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1.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1131176, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236973

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the start of the coronavirus 2019 pandemic, people have faced many challenges, including in relation to sleep quality and psychological health. This study aims to analyze the association between sleep quality and psychological symptoms among university students in China, and to provide reference data to facilitate the development of interventions to improve the physical and mental health of university students. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used to investigate the sleep quality and psychological symptoms of 6,363 university students in China. The Chi-square test was used to analyze differences in sleep quality among groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the association between sleep quality and psychological symptoms. Results: The proportions of Chinese university students with good, medium, and poor sleep quality were 25.73, 10.99, and 63.28%, respectively. The overall rate of psychological symptoms was 16.5%. Logistic regression analysis showed that, in general, university students with poor sleep quality had a higher risk of psychological symptoms than those with good sleep quality (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.28, 1.84, p < 0.01). Compared with university students with good sleep quality, those with poor sleep quality were more likely to experience emotional symptoms (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.36, 1.94), behavioral symptoms (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.3, 1.84), and difficulties with social adaptation (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.51, 2.25) (all p < 0.01). Conclusion: There was an association between sleep quality and psychological symptoms among Chinese university students. University students with poor sleep quality have a higher risk of psychological symptoms. Measures should be taken to improve the sleep quality of university students and reduce the incidence of psychological symptoms. This study provides reference data for government and education departments that could inform public health policies.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 1071254, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2199007

ABSTRACT

Thoracic surgery has increased drastically in recent years, especially in light of the severe outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Routine "passive" chest computed tomography (CT) screening of inpatients detects some pulmonary diseases requiring thoracic surgeries timely. As an essential device for thoracic anesthesia, the double-lumen tube (DLT) is particularly important for anesthesia and surgery. With the continuous upgrading of the DLTs and the widespread use of fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB), the position of DLT in thoracic surgery is gradually becoming more stable and easier to observe or adjust. However, DLT malposition still occurs during transferring patients from a supine to the lateral position in thoracic surgery, which leads to lung isolation failure and hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Recently, some innovative DLTs or improved intervention methods have shown good results in reducing the incidence of DLT malposition. This review aims to summarize the recent studies of the incidence of left-sided DLT malposition, the reasons and effects of malposition, and summarize current methods for reducing DLT malposition and prospects for possible approaches. Meanwhile, we use bibliometric analysis to summarize the research trends and hot spots of the DLT research.

3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1024946, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099237

ABSTRACT

Background: Mental health of college students has become a public health issue of common concern worldwide. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the problem has become even more acute. The aim of this study was to assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) consumption and psychological symptoms among Chinese college students in order to promote their mental health. Methods: The study population was 6,120 college students aged 19-22 years from Anhui, Henan and Xinjiang, China. Basic demographic information, covariates and SSB Consumption data were collected through a self-assessment questionnaire. The "Multidimensional Sub-health Questionnaire of Adolescents" was used to assess the psychological symptoms of college students. The Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the differences and associations between SSB consumption and psychological symptoms among Chinese college students. Results: The detection rate of psychological symptoms among Chinese college students was 8.1%. The detection rate of boys students was 9.4% and that of girls students was 7.1%, and the difference was statistically significant in comparison (χ 2-value was 11.08, p < 0.001). After controlling for covariates, Model 2 analysis showed that compared to SSB consumption <2 time/week, college students with SSB consumption ≥2 time/week (OR = 2.96, 95% CI: 2.36, 3.70) had a higher risk of psychological symptoms (p < 0.001). The same trend was found for emotional symptoms, behavioral symptoms, and social adaptation difficulties dimensions. Conclusion: There is an association between SSB consumption and the occurrence of psychological symptoms among Chinese college students. Future measures should be taken to reduce both SSB consumption and the incidence of psychological symptoms.

4.
ACS Photonics ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2016552

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has cost millions of lives worldwide. The constant mutation of SARS-CoV-2 calls for thorough research to facilitate the development of variant surveillance. In this work, we studied the fundamental properties related to the optical identification of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARSCoV-2 spike protein, a key component of viral infection. The Raman modes of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD were captured by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The observed Raman enhancement strongly depends on the excitation wavelength as a result of the aggregation of AuNPs. The characteristic Raman spectra of RBDs from SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV were analyzed by principal component analysis that reveals the role of secondary structures in the SERS process, which is corroborated with the thermal stability under laser heating. We can easily distinguish the Raman spectra of two RBDs using machine learning algorithms with accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 scores all over 95%. Our work provides an in-depth understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 RBD and paves the way toward rapid analysis and discrimination of complex proteins of infectious viruses and other biomolecules.

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(23): e2118836119, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890407

ABSTRACT

Rapid identification of newly emerging or circulating viruses is an important first step toward managing the public health response to potential outbreaks. A portable virus capture device, coupled with label-free Raman spectroscopy, holds the promise of fast detection by rapidly obtaining the Raman signature of a virus followed by a machine learning (ML) approach applied to recognize the virus based on its Raman spectrum, which is used as a fingerprint. We present such an ML approach for analyzing Raman spectra of human and avian viruses. A convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier specifically designed for spectral data achieves very high accuracy for a variety of virus type or subtype identification tasks. In particular, it achieves 99% accuracy for classifying influenza virus type A versus type B, 96% accuracy for classifying four subtypes of influenza A, 95% accuracy for differentiating enveloped and nonenveloped viruses, and 99% accuracy for differentiating avian coronavirus (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV]) from other avian viruses. Furthermore, interpretation of neural net responses in the trained CNN model using a full-gradient algorithm highlights Raman spectral ranges that are most important to virus identification. By correlating ML-selected salient Raman ranges with the signature ranges of known biomolecules and chemical functional groups­for example, amide, amino acid, and carboxylic acid­we verify that our ML model effectively recognizes the Raman signatures of proteins, lipids, and other vital functional groups present in different viruses and uses a weighted combination of these signatures to identify viruses.


Subject(s)
Machine Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Viruses , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Serogroup , Viruses/classification
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 868087, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862619

ABSTRACT

Objective: Artemisinin is an organic compound that comes from Artemisia annua. Artemisinin treatment is the most important and effective method for treating malaria. Bibliometric analysis was carried out to identify the global research trends, hot spots, scientific frontiers, and output characteristics of artemisinin from 2000 to 2021. Methods: Publications and their recorded information from 2000 to 2021 were retrieved through the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). Using VOSviewer and Citespace, the hotspots and trends of studies on artemisinin were visualized. Results: A total of 8,466 publications were retrieved, and for the past 22 years, the annual number of publications associated with artemisinin kept increasing. The United States published most papers. The H-index and number of citations of the United States ranked first. The University of Oxford and MALARIA JOURNAL were the most productive affiliation and journal, respectively. A paper written by E.A. Ashley in 2011 achieved the highest global citation score. Keywords, such as "malaria," "artesunate," "plasmodium-falciparum," "in-vitro," "artemisinin resistance," "plasmodium falciparum," "resistance," and "artemether-lumefantrine," appeared most frequently. The research on artemisinin includes clinical research and animal and cell experiments. Conclusion: The biosynthesis, drug resistance mechanism, and combination of artemisinin have become more popular than before. Studies on artemisinin treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been carried out, and good research results have been obtained.

7.
Front Environ Sci Eng ; 15(3): 46, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718925

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 have revealed a massive outbreak around the world, leading to widespread concerns in global scope. Figuring out the transmission route of COVID-19 is necessary to control further spread. We analyzed the data of 43 patients in Baodi Department Store (China) to supplement the transmission route and epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 in a cluster outbreak. Incubation median was estimated to endure 5.95 days (2-13 days). Almost 76.3% of patients sought medical attention immediately uponillness onset. The median period ofillness onsetto hospitalization and confirmation were 3.96 days (0-14) and 5.58 days (1-21), respectively. Patients with different cluster case could demonstrate unique epidemiological characteristics due to the particularity of outbreak sites. SRAS-CoV-2 can be released into the surrounding air through patient's respiratory tract activities, and can exist for a long time for long-distance transportation. SRAS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in aerosol in different sites, including isolation ward, general ward, outdoor, toilet, hallway, and crowded public area. Environmental factors influencing were analyzed and indicated that the SARS-CoV-2 transportation in aerosol was dependent on temperature, air humidity, ventilation rate and inactivating chemicals (ozone) content. As for the infection route of case numbers 2 to 6, 10, 13, 16, 17, 18, 20 and 23, we believe that aerosol transmission played a significant role in analyzing their exposure history and environmental conditions in Baodi Department Store. Aerosol transmission could occur in some cluster cases when the environmental factors are suitable, and it is an indispensable route of COVID-19 spread.

8.
Environ Res ; 202: 111763, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330805

ABSTRACT

Environmental contamination caused by COVID-19 patients could be a medium of transmission. Previous reports of SARS-CoV-2 in environmental surfaces were about short-term contamination. This study investigated SARS-CoV-2 RNA existence in room-temperature and low-temperature environments long after exposure (>28 days). A department store, where a COVID-19 outbreak was occurred in January 2020 (the epicenter of 43 COVID-19 patients), and a patient's apartment were included as room-temperature environments after being blocked for 57 days and 48 days, respectively. Seven cold storages and imported frozen foods inside were included as low-temperature environments (under -18 °C). Twenty food markets with potential contamination of imported frozen foods were also included to study the consecutive contamination. Information about temperature, relative humidity, and the number of days of environmental samples since the last exposure was collected and analyzed. In sum, 11,808 swab samples were collected before disinfection, of which 35 samples were positive. Persistent contamination of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was identified in the apartment (6/19), the department store (3/50), food packages in cold storages (23/1360), environmental surfaces of cold storages (2/345), and a package in the food market (1/10,034). Two positive samples were isolated from the bathroom of the apartment (66.7 %, 2/3), and doorknobs were proved with contamination in the apartment (40 %, 2/5) and cold storage (33.3 %, 1/3). The epidemiology information and environmental contamination results of an imported frozen food related COVID-19 case (138th COVID-19 patient in Tianjin) were analyzed. Based on the Ct values, the number of copies of two target genes was calculated by standard curves and linear regressions. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in room-temperature environments at least 57 days after the last exposure, much longer than previous reports. Based on the results of this study and previous studies, infectious SARS-CoV-2 could exist for at least 60 days on the surface of cold-chain food packages. Doorknobs and toilets (bathrooms) were important positions in COVID-19 control. High-risk populations of cold-chain-related logistic operations, such as porters, require strict prevention and high-level personal protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Disinfection , Environmental Pollution , Humans , RNA, Viral
9.
Future Virol ; 15(10): 663-671, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911077

ABSTRACT

AIM: Data are limited on clinical characteristics and outcomes of recovered the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients with the reoccurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. PATIENTS & METHODS: Discharged patients in our hospital were included, who had recovered from COVID-19 with the reoccurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. RESULTS: Six patients were redetectable and positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA after discharge from 3 to 15 days. The main symptoms, although no fever, included fatigue, dry cough and pharyngeal or chest discomfort, which were generally milder in the repositive period compared with the period of initial infection. Their laboratory indexes were significantly improved compared with the initial infection, and the pulmonary lesions were continuously improving. All close contacts were SARS-CoV-2 RNA-negative. CONCLUSION: No worsening outcomes or active transmission to close contacts were found for the repositive COVID-19 patients.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(8)2020 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-829209

ABSTRACT

Background: In the last two decades, infrared thermography (IRT) has been applied in quarantine stations for the screening of patients with suspected infectious disease. However, the fever-based screening procedure employing IRT suffers from low sensitivity, because monitoring body temperature alone is insufficient for detecting infected patients. To overcome the drawbacks of fever-based screening, this study aims to develop and evaluate a multiple vital sign (i.e., body temperature, heart rate and respiration rate) measurement system using RGB-thermal image sensors. Methods: The RGB camera measures blood volume pulse (BVP) through variations in the light absorption from human facial areas. IRT is used to estimate the respiration rate by measuring the change in temperature near the nostrils or mouth accompanying respiration. To enable a stable and reliable system, the following image and signal processing methods were proposed and implemented: (1) an RGB-thermal image fusion approach to achieve highly reliable facial region-of-interest tracking, (2) a heart rate estimation method including a tapered window for reducing noise caused by the face tracker, reconstruction of a BVP signal with three RGB channels to optimize a linear function, thereby improving the signal-to-noise ratio and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for estimating the pseudo-spectrum from limited time-domain BVP signals within 15 s and (3) a respiration rate estimation method implementing nasal or oral breathing signal selection based on signal quality index for stable measurement and MUSIC algorithm for rapid measurement. We tested the system on 22 healthy subjects and 28 patients with seasonal influenza, using the support vector machine (SVM) classification method. Results: The body temperature, heart rate and respiration rate measured in a non-contact manner were highly similarity to those measured via contact-type reference devices (i.e., thermometer, ECG and respiration belt), with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.71, 0.87 and 0.87, respectively. Moreover, the optimized SVM model with three vital signs yielded sensitivity and specificity values of 85.7% and 90.1%, respectively. Conclusion: For contactless vital sign measurement, the system achieved a performance similar to that of the reference devices. The multiple vital sign-based screening achieved higher sensitivity than fever-based screening. Thus, this system represents a promising alternative for further quarantine procedures to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Thermography/methods , Vital Signs/physiology , Body Temperature , Face/blood supply , Face/physiology , Heart Rate , Humans , Photography , Respiratory Rate , Seasons , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Signal-To-Noise Ratio
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e21301, 2020 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-836110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has affected people's health worldwide. For college students, web-based physical education is a challenge, as these course are normally offered outdoors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use data from a web-based survey to evaluate the relationship between the mental health status of college students and their sports-related lifestyles. Problems related to web-based physical education were also examined. METHODS: A web-based survey was conducted by snowball sampling from May 8 to 11, 2020. Demographic data, mental health status, and sports-related lifestyles of college students in Wuhan as well as issues related to web-based physical education were collected. Mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: The study included 1607 respondents from 267 cities. The average scores of the DASS-21 subscales (2.46 for depression, 1.48 for anxiety, and 2.59 for stress) were significantly lower in our study than in a previous study (P<.05). Lower DASS-21 scores were significantly correlated with regular exercise, maintaining exercise habits during the outbreak of COVID-19, exercising more than 1 to 2 times a week, exercise duration >1 hour, and >2000 pedometer steps (all P<.05). None of the three forms of web-based physical education was preferred by more than 50% of respondents. Frequent technical problems were confronted by 1087/1607 students (67.6%). Shape-up exercises (846/1607, 52.6%), a designed combination of exercises (710/1607, 44.2%), and Chinese kung fu (559/1607, 34.8%) were suggested sports for web-based physical education. CONCLUSIONS: Mental status was significantly correlated with regular exercise and sufficient exercise duration. Professional physical guidance is needed for college students in selected sports. Exercises not meeting students' preferences, frequent technical problems, and the distant interaction involved in web-based physical education were the main problems that should be solved in future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Exercise/psychology , Mental Health , Physical Education and Training/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation/psychology , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Humans , Internet , Life Style , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sports , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 6(10): 1070-1072, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-642661
14.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1105, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621333

ABSTRACT

Human enteroviruses are responsible for diverse diseases, from mild respiratory symptoms to fatal neurological complications. Currently, no registered antivirals have been approved for clinical therapy. Thus, a therapeutic agent for the enterovirus-related disease is urgently needed. Remdesivir (GS-5734) is a novel monophosphoramidate adenosine analog prodrug that exhibits potent antiviral activity against diverse RNA virus families, including positive-sense Coronaviridae and Flaviviridae and negative-sense Filoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Pneumoviridae. Currently, remdesivir is under phase 3 clinical development for disease COVID-19 treatment. Here, we found that remdesivir impeded both EV71 viral RNA (vRNA) and complementary (cRNA) synthesis, indicating that EV71 replication is inhibited by the triphosphate (TP) form of remdesivir. Moreover, remdesivir showed potent antiviral activity against diverse enteroviruses. These data extend the remdesivir antiviral activity to enteroviruses and indicate that remdesivir is a promising antiviral treatment for EV71 and other enterovirus infections.

15.
J Clin Virol ; 127: 104360, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-46211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, a new outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan (Hubei, China) and rapidly spread throughout China, however, confirmed cases are still increasing worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the epidemiological history and initial clinical characteristics of 10 patients with family aggregation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in Western Chongqing, China. STUDY DESIGN: Ten patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection by real time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), were collected from The People's Hospital of Dazu District, Chongqing. Epidemiological data and laboratory and imaging results were collected on the first day of admission, and analyzed based on the Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline for COVID-19 (5th edition, China). RESULTS: Of the 10 cases, case A had a history of a temporary stay in Wuhan and transmitted the virus to the others through family gathering, living together, and sharing vehicles. The average age was 56.5 years (± 11.16), six patients were males, and the incubation period was 2-14 days. Dry cough was the main symptom, followed by fever and fatigue. Most patients were clinically classified as ordinary-type, with three cases being severe-type. Chest computed tomography results were nonspecific, mainly with ground-glass attenuation and/or shadow images. Extensive lesion distribution was seen in severe cases. CD4+ lymphocyte counts were 61, 180, and 348 cells/uL in severe-type patients, respectively. Notably, viral nucleic acid values in nasopharyngeal swabs were lower (19, 25, and 26) than those of ordinary-type patients, suggesting a higher viral load. Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was also higher in severe-type patients CONCLUSIONS: Initial examination results of lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts and RT-PCR-CT values coupled with higher NLR may indicate the severity of COVID-19 infection for these family clusters.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Family Health , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Aged , Betacoronavirus , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Travel , Viral Load
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