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1.
Gastroenterology ; 162(7):S-280-S-281, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1967270

ABSTRACT

Introduction Underrepresentation of minority groups, particularly Black patients, has been a major issue for most clinical trials. A commonly cited reason is mistrust amongst Black patients due to historical abuse. In a Historically Black College and University (HBCU) at a major metropolitan area with predominant Black patient population, we examined the patient participation rate in a clinical trial compared to other study sites with primarily White patient population. Methods In April 2021, a large prospective, multi-center clinical trial designed to validate a multiomics blood test for early detection of CRC (PREEMPTCRC) was initiated at a HBCU. To optimize study recruitment, culturally-sensitive methods were employed, including racially congruent recruitment staff, and synchronized timing of consent/study procedures with pre-endoscopy COVID testing and clinic visits. Information for all eligible participants screened for the study were recorded and evaluated for a 7- month period (April 1 - October 31, 2021). The enrollment numbers (defined as those consented to the study and had blood samples drawn) for the HBCU and across all other study sites were compared. Demographic and socio-economic data for patients who enrolled and not enrolled at the HBCU were collected to identify potential factors that affect participation. Results During the study period, the number of patients enrolled at the HBCU site (N=229) was significantly higher than the average number enrolled across the other 168 sites (N=90, p<0.0001). In fact, the HBCU site ranked at the top 11th percentile for patient enrollment across all study sites. The main difference between the HBCU site and other study site was race: participants at HBCU were 88.2% Black and 5.2% White, while at the other sites, the participants were 12.0% Black and 71.5% White (p< 0.0001). Comparison of demographic characteristics and socio-demographic data of the enrolled and not-enrolled subjects at the HBCU were similar (Table 1) and did not identify factors that affect participation in clinical trials. Discussion The enrollment of Black patients at a HBCU site was comparable to other study sites in a large prospective, multi-center study of a multiomics blood test for average-risk CRC screening. The findings of our study highlight the importance of providing access to Black patients to clinical trials to ensure adequate representation in research studies. (Table Presented) Table 1. Baseline Patient Demographic and Sociodemographic Information

2.
Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique ; 70:S183-S184, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1967059
3.
Lecture Notes on Data Engineering and Communications Technologies ; 144:254-265, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958905

ABSTRACT

Poverty eradication is the common ideal of mankind. Currently, as COVID-19 continues to rage around the world, the cause of poverty reduction faces greater challenges. Poverty reduction requires the involvement of multiple parties, and the challenging nature of it determines the complexity of participation in poverty reduction cooperation. In this paper, the link prediction method is used to calculate the path similarity in the network and use the Katz index to predict the connection possibility between unknown links in the poverty alleviation network. Take Sichuan Province as a case to analyze and put forward cooperation suggestions. The results show that in the entire network, all anti-poverty organizations recommend cooperation with one of the government departments, local schools, state-owned enterprises and high quality schools. Among them, government departments and local schools are the most recommended organizations. After the overall victory in the fight against poverty, the governance of relative poverty still requires continuous attention. Through our research, we hope to contribute to a better construction of a new poverty reduction system under the new poverty model. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

4.
International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology ; 14(3):138-160, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955704

ABSTRACT

Despite the introduction of vaccines and drugs for SARS-CoV-2, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread throughout the world. In severe COVID-19 patients, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines have been detected in the blood, lung cells, and bronchoalveolar lavage, which is referred to as a cytokine storm, a consequence of overactivation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and resultant excessive cytokine production. The hyperinflammatory response and cytokine storm cause multiorgan impairment including the central nervous system, in addition to a detriment to the respiratory system. Hyperactive NLRP3 inflammasome, due to dysregulated immune response, is the primary cause of COVID-19 severity. The severity could be enhanced due to viral evolution leading to the emergence of mutated variants of concern, such as delta and omicron. In this review, we elaborate on the inflammatory responses associated with the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in COVID-19 pathogenesis, the mechanisms for the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pathway involved, cytokine storm, and neurological complications as long-term consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Also discussed is the therapeutic potential of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors for the treatment of COVID-19.

5.
China Journal of Leprosy and Skin Diseases ; 38(8):499-502, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1954980

ABSTRACT

Background: Eight pm on April 13, 2022,a10:1 mixed test tube was found to be positive in the COVID-19 nucleic acid test site set up outside the hospital. In order to identify the infected case and control the spread of COVID-19 rapidly, we conducted this emergency investigation. Methods: According to the National COVID-19 Control and Prevention Protocol (8th edition), Guideline on Emergency Response to COVID-19 Case Found in Hospital in Shandong Province, and the Emergency Response Plan for COVID-19 in our hospital, information reporting, hospitalblockading, potential COVID- 19 cases tracing, close contact screening, environmental sampling and disinfecting, COVID-19 nucleic acid testing and risk assessment were carried out by our team. Results: A female COVID-19 case aged 50 years was identified. She is aodd-jobber who works in the labour market near the hospital. The virus strain was sequenced as Omicron BA.2. A total of 65 close contacts was controlled in a hotel. The COVID-19 nucleic acid test results for all the staff of hospital, environmental samples were negative. The risk of COVID-19 spread was controlled and the hospital restarted of clinical activities as normal at 8 am on April 14 after blockaded for 12 hours. Inthe following 7 days, the staff of the hospital were tested for COVID-19 nucleic acid twice a day, and the results were negative. Then the testing frequency changed to once a day. Conclusion: Formulating detailed and feasible COVID-19 emergency response plans based on the requirements of the public documents and the actual conditions of the hospital, is useful to improve the efficiency of emergency response to COVID-19 cases and save time for control of COVID-19 spread and restart the clinical activities of hospital. © 2022 Shandong Yinbao Technology Co. Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

6.
4th ACM SIGCAS/SIGCHI Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies, COMPASS 2022 ; Par F180472:257-265, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950298

ABSTRACT

It is well documented that, in the United States (U.S.), the availability of Internet access is related to several demographic attributes. Data collected through end user network diagnostic tools, such as the one provided by the Measurement Lab (M-Lab) Speed Test, allows the extension of prior work by exploring the relationship between the quality, as opposed to only the availability, of Internet access and demographic attributes of users of the platform. In this study, we use network measurements collected from the users of Speed Test by M-Lab and demographic data to characterize the relationship between the quality-of-service (QoS) metric download speed, and various critical demographic attributes, such as income, education level, and poverty. For brevity, we limit our focus to the state of California. For users of the M-Lab Speed Test, our study has the following key takeaways: (1) geographic type (urban/rural) and income level in an area have the most significant relationship to download speed;(2) average download speed in rural areas is 2.5 times lower than urban areas;(3) the COVID-19 pandemic had a varied impact on download speeds for different demographic attributes;and (4) the U.S. Federal Communication Commission's (FCC's) broadband speed data significantly over-represents the download speed for rural and low-income communities compared to what is recorded through Speed Test. © 2022 Owner/Author.

7.
Journal of Safety Science and Resilience ; 3(3):229-234, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1945738

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a constantly challenging global health issue due to its strong intensity, rapid mutation and high infectiousness. The new Delta and Omicron variants have triggered massive outbreaks worldwide. Even China, which has done a good job in outbreak prevention, is still heavily affected by the virus. The long-term fight against multiple COVID-19 outbreaks is ongoing. In this study, we propose an SEIQR model that considers the incubation period and quarantine measurement. We verified our model using actual outbreak data from four Chinese cities. Numerical simulations show that a five-day delay results in a double resurgence scale. Our model can be used as a tool to understand the spread of the virus quantitatively and provide a reference for policymaking accordingly. © 2022

8.
15th International Conference on Blended Learning, ICBL 2022 ; 13357 LNCS:135-146, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1930349

ABSTRACT

Collaborative virtual environment (CVE) is a set of technologies that enable collaborative activities in virtual scenarios while users can participate in such activities remotely via various interfaces. The unique features of CVE make it a promising tool for distant and blended learning, especially when considering the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on conventional face-to-face learning and the much-improved accessibility of the relevant technologies nowadays. This paper reports a systematic review on this emerging area and aims to answer four research questions related to the subject areas being covered, instructional and pedagogical methods, interface technology and virtual world design, and learning outcomes and effectiveness. After applying the selection criteria, a total number of 11 studies, which were published between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2021, were included in our analysis and discussion. Our findings support the use of CVE in the higher education setting and suggest further investigating the underlying mechanism of learning in CVE, exploring the potential and unique benefits of CVE in practicing distant and blended learning, studying the roles of teachers in CVEs, and evaluating the learning effectiveness on larger samples and through longitudinal studies. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

9.
Engineering Construction and Architectural Management ; : 27, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927484

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study is to discuss the principles and factors that influence the site selection of emergency medical facilities for public health emergencies. This paper discusses the selection of the best facilities from the available facilities, proposes the capacity of new facilities, presents a logistic regression model and establishes a site selection model for emergency medical facilities for public health emergencies in megacities. Design/methodology/approach Using Guangzhou City as the research object, seven alternative facility points and the points' capacities were preset. Nine demand points were determined, and two facility locations were selected using genetic algorithms (GAs) in MATLAB for programing simulation and operational analysis. Findings Comparing the results of the improved GA, the results show that the improved model has fewer evolutionary generations and a faster operation speed, and that the model outperforms the traditional P-center model. The GA provides a theoretical foundation for determining the construction location of emergency medical facilities in megacities in the event of a public health emergency. Research limitations/implications First, in this case study, there is no scientific assessment of the establishment of the capacity of the facility point, but that is a subjective method based on the assumption of the capacity of the surrounding existing hospitals. Second, because this is a theoretical analysis, the model developed in this study does not consider the actual driving speed and driving distance, but the speed of the unified average driving distance and the driving distance to take the average of multiple distances. Practical implications The results show that the method increases the selection space of decision-makers, provides them with stable technical support, helps them quickly determine the location of emergency medical facilities to respond to disaster relief work and provides better action plans for decision makers. Social implications The results show that the algorithm performs well, which verifies the applicability of this model. When the solution results of the improved GA are compared, the results show that the improved model has fewer evolutionary generations, faster operation speed and better model than the intermediate model GA. This model can more successfully find the optimal location decision scheme, making that more suitable for the location problem of megacities in the case of public health emergencies. Originality/value The research findings provide a theoretical and decision-making basis for the location of government emergency medical facilities, as well as guidance for enterprises constructing emergency medical facilities.

10.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925356

ABSTRACT

Objective: To describe our initial institutional experience in the treatment of patients with COVID-19 presenting with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) during the initial and subsequent COVID-19 infection surges, including reporting long-term outcomes. Background: Acute stroke care has been negatively impacted and/or delayed during the initial outbreak of COVID-19 with subsequent improvement over time. We highlight challenges encountered in identification and investigative workup of these patients, treatment concerns, evolution of AIS characteristics and management from 2020 to 2021, effects of COVID-19 vaccination, and considerations for future investigations. Design/Methods: All consecutive patients with COVID-19 and AIS treated at our institution during the COVID-19 outbreak, between March 1, 2020 and August 31, 2021 were included. Due to consideration for differences in patient management early and later in the COVID-19, patients were categorized in two separate cohorts: 1) patients diagnosed with AIS during the initial peak of COVID-19 (March thru October 2020), and 2) subsequent surges in infection (November 2020 thru August 2021). Baseline demographics, clinical, imaging, and outcomes data were retrospectively determined. Results: Of 2512 COVID-19 patients, 35 (1.39%, mean age 63.3 years, 54% women) had AIS. AIS recognition was frequently delayed after COVID-19 symptoms (median 19.5 days). AIS mechanism was undetermined or due to multiple etiologies in most cases (n=20, 57%). Three patients from the second cohort each received one dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Comparative analysis showed that patients in the later cohort had earlier AIS presentation, fewer stroke risk factors, more comprehensive workup, more defined stroke mechanisms, lower incidence of critical COVID-19 severity, and greater utilization of IV TPA. Despite these differences, AIS incidence, NIHSS, and overall outcomes were similar, with most patients experiencing worsening or static functional 3-month outcomes. Conclusions: Further studies should investigate outcomes beyond 3 months and their predictive factors, impact of completed vaccination course, and access to neurologic care.

11.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925348

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our ongoing single-center study aims to determine CoV2 spike protein-T-cell reactivity in fully vaccinated, B-cell depleted MS patients treated with rituximab or ocrelizumab, two well-characterized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody drugs. Background: Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) undergo immunosuppressive B-cell depleting therapies which can severely limit their humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 (CoV2) infection or response to vaccination. While robust antibody production is seen in immunocompetent individuals, recent studies show that B-cell depleting therapies inhibit efficient production of antibodies against CoV2 proteins due to a reduction in circulating Bcells. It is unknown how these disease modifying therapies affect T-cell responses after CoV2 vaccination, and whether there is a correlation between CoV2 antibody levels and T-cell immunity. Design/Methods: We collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum samples from anti-CD20-treated MS patients and from healthy control individuals at 15-93 days after completing vaccination. CoV2 IgG response was determined using anti-spike protein-based serology, and levels of proinflammatory cytokine (IL-2 and INF-γ) release after protein-specific T-cell stimulation were measured ex vivo using an ELISpot assay. Results: We observed that out of 45 vaccinated anti-CD20-treated MS patients studied, 37 (82.2%) showed defective humoral immunity. Interestingly, most CoV2 spike IgG negative patients (35 out of 37, 94.6%) presented a T-cell response with positive expression of at least one cytokine. Conclusions: Our results suggest the generation of a partial adaptive immune response to CoV2 vaccination in B-cell depleted individuals, driven by a functionally competent T-cell arm. Investigation into the role of T-cell response in these individuals is crucial to identifying their levels of protection against COVID-19.

12.
Rhinology ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is a cardinal symptom of COVID-19 infection, however, studies assessing long-term olfactory dysfunction are limited and no randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) of early olfactory training have been conducted. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a prospective, multi-centre study consisting of baseline psychophysical measurements of smell and taste function. Eligible participants were further recruited into a 12-week RCT of olfactory training versus control (safety information). Patient-reported outcomes were measured using an electronic survey and BSIT at baseline and 12 weeks. An additional 1-year follow-up was open to all participants. RESULTS: 218 individuals with a sudden loss of sense of smell of at least 4-weeks were recruited. Psychophysical smell loss was observed in only 32.1%; 63 participants were recruited into the RCT. The absolute difference in BSIT improvement after 12 weeks was 0.45 higher in the intervention arm. 76 participants completed 1-year follow-up; 10/19 (52.6%) of participants with an abnormal baseline BSIT test scored below the normal threshold at 1-year, and 24/29 (82.8%) had persistent parosmia. CONCLUSIONS: Early olfactory training may be helpful, although our findings are inconclusive. Notably, a number of individuals who completed the 1-year assessment had persistent smell loss and parosmia at 1-year. As such, both should be considered important entities of long-Covid and further studies to improve management are highly warranted.

13.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13313 LNCS:286-297, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919670

ABSTRACT

Identifying and understanding the hesitancy degree of public COVID-19 vaccine in emergency may be helpful to the dissemination of vaccine-related public health information. Through a survey among the adult population of Chinese mainland (N = 1080) after the COVID-19 vaccine was approved for mass vaccination, it is found that although more than 80% of the public (87.8%) have a low hesitancy attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine, a considerable number of people still have a medium hesitancy and a high hesitancy attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine (the middle hesitancy rate is 9.8% and the high hesitancy rate is 2.4%). By multiple logistic regression, the subjective and objective knowledge levels of medium-high hesitancy group and low hesitancy group in COVID-19 vaccine were compared. The results showed that there were significant differences in subjective and objective knowledge levels between medium-high hesitancy group and low-hesitancy group in COVID-19 vaccine. Compared with those with low hesitancy, those with medium and high hesitancy have lower subjective knowledge level and objective knowledge level. The influence of subjective knowledge level on public vaccine hesitancy is significantly greater than that of objective knowledge. In addition, through multiple linear regression, the study found that the information channel had a significant impact on the public's subjective and objective knowledge. Receiving vaccine information from television, web pages, health professionals, health departments can promote subjective knowledge and objective knowledge, while receiving vaccine information from family and friends reduces subjective knowledge and objective knowledge. Considering the geographical location of the population in this study, the research results in this paper cannot be extended to the public in other countries. However, the method used in this paper is helpful for researchers to understand the hesitancy degree of COVID-19 vaccines in other places and its relationship with the public knowledge level of COVID-19 vaccines. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

14.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 11:47, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916546

ABSTRACT

Methods: The survey was designed by an international team, translated and adapted to simplified Chinese, including 132 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation recommended by guidelines. It was distributed and collected from February to May 2021, with data analysed by WPS spreadsheet and wjx.cn. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatments, preventative behaviours and interventions, and their associated outcomes. Results: The survey was accessed 503 times with 341 (67.8%) completions covering 23 provinces and four municipalities in China. Most (282/341, 82.7%) respondents reported no symptoms during the pandemic and the majority (290/341, 85.0%) reported having a SARS-CoV-2 PCR test at some point. Forty-five (13.2%) reported having a respiratory infection, among which 19 (42.2%) took one or more categories of modern medicine, e.g. painkillers, antibiotics;16 (35.6%) used TCM interventions(s);while seven respondents combined TCM with modern medicine. All respondents reported using at least one behavioural or medical approach to prevention, with 22.3% taking TCM and 5.3% taking modern medicines. No respondents reported having a critical condition related to COVID-19. Background: We aimed to investigate use of infection control behaviours, preventative and therapeutic interventions, and outcomes among respondents to an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Conclusion: We found evidence of widespread use of infection control behaviours, modern medicines and TCM for treatment and prevention of COVID-19 and other respiratory symptoms. Larger scale studies are warranted, including a more representative sample exploring TCM preparations recommended in clinical guidelines.

15.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 30(5): 527-533, 2022 May 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911771

ABSTRACT

Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics and influencing factors of liver function changes in 111 elderly patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: 111 elderly patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology from February 5 to March 3, 2020 were enrolled. According to the severity of disease and liver function condition, they were divided into severe group (n=40), normal group (n=71), abnormal liver function group (n=86) and normal liver function group (n=25). The indexes related to liver function changes [total bilirubin (TBil), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT)] and related influencing factors were analyzed. Results: Among 111 cases, 86 (77.5%) had abnormal liver function of varying degrees, and 28 (25.2%) had liver injury. The abnormal rates of TBil, AST, ALP and GGT were significantly higher in the severe group than normal group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in age, ribavirin, glucocorticoid and the application of lopinavir-ritonavir tablets between the abnormal liver function and the normal group (P>0.05). The proportion of male was significantly higher in the abnormal liver function than normal liver function group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Elderly COVID-19 patients have a higher proportion of abnormal liver function, and patients in the severe group are more likely to have higher level of TB, AST, ALP and GGT. The abnormal liver function may be related to the direct viral infection of the liver and the inflammatory immune response of the body after infection in elderly patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Aged , Alkaline Phosphatase , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Bilirubin , Humans , Liver Function Tests , Male , Retrospective Studies , gamma-Glutamyltransferase
16.
ENGINEERING ; 10:155-166, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1906991

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and concerns about several other pandemics in the 21st century have attracted extensive global attention. These emerging infectious diseases threaten global public health and raise urgent studies on unraveling the underlying mechanisms of their transmission from animals to humans. Although numerous works have intensively discussed the cross-species and endemic barriers to the occurrence and spread of emerging infectious diseases, both types of barriers play synergistic roles in wildlife habitats. Thus far, there is still a lack of a complete understanding of viral diffusion, migration, and transmission in ecosystems from a macro perspective. In this review, we conceptualize the ecological barrier that represents the combined effects of cross-species and endemic barriers for either the natural or intermediate hosts of viruses. We comprehensively discuss the key influential factors affecting the ecological barrier against viral transmission from virus hosts in their natural habitats into human society, including transmission routes, contact probability, contact frequency, and viral characteristics. Considering the significant impacts of human activities and global industrialization on the strength of the ecological barrier, ecological barrier deterioration driven by human activities is critically analyzed for potential mechanisms. Global climate change can trigger and expand the range of emerging infectious diseases, and human disturbances promote higher contact frequency and greater transmission possibility. In addition, globalization drives more transmission routes and produces new high-risk regions in city areas. This review aims to provide a new concept for and comprehensive evidence of the ecological barrier blocking the transmission and spread of emerging infectious diseases. It also offers new insights into potential strategies to protect the ecological barrier and reduce the wide-ranging risks of emerging infectious diseases to public health. (c) 2020 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier LTD on behalf of Chinese Academy of Engineering and Higher Education Press Limited Company. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

17.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 774-777, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903516
18.
China Biotechnology ; 42(4):58-67, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1903923

ABSTRACT

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine, which participates in many physiological and pathological functions. Studies have shown that IL-6 first forms a heterohexameric complex with its own receptors (IL-6R, gp130), which further activate downstream signal transduction pathways, and finally exerts biological functions. However, abnormal activation and dysfunction of IL-6 signaling pathway are closely related to a variety of diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and malignant tumors. In addition, the abnormal expression of IL-6 also plays an important role in COVID-19’s cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). In general, treatments that block key molecules in the IL-6 signaling pathway can be used for IL-6-related diseases. Different from blocking shared receptor molecules such as IL-6R or gp130, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that block IL-6 protein are more specific. In clinical research, some antibodies targeting IL-6 show their unique therapeutic characteristics and beneficial effects. At present, only one monoclonal antibody drug targeting IL-6 protein has been approved by the US FDA for marketing, and more than 8 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are in the clinical research. This article focuses on a brief review of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting human IL-6 protein around world and their clinical applications. © 2022, China Biotechnology Press. All rights reserved.

19.
Digestive Endoscopy ; 34(SUPPL 1):114, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1895968

ABSTRACT

AIM: The COVID-19 epidemic is still raging over the globe, and vaccination is supposed to help us overcome it. Although the vaccinations' efficacy is undeniable, their safety is still a concern. This is the first case of CMV proctitis following vaccination since the invention of the COVID-19 vaccine, suggesting that the COVID-19 vaccine may not only cause immune hyperactivity but also cause immune deficiency. We report this case to provoke new thinking about the safety of COVID-19 vaccines. METHODS: We described a case of a 58-year-old Chinese woman, without obvious cause of immunosuppression, who developed persistent constipation three days after the second COVID-19 vaccination. Electronic colonoscopy revealed new circumferential growth at the anorectal junction, with uneven surface and ulceration, which mimicked rectal carcinoma. Rectal biopsy revealed severe active chronic proctitis with CMV infection. The clinical course was favorable with ganciclovir therapy. In this case, we used laboratory biochemical examination, colonoscopy, immunohistochemistry, and other methods to detect, and finally confirmed the existence of CMV proctitis. RESULTS: Ganciclovir was used to treat the patient, and a good effect was observed. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection of the gastrointestinal tract occurs mainly in immunosuppressed patients. While in our case, there was no evidence of immunodeficiency, except for earlier vaccination against COVID-19. Therefore, it is plausible to doubt that COVID-19 vaccination caused the occurrence of CMV proctitis in the patient. CONCLUSIONS: It is speculated that the vaccine can cause immune dysfunction, and thus may not only lead to the occurrence of immune hyperactivity disorders but also immune deficient diseases. The clinical course of CMV proctitis was favorable with ganciclovir therapy.

20.
Journal of Public Health and Emergency ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1893539

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is spread mainly through respiratory droplets. With the development of COVID-19 worldwide, international airports are facing unprecedented imported risks, becoming the forefront of overseas epidemic prevention. The transmission mechanism of the disease is easy to implement due to the general human susceptibility. Despite the ongoing development of COVID-19 vaccines, the public health community still needs to establish nonpharmaceutical interventions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 in the population, especially among individuals in close contact with confirmed cases. Since the outbreak of COVID-19, relevant authorities in China have taken active prevention and control measures, strictly tracked down and isolated those involved, and effectively contained the spread of the epidemic. Medical workers have played an important role in epidemic prevention and control. Medical workers are putting their lives and health at risk because of a lack of knowledge about COVID-19. This review summarizes the work of preventing cross-infection in the transport of high-risk groups by ambulance in primary hospitals in Jiangsu province during the COVID-19 outbreak. Through standardized management, the cross infection caused by ambulance has been effectively prevented. Therefore, during the COVID-19 outbreak, establishing a safe disinfection management system, strengthening the disinfection management of ambulance transport, and training personnel in personal protection, work requirements and emergency response skills can effectively prevent the spread of the COVID-19. © 2022 Journal of Innovation Management. All rights reserved.

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