baseline and at approximately 8 and 30 days after each vaccine dose for 22 heart and lung transplant recipients with no history of COVID-19, four heart and lung transplant recipients with prior COVID-19 infection, and 12 healthy controls undergoing vaccination were analyzed. Anti-spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG and pseudovirus neutralization activity were measured. Proportions of B and T cell subsets at baseline were comprehensively quantitated. RESULTS: At 8-30 days post vaccination, healthy controls displayed robust anti-RBD IgG responses, whereas heart and lung transplant recipients showed minimally increased responses. A parallel absence of activity was observed in pseudovirus neutralization. In contrast, three of four (75%) transplant recipients with prior COVID-19 infection displayed robust responses at levels comparable to controls. Baseline levels of activated PD-1 + HLA-DR + CXCR5 - CD4 + T cells (also known as T peripheral helper [T PH ] cells) and CD4+ T cells strongly predicted the ability to mount a response. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressed patients have defective vaccine responses but can be induced to generate neutralizing antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Strong correlations of vaccine responsiveness with baseline T PH and CD4 + T cell numbers highlights a role for T helper activity in B cell differentiation into antibody secreting cells during vaccine response.

14.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333759

ABSTRACT

The contributions of T cells infiltrating the lungs to SARS-CoV-2 clearance and disease progression are poorly understood. Although studies of CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage and blood have suggested that these cells are exhausted in severe COVID-19, CD4+ T cells have not been systematically interrogated within the lung parenchyma. We establish here that cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4+CTLs) are prominently expanded in the COVID-19 lung infiltrate. CD4+CTL numbers in the lung increase with disease severity and progression is accompanied by widespread HLA-DR expression on lung epithelial and endothelial cells, increased apoptosis of epithelial cells and tissue remodeling. Based on quantitative evidence for re-activation in the lung milieu, CD4+ CTLs are as likely to drive viral clearance as CD8+ T cells and may also be contributors to lung inflammation and eventually to fibrosis in severe COVID-19. IN BRIEF: In severe COVID-19 cytotoxic CD4+ T cells accumulate in draining lymph nodes and in the lungs during the resolving phase of the disease. Re-activated cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are present in roughly equivalent numbers in the lungs at this stage and these cells likely collaborate to eliminate virally infected cells and potentially induce fibrosis. A large fraction of epithelial and endothelial cells in the lung express HLA class II in COVID-19 and there is temporal convergence between CD4+CTL accumulation and apoptosis in the lung. HIGHLIGHTS: In severe COVID-19, activated CD4+ CTLs accumulate in the lungs late in diseaseThese cells likely participate in SARS-CoV-2 clearance, collaborating with CD8+ T cells many of which exhibit an exhausted phenotypeT cells likely contribute to the late exacerbation of inflammationCD4+CTLs have been linked to fibrosis in many disorders and could also be responsible for the eventual induction of fibrosis in a subset of COVID-19 patients. SUMMARY: The contributions of T cells infiltrating the lungs to SARS-CoV-2 clearance and disease progression are poorly understood. Although studies of CD8+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage and blood have suggested that these cells are exhausted in severe COVID-19, CD4+ T cells have not been systematically interrogated within the lung parenchyma. We establish here that cytotoxic CD4+ T cells (CD4+CTLs) are prominently expanded in the COVID-19 lung infiltrate. CD4+CTL numbers in the lung increase with disease severity and progression is accompanied by widespread HLA-DR expression on lung epithelial and endothelial cells, increased apoptosis of epithelial cells and tissue remodeling. Based on quantitative evidence for re-activation in the lung milieu, CD4+ CTLs are as likely to drive viral clearance as CD8+ T cells and may also be contributors to lung inflammation and eventually to fibrosis in severe COVID-19.

15.
Small Structures ; : 19, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1802587

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and other major viral infectious diseases have become a significant threat to people's life and economic/social development. In recent years, with the development of nanotechnology, nanomaterial-based antiviral agents have been extensively studied. However, the clinical applications of antiviral nanomaterials are still limited. Herein, the recent advances in nanomaterial-based antiviral strategies, mainly including antiviral nanodrugs, drug nanocarriers, and nanovaccines, are summarized. The clinical challenges and prospects of nanomaterial-based antiviral strategies are also discussed.

16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1802058

ABSTRACT

The dynamic interactions between RNAs and proteins play crucial roles in regulating diverse cellular processes. Proteome-wide characterization of these interactions in their native cellular context remains desirable but challenging. Herein, we developed a photocatalytic crosslinking (PhotoCAX) strategy coupled with mass spectrometry (PhotoCAX-MS) and RNA sequencing (PhotoCAX-seq) for the study of the composition and dynamics of protein-RNA interactions. By integrating the blue light-triggered photocatalyst with a dual-functional RNA-protein crosslinker (RP-linker) and the phase separation-based enrichment strategy, PhotoCAX-MS revealed a total of 2,044 RBPs in human HEK293 cells. We further employed PhotoCAX to investigate the dynamic change of RBPome in macrophage cells upon LPS-stimulation, as well as the identification of RBPs interacting directly with the 5'untranslated regions of SARS-CoV-2 RNA.

17.
Promet-Traffic & Transportation ; 33(6):10, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1801380

ABSTRACT

In this COVID-19 epidemic, due to insufficient awareness of the impact of sudden public health emergencies on agricultural logistics at this stage, agricultural products were left unsold, stocks were backlogged, and losses were severe. In the process of distribution, we should not only ensure a short time cycle and avoid the contamination of agricultural products by foreign bacteria, but also pay attention to the waste of human, material, and financial resources. Therefore, this study mainly adopts the combination of the petrochemical network and block chain to build an agricultural products emergency logistics model. This paper first shows the operation mechanism of the petri dish network and blockchain coupling in the form of a graph and then uses the culture network modelling and simulation tool PIPE to directly verify the construction model. It is proved that the structure and overall business process of the agricultural products logistics system constructed by combining the Petri net and block chain are reasonable, reliable, and feasible in practical application and development. It is hoped that this study can provide a reference direction for agricultural emergency logistics.

18.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(8), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798899

ABSTRACT

This study reports the results of focus groups with school nurses and teachers from elementary, middle, and high schools to explore their perceptions of child and adolescent oral health. Participants included 14 school nurses and 15 teachers (83% female;31% Hispanic;21% White;21% Asian;14% African American;and 13% Others). Respondents were recruited from Los Angeles County schools and scheduled by school level for six one-hour focus groups using Zoom. Audio recordings were transcribed, reviewed, and saved with anonymization of speaker identities. NVivo software (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia) was used to facilitate content analysis and identify key themes. The nurses’ rate of “Oral Health Education” comments statistically exceeded that of teachers, while teachers had higher rates for “Parental Involvement” and “Mutual Perception” comments. “Need for Care” was perceived to be more prevalent in immigrants to the United States based on student behaviors and complaints. “Access to Care” was seen as primarily the nurses’ responsibilities. Strong relationships between community clinics and schools were viewed by some as integral to students achieving good oral health. The results suggest dimensions and questions important to item development for oral health surveys of children and parents to address screening, management, program assessment, and policy planning.

19.
Chem Soc Rev ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1795656

ABSTRACT

The great success achieved by the two highly-effective messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic highlights the great potential of mRNA technology. Through the evolution of mRNA technology, chemistry has played an important role from mRNA modification to the synthesis of mRNA delivery platforms, which allows various applications of mRNA to be achieved both in vitro and in vivo. In this tutorial review, we provide a summary and discussion on the significant progress of emerging mRNA technologies, as well as the underlying chemical designs and principles. Various nanoparticle (NP)-based delivery strategies including protein-mRNA complex, lipid-based carriers, polymer-based carriers, and hybrid carriers for the efficient delivery of mRNA molecules are presented. Furthermore, typical mRNA delivery platforms for various biomedical applications (e.g., functional protein expression, vaccines, cancer immunotherapy, and genome editing) are highlighted. Finally, our insights into the challenges and future development towards clinical translation of these mRNA technologies are provided.

20.
Ieee Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement ; 71:15, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1794799

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of industrialization, the environmental pollution issue is becoming increasingly serious, especially the air pollution problem. As the core of the prevention and control of air pollution, air pollution prediction plays a very significant role in human survival and development. Therefore, it is highly essential to develop an accurate air pollution prediction model for mass rallies (e.g., playground and bazaar). Recent studies have suggested that multiple air contaminants, e.g., PM2.5 and PM10, which belong to a kind of aerosol, can carry the Covid-19 virus and spread it rapidly through the atmosphere, and this dramatically increases the risk of Covid-19 infection, particularly in the crowded and enclosed environment. Nevertheless, most existing air pollution prediction methods, which rely on large amounts of historical data for modeling and assume that the crowd flows relatively slow, are difficult to apply well to predict air pollution in mass rallies. To solve the aforementioned problem and better assist the decision-makers in managing environmental risk to human beings, in this article, we come up with a novel air pollution prediction model for mass rallies. More specifically, we first propose a temporally weighting matrix to differentiate the significance of training samples in the time domain. Then, we construct a temporal support vector regressor (TSVR), which puts more emphasis on the adjacent samples by considering the fact that the crowd usually flows promptly and disorderly in mass rallies. Finally, based on the extended TSVR, we develop a multitask TSVR (MTSVR) that simultaneously considers the related tasks. Since different air contaminants are correlated with each other, all the tasks can benefit by sharing information. The results of comparison experiments demonstrate that our presented MTSVR outperforms state-of-the-art single-task learners, multitask learners, and air pollution predictors when applied for air pollution prediction in mass rallies. Particularly, when under the six-task condition, the error values of the prediction of PM2.5, PM10, and O-3 obtained by our proposed method are relatively lower, outperforming the most advanced method tested by 15.2%, 6.1%, and 4.3%, and the precision values of the predicted values outperform the advanced method tested by 28.3%, 25.1%, and 24.8%.

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