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1.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 20(2):1158, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200066

ABSTRACT

Since the start of 2020, the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been a global public health emergency, and it has caused unprecedented economic and social disaster. In order to improve the diagnosis efficiency of COVID-19 patients, a number of researchers have conducted extensive studies on applying artificial intelligence techniques to the analysis of COVID-19-related medical images. The automatic segmentation of lesions from computed tomography (CT) images using deep learning provides an important basis for the quantification and diagnosis of COVID-19 cases. For a deep learning-based CT diagnostic method, a few of accurate pixel-level labels are essential for the training process of a model. However, the translucent ground-glass area of the lesion usually leads to mislabeling while performing the manual labeling operation, which weakens the accuracy of the model. In this work, we propose a method for correcting rough labels;that is, to hierarchize these rough labels into precise ones by performing an analysis on the pixel distribution of the infected and normal areas in the lung. The proposed method corrects the incorrectly labeled pixels and enables the deep learning model to learn the infected degree of each infected pixel, with which an aiding system (named DLShelper) for COVID-19 CT image diagnosis using the hierarchical labels is also proposed. The DLShelper targets lesion segmentation from CT images, as well as the severity grading. The DLShelper assists medical staff in efficient diagnosis by providing rich auxiliary diagnostic information (including the severity grade, the proportions of the lesion and the visualization of the lesion area). A comprehensive experiment based on a public COVID-19 CT image dataset is also conducted, and the experimental results show that the DLShelper significantly improves the accuracy of segmentation for the lesion areas and also achieves a promising accuracy for the severity grading task.

2.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ; : 115129, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2178287

ABSTRACT

The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is essential for the replication and transcription of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), making it a promising target for the treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, a series of 2,3,5-substituted [1,2,4]-thiadiazole analogs were discovered to be able to inhibit 3CLpro as non-peptidomimetic covalent binders at submicromolar levels, with IC50 values ranging from 0.118 to 0.582 μM. Interestingly, these compounds were also shown to inhibit PLpro with the same level of IC50 values, but had negligible effect on human proteases such as chymotrypsin, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L. Subsequently, the antiviral abilities of these compounds were evaluated in cell-based assays, and compound 6g showed potent antiviral activity with an EC50 value of 7.249 μM. It was proposed that these compounds covalently bind to the catalytic cysteine 145 via a ring-opening metathesis reaction mechanism. To understand this covalent-binding reaction, we chose compound 6a, one of the identified hit compounds, as a representative to investigate the reaction mechanism in detail by combing several computational predictions and experimental validation. The process of ring-opening metathesis was theoretically studied using quantum chemistry calculations according to the transition state theory. Our study revealed that the 2,3,5-substituted [1,2,4]-thiadiazole group could covalently modify the catalytic cysteine in the binding pocket of 3CLpro as a potential warhead. Moreover, 6a was a known GPCR modulator, and our study is also a successful computational method-based drug-repurposing study.

3.
Nonlinear Dyn ; 110(3): 2931-2947, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2128976

ABSTRACT

Supply chain viability concerns the entire supply system rather than one company or one single chain to survive COVID-19 disruptions. Mobility restriction and overall demand decline lead to systematically cascading disruptions that are more severe and longer lasting than those caused by natural disasters and political conflicts. In the present study, the authors find that large companies and manufacturers with traditional advantages suffer greater losses than small ones, which is conceptualized as the "Hub Paradox" by empirically investigating one Warp Knitting Industrial Zone of China. An underload cascading failure model is employed to simulate supply chain viability under disruptions. Numerical simulations demonstrate that when the load decreases beyond a threshold, the viability will drop down critically. Besides, supply chain viability depends on two aspects: the adaptive capability of the manufacturers themselves and the adaptive capability of the connections of the supply network. The comparison study demonstrates that enhancing cooperative relations between hub and non-hub manufacturers will facilitate the entire supply network viability. The present study sheds light on viable supply chain management. Compared with conventionally linear or resilient supply chains, intertwined supply networks can leverage viability with higher adaptation of redistributing production capacities among manufacturers to re-establish overall scale advantages. Finally, the present study also suggests solving the "Hub Paradox" from the perspective of complex adaptive system. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11071-022-07741-8.

4.
Health Econ ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115703

ABSTRACT

We investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related policy responses on non-COVID-19 healthcare utilization (i.e., different types of outpatient care) up to October 2020 in China. Using an administrative database from a large prefecture-level city, we find that both direct exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic and the strict containment policy responses led to reductions in outpatient care utilization. The largest decline during the lockdown was observed in preventive care visits, which nevertheless recovered to pre-pandemic levels 2 months after the lockdown. The disruptions in prenatal care visits could not be offset by the recovery later on. Chronic care and emergency department visits had not returned to pre-pandemic levels as of October 2020, which may be driven by extended days' supply of prescription medication, increased use of telemedicine, and improved health-protective behaviors. In the reopening period, there were increases in visits for mental and sleep disorders, especially among children, and for medical abortion. Among health facilities at all levels, primary care facilities saw the least reductions in total outpatient visits. Our results emphasize the need for strategies to ensure access to urgent or essential care services when managing the current epidemiologic transition and future crises.

5.
Front Psychol ; 13: 1044011, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109849

ABSTRACT

The entrepreneurial firms may be more vulnerable to the COVID-19 pandemic, and the entrepreneurs of entrepreneurial firms are also threatened by the revenues decline and business failure, which vehemently affect their well-being. The mental health of the entrepreneur decides whether the entrepreneurial firms can make the right decision, which is related to the healthy development of the entrepreneurial firms. Based on the event system theory and the cognitive appraisal theory, this paper aims to explore the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on the entrepreneur anxiety, and the threat perception and performance pressure are introduced to investigate the mediating mechanism and boundary of this effect. Using the simple random sampling to obtain questionnaire survey data, 168 entrepreneurs of entrepreneurial firms have participated in the empirical study, and the research results are as follows. First, the COVID-19 pandemic significantly positively affects entrepreneur anxiety. Second, the entrepreneur threat perception plays a mediating role between the COVID-19 pandemic and the entrepreneur anxiety, which means the COVID-19 pandemic can enhance the external threat perception of entrepreneurs, and then affect the entrepreneur anxiety. Third, the positive effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the entrepreneur anxiety is strengthened by the entrepreneur performance pressure, while the positive effect of entrepreneur threat perception on entrepreneur anxiety is weakened by the entrepreneur performance pressure. The above findings are helpful to explore the mechanism of the COVID-19 pandemic and other critical crisis events on entrepreneurs' mental health from the new perspective of cognitive appraisal theory and event system theory, filling the research gaps between the COVID-19 pandemic and entrepreneur anxiety. Besides, this study broadens the applied range of the cognitive appraisal theory and the event system theory in the fields of crisis situations and entrepreneur research, and enriches the research outputs. Furthermore, this study will help provide a new theoretical analysis insight for the related research on how the COVID-19 pandemic affects entrepreneurs' psychology, and further deepen researchers to understand the mechanism of entrepreneur anxiety under the COVID-19 pandemic, providing theoretical inspirations for reducing entrepreneur anxiety. What's more, this study finds that individual pressure can affect their cognitive appraisal, which means that future research should take the pressure influential mechanism into consideration in the process of exploring "external stimulus--cognitive appraisal--emotional response," further expanding the theoretical model of cognitive appraisal proposed from the perspective of pressure.

6.
Antiviral Res ; 208: 105450, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085916

ABSTRACT

FB2001 is a drug candidate that targets the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 via covalently binding to cysteine 145. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory activities of FB2001 against several SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro and in vivo (in mice), and we also evaluated the histopathological analysis and immunostaining of FB2001 on lung and brain which have been rarely reported. The results showed that FB2001 exhibited potent antiviral efficacy against several current SARS-CoV-2 variants in Vero E6 cells, namely, B.1.1.7 (Alpha): EC50 = 0.39 ± 0.01 µM, EC90 = 0.75 ± 0.01 µM; B.1.351 (Beta): EC50 = 0.28 ± 0.11 µM, EC90 = 0.57 ± 0.21 µM; B.1.617.2 (Delta): EC50 = 0.27 ± 0.05 µM, EC90 = 0.81 ± 0.20 µM; B.1.1.529 (Omicron): EC50 = 0.26 ± 0.06 µM and EC50 = 0.042 ± 0.007 µM (in the presence of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor). FB2001 remained potent against SARS-CoV-2 replication in the presence of high concentrations of human serum, which indicating that human serum had no significant effect on the in vitro inhibitory activity. Additionally, this inhibitor exhibited an additive effect against SARS-CoV-2 when combined with Remdesivir. Furthermore, FB2001 significantly reduced the SARS-CoV-2 copy numbers and titers in the lungs and brains in vivo, and alleviated the pathological symptoms. In addition, FB2001 could alleviated local bleeding, erythrocyte overflow, edema, and inflammatory cell infiltration in brain tissue, and inhibitors reducing viral titers and improving inflammation in the brain have been rarely reported. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was established and verified to predict the FB2001 concentration in human lungs. When FB2001 was administered at 200 mg twice a day for 5 days, the observed Ctrough ss in plasma and predicted Ctrough ss of lung total concentration were 0.163 and 2.5 µg/mL, which were approximately 9 and 132-fold higher than the EC50 of 0.019 µg/mL (0.042 µM) against Omicron variant. Taken together, our study suggests that FB2001 is a promising therapeutic agent in COVID-19 treatment and can be combined with remdesivir to achieve improved clinical outcomes. Owing to its good safety and tolerability in healthy human (NCT05197179 and NCT04766931), FB2001 has been approved for Phase II/III clinical trial (NCT05445934).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Potato research. ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073958

ABSTRACT

  Potatoes play an important role in ensuring food security. During the COVID-19 epidemic, consumption of processed potato products decreased, and consumption of fresh potatoes increased. China is the world’s largest potato producer with more than 4.81 million hectares of area under potato production and 90.32 million metric tonnes of potatoes produced in 2018. This accounts for 27.36% of the world’s planting area and 24.53% of the world’s potato production. The proportion of potatoes processed in China was about 12% in 2017, mostly dominated by starch production. However, the recent policy of the Chinese government to popularise potato as a staple food has created new markets for processed potato products other than starch. A very few reports have analysed these future trends of the rapidly growing Chinese potato processing industry and its impact within and outside China. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments with a focus on processed potato products such as potato chips, French fries and dehydrated potatoes, and also, due to the unique Chinese diet culture, it highlights the need for more scientific research dedicated towards the development of novel potato-based healthy foods.

8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049056

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children indicates that viruses can trigger a Kawasaki disease (KD)-like hyperinflammation. A plausible hypothesis was that coronavirus-specific 'holes' in humoral immunity could cause both diseases. METHODS: To determine whether SARS-CoV-2-naïve patients with KD have inferior humoral immunity for the novel coronavirus, sera of children with KD and control children from year 2015 to 2021 were subjected to ELISA, microwestern, and neutralization assays to evaluate the capabilities in recognizing the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, spotting spike proteins of three respiratory syndromic coronaviruses, and blocking SARS-CoV-2 from binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors in vitro, respectively. RESULTS: 29 patients with KD before 2019, 74 patients with KD in 2019 or 2020, 54 non-febrile controls, and 24 febrile controls were included in the study. SARS-CoV-2 was recognized on ELISA for both patients with KD in 2016 and those with KD in 2020. Microwestern demonstrated cross-reactive IgG in an all-or-none manner towards three spike proteins of syndromic coronaviruses regardless of sample year or KD status. The ratio between the sera that recognized all spike proteins and those that recognized none (51 vs. 47) was significantly higher from patients with KD than from non-febrile controls (17 vs. 32; p 0.047) but not from febrile controls (13 vs. 11; p 0.85). Most positive sera (12 of 17 controls, 5 of 8 patients with KD before 2019, and 28 of 33 patients with KD in 2019 or 2020) offered protection comparable to low-titre sera from the WHO reference panel. DISCUSSION: Humoral immunity of SARS-CoV-2-naïve children with KD was not inferior to that of controls in offering cross-protection against the novel coronavirus.

9.
J Craniofac Surg ; 33(5): 1300-1302, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To report 2 successfully managed cases of graft rejection with acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS) transplantation in patients with fungal corneal ulcer. Two patients were diagnosed with fungal corneal ulcer and received APCS transplantation. Graft rejection developed due to the lost follow-up during the period of coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. Amniotic membranes transplantation and cauterization of neovascularization was performed, respectively. The graft failure resolved successfully after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, amniotic membranes transplantation and cauterization of new vessels are the firstly reported in treating APCS graft failure. Amniotic membranes transplantation or cauterization of neovascularization appear to be a safe and costeffective method for treating graft failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Transplantation , Corneal Ulcer , Animals , Corneal Stroma/transplantation , Corneal Transplantation/methods , Graft Rejection , Pandemics , Swine
10.
Nonlinear Dynamics ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999028

ABSTRACT

Supply chain viability concerns the entire supply system rather than one company or one single chain to survive COVID-19 disruptions. Mobility restriction and overall demand decline lead to systematically cascading disruptions that are more severe and longer lasting than those caused by natural disasters and political conflicts. In the present study, the authors find that large companies and manufacturers with traditional advantages suffer greater losses than small ones, which is conceptualized as the “Hub Paradox” by empirically investigating one Warp Knitting Industrial Zone of China. An underload cascading failure model is employed to simulate supply chain viability under disruptions. Numerical simulations demonstrate that when the load decreases beyond a threshold, the viability will drop down critically. Besides, supply chain viability depends on two aspects: the adaptive capability of the manufacturers themselves and the adaptive capability of the connections of the supply network. The comparison study demonstrates that enhancing cooperative relations between hub and non-hub manufacturers will facilitate the entire supply network viability. The present study sheds light on viable supply chain management. Compared with conventionally linear or resilient supply chains, intertwined supply networks can leverage viability with higher adaptation of redistributing production capacities among manufacturers to re-establish overall scale advantages. Finally, the present study also suggests solving the “Hub Paradox” from the perspective of complex adaptive system. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11071-022-07741-8.

11.
Sustainability ; 14(15):9088, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1994157

ABSTRACT

This study examines the spatial and temporal impacts of climate change on grain production in China. This is achieved by establishing a spatial error model consisting of four indicators: the climate, air pollution, economic behavior, and agricultural technology, covering 31 provinces in China from 2004 to 2020. These indicators are used to validate the spatial impacts of climate change on grain production. Air pollution data are used as instrumental variables to address the causality between climate and grain production. The regression results show that: First, climatic variables all have a non-linear “increasing then decreasing” effect on food production. Second, SO2, PM10, and PM2.5 have a negative impact on grain production. Based on the model, changes in the climatic production potential of grain crops can be calculated, and the future spatial layout of climate production can also be predicted by using random forests. Studies have shown that the median value of China’s grain production potential is decreasing, and the low value is increasing.

12.
ssrn; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.4176720

Subject(s)
COVID-19
13.
The Journal of craniofacial surgery ; 33(5):1300-1302, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939919

ABSTRACT

: To report 2 successfully managed cases of graft rejection with acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS) transplantation in patients with fungal corneal ulcer. Two patients were diagnosed with fungal corneal ulcer and received APCS transplantation. Graft rejection developed due to the lost follow-up during the period of coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak. Amniotic membranes transplantation and cauterization of neovascularization was performed, respectively. The graft failure resolved successfully after the procedure. To the best of our knowledge, amniotic membranes transplantation and cauterization of new vessels are the firstly reported in treating APCS graft failure. Amniotic membranes transplantation or cauterization of neovascularization appear to be a safe and costeffective method for treating graft failure.

14.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-7, 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937575

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) made a huge impact on hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to survey the anxiety, depression and related factors of HD patients during the lockdown and to explore the factors that affect their anxiety and depression. From February 1 to 15, 2020, an online survey was conducted in HD patients; the survey collected information on demographic data, epidemic perception, travel status and Zung's Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Zung's Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). The original SAS and SDS data from 96 HD patients gathered between May and August 2018 were retained as data for the control group. A total of 506 HD patients were recruited, and the prevalence of anxiety and depression was 22.33% and 45.45%, respectively. They had significantly higher SAS and SDS scores than the HD patients before the epidemic (p < 0.01; p < 0.05). It was found that self-threat perception, trouble related to transportation and skipping dialysis sessions were factors related to anxiety in HD patients during the lockdown (p ˂ 0.05). Education level, trouble related to transportation and the awareness of the seriousness of the epidemic were factors related to depression (p ˂ 0.05). During the COVID-19 lockdown period, HD patients reported higher levels of psychological distress than HD patients before the pandemic. Psychological support and transport policies should be provided to them.

15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 798343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928422

ABSTRACT

Background: Four-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) exerts a central role in the pathophysiological process of pulmonary diseases. The aim of this project was to evaluate the correlations between serum 4-HNE with severity and prognosis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) by a prospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: A total of 239 patients with CAP and healthy volunteers were recruited. Fasting blood was collected. Serum 4-HNE was measured with ELISA. Clinical characteristics and demographic information were obtained. The relationships between serum 4-HNE and clinical characteristics were evaluated through the Spearman or Pearson correlation coefficient. The associations of serum 4-HNE with severity and prognosis were estimated through logistic regression analysis. Results: On admission, serum 4-HNE was upregulated in patients with CAP compared with healthy volunteers. Serum 4-HNE was gradually increased in line with CAP scores. Additionally, elderly patients with CAP were more prone to suffer from 4-HNE elevation. Moreover, serum 4-HNE was positively correlated with CAP severity scores. Meanwhile, the poor prognostic outcomes were tracked among patients with CAP. Higher serum 4-HNE on admission increased the risks of mechanical ventilation, vasoactive agent usage, and death in patients with CAP during hospitalization. The predictive powers for severity and death were increased in serum 4-HNE compared with CAP severity scores and inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: Serum 4-HNE on admission is positively correlated with the severity and poor prognosis among patients with CAP, indicating that 4-HNE participates in the pathophysiology of CAP. Serum 4-HNE may be used as an earlier biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in patients with CAP.

16.
Integrative Medicine in Nephrology and Andrology ; 8(1):1-8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871777

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) increase the risk of serious disease and mortality in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. This study evaluated the occurrence and outcome of AKI in CKD and non-CKD patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Subjects and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 845 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection regarding the occurrence and outcome of AKI in a coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-designated hospital in Wuhan, China, from December 31, 2019, to March 20, 2020. Results: Of the 845 COVID-19 patients, 91 had CKD and 754 had no CKD (non-CKD), of whom 22 and 14 developed AKI, respectively. Finally, 36 patients were included in the analysis. Older patients and those with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases were more likely to develop AKI. More CKD patients progressed to critical illness (72.73%) than non-CKD patients (57.14%), but the degree of AKI in CKD patients was lesser than that in non-CKD patients. Higher urea nitrogen, creatinine, and proteinuria levels were observed in CKD patients. More non-CKD patients were treated with human albumin than CKD patients. The survival probability of CKD patients was lower than that of non-CKD patients, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: There were significant differences in the incidence rate of AKI after SARS-CoV-2 infection between CKD and non-CKD patients, and the clinical manifestations and treatments of AKI also differed. These results highlight the necessity of variable treatment methods for optimal clinical management.

17.
Anal Chem ; 94(22): 8041-8049, 2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864719

ABSTRACT

It is intriguing to modulate the fluorescence emission of DNA-scaffolded silver nanoclusters (AgNCs) via confined strand displacement and transient concatenate ligation for amplifiable biosensing of a DNA segment related to SARS-CoV-2 (s2DNA). Herein, three stem-loop structural hairpins for signaling, recognizing, and assisting are designed to assemble a variant three-way DNA device (3WDD) with the aid of two linkers, in which orange-emitting AgNC (oAgNC) is stably clustered and populated in the closed loop of a hairpin reporter. The presence of s2DNA initiates the toehold-mediated strand displacement that is confined in this 3WDD for repeatable recycling amplification, outputting numerous hybrid DNA-duplex conformers that are implemented for a transient "head-tail-head" tandem ligation one by one. As a result, the oAgNC-hosted hairpin loops are quickly opened in loose coil motifs, bringing a significant fluorescence decay of multiple clusters dependent on s2DNA. Demonstrations and understanding of the tunable spectral performance of a hairpin loop-wrapped AgNC via switching 3WDD conformation would be highly beneficial to open a new avenue for applicable biosensing, bioanalysis, or clinical diagnostics.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , DNA/chemistry , DNA/genetics , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver/chemistry , Spectrometry, Fluorescence
18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 809033, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in an endothelial dysfunction in acute phase. However, information on the late vascular consequences of COVID-19 is limited. METHODS: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) examination were performed, and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed in 86 survivors of COVID-19 for 327 days (IQR 318-337 days) after recovery. Comparisons were made with 28 age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and 30 risk factor-matched patients. RESULTS: Brachial artery FMD was significantly lower in the survivors of COVID-19 than in the healthy controls and risk factor-matched controls [median (IQR) 7.7 (5.1-10.7)% for healthy controls, 6.9 (5.5-9.4)% for risk factor-matched controls, and 3.5(2.2-4.6)% for COVID-19, respectively, p < 0.001]. The FMD was lower in 25 patients with elevated tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [2.7(1.2-3.9)] than in 61 patients without elevated TNF-α [3.8(2.6-5.3), p = 0.012]. Furthermore, FMD was inversely correlated with serum concentration of TNF-α (r = -0.237, p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: Survivors of COVID-19 have a reduced brachial artery FMD, which is inversely correlated with increased serum concentration of TNF-α. Prospective studies on the association of endothelial dysfunction with long-term cardiovascular outcomes, especially the early onset of atherosclerosis, are warranted in survivors of COVID-19.

19.
Science China. Technological sciences ; : 1-11, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786705

ABSTRACT

Vaccines can improve the quality of human life by preventing the burden of infectious diseases. Also, vaccination is becoming a powerful medication for preventing and treating tumors. Various vaccines have been developed based on the origin of the antigens. Herein, we focus on the subunit vaccines whose antigens are proteins or peptides. The advantage of subunit vaccines is safety for recipients;however, the immunogenicity of subunit antigens is relatively low. Nanoparticular delivery systems have been applied to improve the immunocompetence of subunit vaccines by targeting lymph nodes, and effectively present antigens to immune cells. Moreover, adding appropriate molecular adjuvants may strengthen the antigens to elicit immune response. In this perspective article, we first elucidate the characteristics of immunity induced by subunit nanovaccines and then summarize the strategies to fabricate subunit nanovaccines with delivering materials. Herein we highlight non-covalent interaction to fabricate nanoparticular subunit vaccines.

20.
RSC advances ; 11(24):14737-14745, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787516

ABSTRACT

The RBD (receptor binding domain) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S (spike) protein mediates viral cell attachment and serves as a promising target for therapeutics development. Mutations on the S-RBD may alter its affinity to the cell receptor and affect the potency of vaccines and antibodies. Here we used an in silico approach to predict how mutations on RBD affect its binding affinity to hACE2 (human angiotensin-converting enzyme2). The effect of all single point mutations on the interface was predicted. SPR assay results show that 6 out of 9 selected mutations can strengthen binding affinity. Our prediction has reasonable agreement with the previous deep mutational scan results and recently reported mutants. Our work demonstrated the in silico method as a powerful tool to forecast more powerful virus mutants, which will significantly benefit the development of broadly neutralizing vaccine and antibody. The RBD (receptor binding domain) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus S (spike) protein mediates viral cell attachment and serves as a promising target for therapeutics development.

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