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1.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics ; : 113974, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1611633

ABSTRACT

Rapid and reliable detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody can provide immunological evidence in addition to nucleic acid test for the early diagnosis and on-site screening of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). All-solid-state biosensor capable of rapid, quantitative SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing is still lacking. Herein, we propose an electronic labelling strategy of protein molecules and demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 protein biosensor employing colloidal quantum dots (CQDs)-modified electrode. The feature current peak corresponding to the specific binding reaction of SARS-CoV-2 antigen and antibody proteins was observed for the first time. The unique charging and discharging effect depending on the alternating voltage applied was ascribed to the quantum confinement, Coulomb blockade and quantum tunneling effects of quantum dots. CQDs-modified electrode could recognize the specific binding reaction between antigen and antibody and then transduce it into significant electrical current. In the case of serum specimens from COVID-19 patient samples, the all-solid-state protein biosensor provides quantitative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antibody with correlation coefficient of 93.8% compared to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) results. It discriminates patient and normal samples with accuracy of about 90%. The results could be read within 1 min by handheld testing system prototype. The sensitive and specific protein biosensor combines the advantages of rapidity, accuracy, and convenience, facilitating the implement of low-cost, high-throughput immunological diagnostic technique for clinical lab, point-of-care testing (POCT) as well as home-use test.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(47): e27950, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604259

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, convenient accessibility and rapid publication of studies related to the ongoing pandemic prompted shorter preparation time for studies. Whether the methodological quality and reporting characteristics of published systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses are affected during the specific pandemic condition is yet to be clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology, methodological quality, and reporting characteristics of published SRs/meta-analyses related to COVID-19.The Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science electronic databases were searched to identify published SRs/meta-analyses related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Study screening, data extraction, and methodology quality assessment were performed independently by 2 authors. The methodology quality of included SRs/meta-analyses was evaluated using revised version of a measurement tool to assess SRs, and the reporting characteristics were assessed based on the preferred reporting items for SRs and meta-analyses guidelines.A total of 47 SRs/meta-analyses were included with a low to critically low methodological quality. The median number of days from the date of literature retrieval to the date that the study was first available online was 21 days; due to the limited time, only 7 studies had study protocols, and the studies focused on a wide range of COVID-19 topics. The rate of compliance to the preferred reporting items for SRs and meta-analyses checklists of reporting characteristics ranged from 14.9% to 100%. The rate of compliance to the items of protocol and registration, detailed search strategy, and assessment of publication bias was less than 50%.SRs/meta-analyses on COVID-19 were poorly conducted and reported, and thus, need to be substantially improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Periodicals as Topic/standards , Publishing/standards , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Quality Control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 743409, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560706

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had an adverse impact on the mental health of the general population. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of health anxiety (HA) in the general Chinese population to inform psychological interventions in COVID-19-affected areas. Methods: We conducted an online survey of the general population in mainland China between 6 and 17 February 2020 (N = 1,450, 69.79% female; mean age = 37.5 ± 9.1 years). The Whiteley Index-7 (WI-7), COVID-19 knowledge quiz (CKQ), Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), and socio-demographic information were surveyed using the Questionnaire-Star program. Results: The prevalence of HA, depression and anxiety were 47.3, 31.3, and 35.7%, respectively. The WI-7 score showed a significant association with age, education level, income, occupation, chronic disease and daily time focused on COVID-19. On binary logistic regression analysis, individuals with masters or higher qualification degree [odds ratio (OR) = 0.632)], older age (OR = 0.981), 2-4 h daily time focused on COVID-19 (OR = 0.684), healthcare workers (OR = 0.749, p = 0.046) and those with more COVID-19 related knowledge (OR = 0.785) showed a significantly negative association with HA. Chronic disease (OR = 1.962), depression (OR = 1.05) and anxiety (OR = 1.228) were significant risk factors for HA. Conclusions: HA was highly prevalent among the general population during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. More than two-fifths of the respondents had obvious HA. Chronic disease, depression and anxiety were risk factors for HA; psychological interventions offered during the pandemic should pay particular attention to these individuals.

4.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294445

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) issued a significant and urgent threat to global health. The exact animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains obscure and understanding its host range is vital for preventing interspecies transmission. Previously, we have assessed the target cell profiles of SARS-CoV-2 in pets, livestock, poultry and wild animals. Herein, we expand this investigation to a wider range of animal species and viruses to provide a comprehensive source for large-scale screening of potential virus hosts. Single cell atlas for several mammalian species (alpaca, hamster, hedgehog, chinchilla etc.), as well as comparative atlas for lung, brain and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for various lineages of animals were constructed, from which we systemically analyzed the virus entry factors for 113 viruses over 20 species from mammalians, birds, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates. Conserved cellular connectomes and regulomes were also identified, revealing the fundamental cell-cell and gene-gene cross-talks between these species. Overall, our study could help identify the potential host range and tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2 and a diverse set of viruses and reveal the host-virus co-evolution footprints.

5.
Medicine ; 100(47), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1543371

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, convenient accessibility and rapid publication of studies related to the ongoing pandemic prompted shorter preparation time for studies. Whether the methodological quality and reporting characteristics of published systematic reviews (SRs)/meta-analyses are affected during the specific pandemic condition is yet to be clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology, methodological quality, and reporting characteristics of published SRs/meta-analyses related to COVID-19. The Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science electronic databases were searched to identify published SRs/meta-analyses related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Study screening, data extraction, and methodology quality assessment were performed independently by 2 authors. The methodology quality of included SRs/meta-analyses was evaluated using revised version of a measurement tool to assess SRs, and the reporting characteristics were assessed based on the preferred reporting items for SRs and meta-analyses guidelines. A total of 47 SRs/meta-analyses were included with a low to critically low methodological quality. The median number of days from the date of literature retrieval to the date that the study was first available online was 21 days;due to the limited time, only 7 studies had study protocols, and the studies focused on a wide range of COVID-19 topics. The rate of compliance to the preferred reporting items for SRs and meta-analyses checklists of reporting characteristics ranged from 14.9% to 100%. The rate of compliance to the items of protocol and registration, detailed search strategy, and assessment of publication bias was less than 50%. SRs/meta-analyses on COVID-19 were poorly conducted and reported, and thus, need to be substantially improved.

6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 572, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed significant threats to both the physical and psychological health of healthcare workers working in the front-line combating COVID-19. However, studies regarding the medium to long term impact of COVID-19 on mental health among healthcare workers are limited. Therefore, we conducted this cross-sectional survey to investigate the prevalence, factors and impact of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 8 months after the end of the outbreak in Wuhan, China. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was delivered as a link via the communication application WeChat to those healthcare workers who worked at several COVID-19 units during the outbreak (from December 2019 to April 2020) in Wuhan, China. The questionnaire included questions on social-demographic data, the post-traumatic stress disorder checklist-5 (PCL-5), the family care index questionnaire (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve, APGAR), and the quality-of-life scale (QOL). The prevalence, risk and protective factors, and impact of PTSD on healthcare workers were subsequently analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 659 participants, 90 healthcare workers were still suffering from PTSD 8 months after the end of the outbreak of COVID-19 in Wuhan, in which avoidance and negative impact were the most affected dimensions. Suffering from chronic disease, experiencing social isolation, and job dissatisfaction came up as independent risk factors for PTSD, while obtaining COVID-19 related information at an appropriate frequency, good family function, and working in well-prepared mobile cabin hospitals served as protective factors. The impact of PTSD on COVID-19 exposed healthcare workers was apparent by shortened sleeping time, feeling of loneliness, poorer quality of life and intention to resign. CONCLUSIONS: Eight months after the end of the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, the level of PTSD in healthcare workers exposed to COVID-19 was still high. Apart from the commonly recognized risk factors, comorbid chronic disease was identified as a new independent risk factor for developing PTSD. For countries where the pandemic is still ongoing or in case of future outbreaks of new communicable diseases, this study may contribute to preventing cases of PTSD in healthcare workers exposed to infectious diseases under such circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
7.
Clin Lab ; 67(11)2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513104

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 has seriously threatened people. In this study, we detected the expression of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM and respiratory tract SARS-CoV-2 RNA in patients with COVID-19 and explored the correlation and clinical significance between SARS-CoV-2 antibody and respiratory SARS-CoV-2 RNA. METHODS: From March 5, 2020 to April 28, 2020, 48 cases with COVID-19 diagnosed in Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital were enrolled. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were detected by real-time fluorescence RT-PCR method. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were determined by colloidal gold immunochromatography. The statistical analysis was performed using chi-squared test. RESULTS: In all the patients, SARS-CoV-2 RNA among 270 upper respiratory tract (nasal or throat swabs) samples, 71 lower respiratory tract (sputum) samples, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG antibodies in 123 serum samples were detected during the hospitalization period. The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM within the first week after symptom onset (p < 0.05). The positive rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was also significantly higher than that of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM during day 8 - 30 after symptom onset (p < 0.01). The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the lower respiratory tract specimens (64.8%, 46/71) was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract (46.7%, 126/270) (p < 0.05). The positive rate (100%, 4/4) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (59.3%, 32/54) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). The positive rate (72.2%, 57/79) of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the upper respiratory tract specimens before IgG seroconversion was significantly higher than that of the positive rate (30.7%, 39/127) after IgG seroconversion (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG might be detected within the first week after symptom onset. The application of SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG/IgM) detection is important for the suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with negative SARS-CoV-2 RNA results. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the lower respiratory tract specimens was significantly higher than that in the upper respiratory tract. Sputum detection is recommended for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Using lower respiratory tract specimens may reduce the false negative PCR tests. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be improved by investigating follow-up specimens over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory System , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, our focus was on pulmonary sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to develop and validate CT-based radiomic models for predicting the presence of residual lung lesions in COVID-19 survivors at three months after discharge. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 162 COVID-19 confirmed patients in our hospital (84 patients with residual lung lesions and 78 patients without residual lung lesions, at three months after discharge). The patients were all randomly allocated to a training set (n = 114) or a test set (n = 48). Radiomic features were extracted from chest CT images in different regions (entire lung or lesion) and at different time points (at hospital admission or at discharge) to build different models, sequentially, or in combination, as follows: (1) Lesion_A model (based on the lesion region at admission CT); (2) Lesion_D model (based on the lesion region at discharge CT); (3) Δlesion model (based on the lesion region at admission CT and discharge CT); (4) Lung_A model (based on the lung region at admission CT); (5) Lung_D model (based on the lung region at discharge CT); (6) Δlung model (based on the lung region at admission CT and discharge CT). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were used to evaluate the predictive performances of the radiomic models. RESULTS: Among the six models, the Lesion_D and the Δlesion models achieved better predictive efficacy, with AUCs of 0.907 and 0.927, sensitivity of 0.898 and 0.763, and specificity of 0.855 and 0.964 in the training set, and AUCs of 0.875 and 0.837, sensitivity of 0.920 and 0.680, and specificity of 0.826 and 0.913 in the test set, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The CT-based radiomic models showed good predictive effects on the presence of residual lung lesions in COVID-19 survivors at three months after discharge, which may help doctors to plan follow-up work and to reduce the psychological burden of COVID-19 survivors.

9.
Comput Human Behav ; 126: 107019, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415268

ABSTRACT

Effectively engaging citizens during crises is critical for governments to disseminate timely information and help the public to adjust to the constantly changing conditions. In particular, promoting youth engagement not only enhances crisis awareness and resilience among the young generation, but also has a positive impact on youths' social participation and responsibility. With the increasing popularity of online video services, leveraging online videos to disseminate authoritative information has become a method widely adopted by government. To enhance youth awareness and engagement, two new video-based crisis communication strategies have been utilized on a popular youth-targeted video platform Bilibili in China: creating recreational videos such as animation and music videos, and collaborating with individual video-uploaders in video making. However, their impacts and results are largely unknown, which motivates our study. Guided by Entertainment Education (EE) and Collaborative Governance (CG), we report, to our best knowledge, the first systematic study on how recreational video category and government-citizen collaboration would influence youth engagement focusing on 3347 COVID-19-related government-generated videos on Bilibili. This study reveals that recreational videos successfully promote youth engagement including interaction, feedback and sharing. Collaboration with individual uploaders in video making also has a substantially positive impact on youth engagement. Through an in-depth qualitative content analysis of user-generated commentaries, we further unpacked the unique values (e.g., trust work for youth participation) as well as latent limitations (e.g., imbalanced topic distribution) of the two new strategies. We discuss how the findings enrich EE and CG theoretically, and provide practical implications to effective and engaging communication strategies during crises.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(7): 4123-4133, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392749

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading throughout the world. Aerosol is a potential transmission route. We conducted the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to evaluate the aerosol transmission risk by using the South China Seafood Market as an example. The key processes were integrated, including viral shedding, dispersion, deposition in air, biologic decay, lung deposition, and the infection risk based on the dose-response model. The available hospital bed for COVID-19 treatment per capita (1.17 × 10-3) in Wuhan was adopted as a reference for manageable risk. The median risk of a customer to acquire SARS-CoV-2 infection via the aerosol route after 1 h of exposure in the market with one infected shopkeeper was about 2.23 × 10-5 (95% confidence interval: 1.90 × 10-6 to 2.34 × 10-4). The upper bound could increase and become close to the manageable risk with multiple infected shopkeepers. More detailed risk assessment should be conducted in poorly ventilated markets with multiple infected cases. The uncertainties were mainly due to the limited information on the dose-response relation and the viral shedding which need further studies. The risk rapidly decreased outside the market due to the dilution by ambient air and became below 10-6 at 5 m away from the exit.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , COVID-19/drug therapy , China/epidemiology , Humans , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Seafood
11.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):38-38, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1339061

ABSTRACT

Background:The prevalence of deep vein thrombosis in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is higher and is associated with adverse outcomes. However, the treatment options received by patients with different classifications are different, and previous studies have not discussed the differences in specific coagulation parameters between patients with mild, severe, and critically ill COVID-19.Aim:To investigate the change in coagulation function and the incidence of low limb venous thromboembolic events in mild/severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19.Methods:A retrospective analysis of coagulation parameters and lower extremity venous ultrasound examination results in 77 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to the first affiliated hospital of Harbin Medical University. We discussed the occurrence of vascular complications in patients with normal, severe and critically ill patients Rate and explore the nature of such vascular events. The anticoagulation dose was left to the discretion of the treating physician based on the individual risk of thrombosis and patients were classified as treated with prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation. Approval was obtained from the local institutional review board and all procedures were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.Results:The incidence of low limb venous thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients included in the study was 28.6% (22/77). A total of 22 cases with deep vein thrombosis, 13 of whom with multiple thrombosis events, and 9 cases with independent distal deep vein thrombosis. There were 0 cases, 8 cases (17.4%) and 14 cases (87.5%) of patients with deep vein thrombosis occurred in mild, severe and critically ill patients, respectively. There were 4 cases (50%) and 9 cases (64.29%) of severe and critically ill patients with multiple deep vein thrombosis events, respectively. There was no difference in age and gender between patients with lower extremity venous thrombosis and those without. The mortality rate of patients with thrombotic events has an upward trend;the mortality rate of patients with thrombosis is 18.18%, and the mortality rate of patients without thrombosis is 3.64%. Compared with mild patients, white blood cell counts, neutrophil percentage, fibrinogen, IL-6, IL-10 serum levels are higher in severe and critically ill patients. The patients whose ultrasonography reported thrombosis mostly showed a dynamic increase and/or a significant increase in D-dimer. The patients whose ultrasonography reported no thrombosis showed mildly elevated D-dimer or within the normal range.Conclusions:The development of massive venous thrombotic events, as observed in our study cohort, suggests the possibility of COVID-19 associated hypercoagulability and endothelial activation and/or dysfunction in affected individuals.Figure

12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 288, 2021 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333906

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a global threat to public health and economy. The continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants present a major challenge to the development of antiviral agents and vaccines. In this study, we identified that EK1 and cholesterol-coupled derivative of EK1, EK1C4, as pan-CoV fusion inhibitors, exhibit potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in both lung- and intestine-derived cell lines (Calu-3 and Caco2, respectively). They are also effective against infection of pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha) and B.1.1.248 (Gamma) as well as those with mutations in S protein, including N417T, E484K, N501Y, and D614G, which are common in South African and Brazilian variants. Crystal structure revealed that EK1 targets the HR1 domain in the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to block virus-cell fusion and provide mechanistic insights into its broad and effective antiviral activity. Nasal administration of EK1 peptides to hACE2 transgenic mice significantly reduced viral titers in lung and intestinal tissues. EK1 showed good safety profiles in various animal models, supporting further clinical development of EK1-based pan-CoV fusion inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Caco-2 Cells , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149085, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313422

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has generated a global health crisis that needs well management of not only patients but also environments to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The gold standard RT-qPCR method is sensitive and rapid to detect SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, but does not answer if PCR-positive samples contain infectious virions. To circumvent this problem, we report an SDS-propidium monoazide (PMA) assisted RT-qPCR method that enables rapid discrimination of live and dead SARS-CoV-2 within 3 h. PMA, a photo-reactive dye, can react with viral RNA released or inside inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virions under assistance of 0.005% SDS, but not viral RNA inside live virions. Formation of PMA-RNA conjugates prevents PCR amplification, leaving only infectious virions to be detected. Under optimum conditions, RT-qPCR detection of heat-inactivated SARS-CoV-2 resulted in larger than 9 Ct value differences between PMA-treated and PMA-free groups, while less than 0.5 Ct differences were observed in the detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 ranging from 20 to 5148 viral particles. Using a cutoff Ct difference of 8.6, this method could differentiate as low as 8 PFU live viruses in the mixtures of live and heat-inactivated virions. Further experiments showed that this method could successfully monitor the natural inactivation process of SARS-CoV-2 on plastic surfaces during storage with comparable results to the gold standard plaque assay. We believe that the culture-free method established here could be used for rapid and convenient determination of infectious SARS-CoV-2 virions in PCR-positive samples, which will facilitate better control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Azides , Humans , Pandemics , Propidium/analogs & derivatives , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 659809, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285273

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells through interactions with its receptor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), causing severe acute respiratory syndrome and death in a considerable proportion of people. Patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 experience digestive symptoms. However, the precise protein expression atlas of ACE2 in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the ACE2 protein expression pattern and the underlying function of ACE2 in the gastrointestinal tract, including the colon, stomach, liver, and pancreas. Methods: We measured the protein expression of ACE2 in the gastrointestinal tract using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with an ACE2-specific antibody of paraffin-embedded colon, stomach, liver, and pancreatic tissues. The correlation between the protein expression of ACE2 and the prognosis of patients with gastrointestinal cancers was analyzed by the log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test. The influence of ACE2 on colon, stomach, liver, and pancreatic tumor cell line proliferation was tested using a Cell Counting Kit 8 (CCK-8) assay. Results: ACE2 presented heterogeneous expression patterns in the gastrointestinal tract, and it showed a punctate distribution in hepatic cells. Compared to that in parallel adjacent non-tumor tissues, the protein expression of ACE2 was significantly increased in colon cancer, stomach cancer, and pancreatic cancer tissues but dramatically decreased in liver cancer tissues. However, the expression level of the ACE2 protein was not correlated with the survival of patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Consistently, ACE2 did not affect the proliferation of gastrointestinal cancer cells in vitro. Conclusion: The ACE2 protein is widely expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, and its expression is significantly altered in gastrointestinal tumor tissues. ACE2 is not an independent prognostic marker of gastrointestinal cancers.

15.
Microorganisms ; 8(7)2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244073

ABSTRACT

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that results from the selective destruction of insulin-producing ß-cells in the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanisms triggering the initiation and progression of the disease are, in their complexity, not fully understood and imply the disruption of several tolerance networks. Viral infection is one of the environmental factors triggering diabetes, which is initially based on the observation that the disease's incidence follows a periodic pattern within the population. Moreover, the strong correlation of genetic susceptibility is a prerequisite for enteroviral infection associated islet autoimmunity. Epidemiological data and clinical findings indicate enteroviral infections, mainly of the coxsackie B virus family, as potential pathogenic mechanisms to trigger the autoimmune reaction towards ß-cells, resulting in the boost of inflammation following ß-cell destruction and the onset of T1D. This review discusses previously identified virus-associated genetics and pathways of ß-cell destruction. Is it the virus itself which leads to ß-cell destruction and T1D progression? Or is it genetic, so that the virus may activate auto-immunity and ß-cell destruction only in genetically predisposed individuals?

16.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2021 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been an almost global pandemic with significant public health impacts. The increasing prevalence of malignancy has become a leading cause of human mortality. However, conflicting findings have been published on the association between malignancy and COVID-19 severity. This study aims to assess the pooled proportion of malignancy amongst 2019-nCov patients and to investigate the association between malignancy and COVID-19 severity. METHODS: Correlative studies were identi?ed by systematically searching electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Sciences and Embase) up to September 2, 2020. All data analyses were carried out using Stata 15.0. RESULTS: Twenty-nine studies consisting of 9475 confirmed COVID-19 patients (median age 54.4 years [IQR 49-62], 54.0% men) were included. The overall proportion of malignancy was 2.5% (95% CI 1.6%-3.4%). The proportion of malignancy was higher in patients with severe/critical 2019-nCoV than those in non-severe/non-critical group (3.9% [95% CI 2.0-6.3] vs 1.4% [95% CI 0.8-2.2]). Furthermore, pre-existing malignancy was associated with more than twofold higher risk of severe/critical patients with COVID-19 (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.65-3.06 I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION: Malignancy was associated with up to 2.3-fold higher risk of severe/critical COVID-19 and may serve as a clinical predictor for adverse outcomes.

17.
Results Phys ; 25: 104305, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230749

ABSTRACT

A mathematical model was developed to evaluate and compare the effects and intensity of the coronavirus disease 2019 prevention and control measures in Chinese provinces. The time course of the disease with government intervention was described using a dynamic model. The estimated government intervention parameters and area difference between with and without intervention were considered as the intervention intensity and effect, respectively. The model of the disease time course without government intervention predicted that by April 30, 2020, about 3.08% of the population would have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 in China. Guangdong Province averted the most cases. Comprehensive intervention measures, in which social distancing measures may have played a greater role than isolation measures, resulted in reduced infection cases. Shanghai had the highest intervention intensity. In the context of the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the prevention and control experience of some key areas in China (such as Shanghai and Guangdong) can provide references for outbreak control in many countries.

18.
Phys Med Biol ; 66(10)2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1180464

ABSTRACT

Personalized assessment and treatment of severe patients with COVID-19 pneumonia have greatly affected the prognosis and survival of these patients. This study aimed to develop the radiomics models as the potential biomarkers to estimate the overall survival (OS) for the COVID-19 severe patients. A total of 74 COVID-19 severe patients were enrolled in this study, and 30 of them died during the follow-up period. First, the clinical risk factors of the patients were analyzed. Then, two radiomics signatures were constructed based on two segmented volumes of interest of whole lung area and lesion area. Two combination models were built depend on whether the clinic risk factors were used and/or whether two radiomics signatures were combined. Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed for validating two radiomics signatures and C-index was used to evaluated the predictive performance of all radiomics signatures and combination models. Finally, a radiomics nomogram combining radiomics signatures with clinical risk factors was developed for predicting personalized OS, and then assessed with respect to the calibration curve. Three clinical risk factors were found, included age, malignancy and highest temperature that influence OS. Both two radiomics signatures could effectively stratify the risk of OS in COVID-19 severe patients. The predictive performance of the combination model with two radiomics signatures was better than that only one radiomics signature was used, and became better when three clinical risk factors were interpolated. Calibration curves showed good agreement in both 15 d survival and 30 d survival between the estimation with the constructed nomogram and actual observation. Both two constructed radiomics signatures can act as the potential biomarkers for risk stratification of OS in COVID-19 severe patients. The radiomics+clinical nomogram generated might serve as a potential tool to guide personalized treatment and care for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted/methods , Lung/pathology , Nomograms , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate
19.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 21, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171946

ABSTRACT

The origin and intermediate host for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is yet to be determined. Coronaviruses found to be closely related to SARS-CoV-2 include RaTG13 derived from bat and two clusters (PCoV-GD and PCoV-GX) of coronaviruses identified in pangolin. Here, we studied the infectivity and antigenicity patterns of SARS-CoV-2 and the three related coronaviruses. Compared with the other three viruses, RaTG13 showed almost no infectivity to a variety of cell lines. The two pangolin coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2 showed similar infectious activity. However, in SARS-CoV-2-susceptible cell lines, the pangolin coronaviruses presented even higher infectivity. The striking difference between the SARS-CoV-2 and pangolin coronaviruses is that the latter can infect porcine cells, which could be partially attributed to an amino acid difference at the position of 498 of the spike protein. The infection by SARS-CoV-2 was mainly mediated by Furin and TMPRSS2, while PCoV-GD and PCoV-GX mainly depend on Cathepsin L. Extensive cross-neutralization was found between SARS-CoV-2 and PCoV-GD. However, almost no cross-neutralization was observed between PCoV-GX and SARS-CoV-2 or PCoV-GD. More attention should be paid to pangolin coronaviruses and to investigate the possibility of these coronaviruses spreading across species to become zoonoses among pigs or humans.

20.
Eur Radiol ; 31(10): 7901-7912, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for timely predicting severe COVID-19 pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and sixteen COVID-19 patients (246 non-severe and 70 severe) were retrospectively collected from two institutions and allocated to training, validation, and testing cohorts. Radiomics features were extracted from chest CT images. Radiomics signature was constructed based on reproducible features using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) logistic regression algorithm with 5-fold cross-validation. Logistic regression modeling was employed to build different models based on quantitative CT features, radiomics signature, clinical factors, and/or the former combined features. Nomogram performance for severe COVID-19 prediction was assessed with respect to calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness. RESULTS: Sixteen selected features were used to build the radiomics signature. The CT-based radiomics model showed good calibration and discrimination in the training cohort (AUC, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.843-0.942), the validation cohort (AUC, 0.878; 95% CI, 0.796-0.958), and the testing cohort (AUC, 0.842; 95% CI, 0.761-0.922). The CT-based radiomics model showed better discrimination capability (all p < 0.05) compared with the clinical factors joint quantitative CT model (AUC, 0.781; 95% CI, 0.708-0.843) in the training cohort, the validation cohort (AUC, 0.814; 95% CI, 0.703-0.897), and the testing cohort (AUC, 0.696; 95% CI, 0.581-0.796). Decision curve analysis demonstrated that in terms of clinical usefulness, the radiomics model outperformed the clinical factors model and quantitative CT model alone. CONCLUSIONS: The CT-based radiomics signature shows favorable predictive efficacy for severe COVID-19, which might assist clinicians in tailoring precise therapy. KEY POINTS: • Radiomics can be applied in CT images of COVID-19 and radiomics signature was an independent predictor of severe COVID-19. • CT-based radiomics model can predict severe COVID-19 with satisfactory accuracy compared with subjective CT findings and clinical factors. • Radiomics nomogram integrated with the radiomics signature, subjective CT findings, and clinical factors can achieve better severity prediction with improved diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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