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1.
Cell ; 185(6): 1025-1040.e14, 2022 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649487

ABSTRACT

During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, novel and traditional vaccine strategies have been deployed globally. We investigated whether antibodies stimulated by mRNA vaccination (BNT162b2), including third-dose boosting, differ from those generated by infection or adenoviral (ChAdOx1-S and Gam-COVID-Vac) or inactivated viral (BBIBP-CorV) vaccines. We analyzed human lymph nodes after infection or mRNA vaccination for correlates of serological differences. Antibody breadth against viral variants is lower after infection compared with all vaccines evaluated but improves over several months. Viral variant infection elicits variant-specific antibodies, but prior mRNA vaccination imprints serological responses toward Wuhan-Hu-1 rather than variant antigens. In contrast to disrupted germinal centers (GCs) in lymph nodes during infection, mRNA vaccination stimulates robust GCs containing vaccine mRNA and spike antigen up to 8 weeks postvaccination in some cases. SARS-CoV-2 antibody specificity, breadth, and maturation are affected by imprinting from exposure history and distinct histological and antigenic contexts in infection compared with vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Germinal Center , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
2.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 10(1)2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613738

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, does more internet and social media use lead to taking more- or less-effective preventive measures against the disease? A two-wave longitudinal survey with the general population in mainland China in mid-2020 found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, internet and social media use intensity promoted the adoption of nonpharmaceutical and pharmaceutical antipandemic measures. The first wave of data (n = 1014) showed that the more intensively people used the internet/social media, the more they perceived the threat of the pandemic, and took more nonpharmaceutical preventive measures (e.g., wearing masks, maintaining social distance, and washing hands) as a result. The second wave (n = 220) showed firstly the predicted relationship between internet/social media use intensity and the perceived threat of the pandemic and the adoption of nonpharmaceutical preventive measures by cross-lagged analysis; secondly, the predictive effect of internet/social media use on the adoption of pharmacological measures (i.e., willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19) and the mediating role of perceived pandemic threat were verified. The article concludes with a discussion of the role of the internet and social media use in the fight against COVID-19 in specific macrosocial contexts.

3.
Sex Med ; 9(3): 100366, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575369

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Telemedicine has the potential to improve access to care; however, its utility in the field of sexual medicine remains in question. AIM: To examine the importance of video visits for the treatment of male sexual medicine at our academic center during the period of peak telemedicine use in April 2020. METHODS: We collected and compared deidentified data from all nonprocedure, adult outpatient encounters conducted as either office visits in April 2019 (n = 1,949) or video visits in April 2020 (n = 608). The primary International Classification of Diseases codes (ICD-10) labeled as diagnoses from all encounters were collected, with most encounters linked to several disease codes (n = 4,584). Demographic data were also collected. We performed comparative analyses on Stata (College Station, TX, USA) with significance set at α = .05. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Disease codes were categorized based on their use and classification in urological care and the proportion that each category made up within the outpatient practice was calculated. RESULTS: In comparison to the office visits, which took place in April 2019, male sexual medicine visits in April 2020, during the peak of telemedicine use, made up a significantly larger overall share of our practice (P = .012), defined by relative rises in encounters pertaining to male hypogonadism, infertility, penile abnormalities, and testicular abnormalities. Outpatients seen over video visits were also younger than outpatients seen during the previous year over office visits (58.9 vs 60.8, P = .008). Further, race and ethnicity characteristics in the outpatient population were unaffected during the period of telemedicine use. CONCLUSIONS: During the period of historically high telemedicine use following the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, encounters associated with male sexual medicine made up a significantly larger portion of our outpatient practice. Although the full influence of the COVID-19 pandemic cannot be delineated, our findings suggest telemedicine use is compatible with the field of sexual medicine. Rabinowitz MJ, Kohn TP, Ellimoottil C, et al. The Impact of Telemedicine on Sexual Medicine at a Major Academic Center During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sex Med 2021;9:100366.

4.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(12): 1738-1743.e4, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574127

ABSTRACT

Different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are approved in various countries, but few direct comparisons of the antibody responses they stimulate have been reported. We collected plasma specimens in July 2021 from 196 Mongolian participants fully vaccinated with one of four COVID-19 vaccines: Pfizer/BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Sputnik V, and Sinopharm. Functional antibody testing with a panel of nine SARS-CoV-2 viral variant receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins revealed marked differences in vaccine responses, with low antibody levels and RBD-ACE2 blocking activity stimulated by the Sinopharm and Sputnik V vaccines in comparison to the AstraZeneca or Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines. The Alpha variant caused 97% of infections in Mongolia in June and early July 2021. Individuals who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination achieve high antibody titers in most cases. These data suggest that public health interventions such as vaccine boosting, potentially with more potent vaccine types, may be needed to control COVID-19 in Mongolia and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Mongolia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(11): 1150-1157, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is limited research on loop drainage (LD) compared to incision and drainage (I&D) for treatment of cutaneous abscesses. We investigated whether LD was noninferior to I&D for abscess resolution and whether there was any difference in repeat ED visits or complication rates between these techniques. METHODS: We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial, using a convenience sample at an urban academic emergency department (ED). Subjects over 18 years who presented for first-time management of an abscess were eligible. Patients requiring specialist drainage or hospital admission or had previous treatment for the abscess were excluded. Enrolled subjects were seen 2 weeks after treatment for blinded reevaluation of abscess resolution, and the electronic medical record was reviewed for return ED visits/abscess complications. RESULTS: Of 2,889 patients screened, 238 subjects consented and were randomized to LD or I&D. Abscess resolution was achieved in 53/65 (81.5%) of patients in the I&D arm, compared to 66/75 (88%) in the LD arm. Fewer patients in the LD group compared to the I&D group returned to the ED for abscess-related management during the following 14 days (37.3% vs 67.1%, p = 0.002). Among returning subjects, there was a significant difference in mean visits per subject between LD and I&D groups (0.5 vs. 1.2, p = 0.001). There were fewer complications among LD than I&D subjects (9.3% vs. 24.6%, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that LD is noninferior to I&D in achieving complete abscess resolution at 14 days and is associated with fewer return ED visits and fewer complications. This makes it an attractive alternative treatment option for abscesses.


Subject(s)
Abscess , Skin Diseases , Abscess/surgery , Drainage , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Prospective Studies , Skin Diseases/surgery
6.
Polit Psychol ; 2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334513
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8925, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203445

ABSTRACT

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected both physical health and mental well-being around the world. Stress-related reactions, if prolonged, may result in mental health problems. We examined the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in a multinational study and explored the effects of government responses to the outbreak. We sampled 18,171 community adults from 35 countries/societies, stratified by age, gender, and region of residence. Across the 35 societies, 26.6% of participants reported moderate to extremely severe depression symptoms, 28.2% moderate to extremely severe anxiety symptoms, and 18.3% moderate to extremely severe stress symptoms. Coronavirus anxiety comprises two factors, namely Perceived Vulnerability and Threat Response. After controlling for age, gender, and education level, perceived vulnerability predicted higher levels of negative emotional symptoms and psychological distress, whereas threat response predicted higher levels of self-rated health and subjective well-being. People in societies with more stringent control policies had more threat response and reported better subjective health. Coronavirus anxiety exerts detrimental effects on subjective health and well-being, but also has the adaptive function in mobilizing safety behaviors, providing support for an evolutionary perspective on psychological adaptation.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Internationality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
8.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 24(1): 23-29, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169765

ABSTRACT

United Nations and World Health Organization data show a positive correlation, r = .53, p < .0001, N = 189, between COVID-19 infection rates and the human development index (HDI). Less wealthy, less educated countries with lower life spans were also more successful in maintaining lower fatality rates, r = .46, p < .0001, N = 189 whereas 9 of the top-10 countries in the world in per capita fatalities due to COVID-19 were Western societies high in HDI. Similar positive correlations were found between COVID-19 infection and fatality rates and a smaller sample of 76 countries measured on Schwartz intellectual autonomy (or individualism), and negative correlations of similar magnitude were found for embeddedness (or collectivism). East Asia was a global leader in preventing the spread of COVID-19 because of a vigilant public concerned for public safety and compliant with public safety measures. African Union leaders coordinated their responses, and bought into a continent-wide African Medical Supplies Platform that prevented panicked competition for scare supplies. Western global media and scholars have not paid attention to the successes of East Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific in fighting the pandemic. It is worth asking why this should be the case; understand the weaknesses of extreme individualism in fighting a pandemic requiring coordinated and unified public response, and consider the lessons for global scholars from the pandemic for doing research in the future.

9.
Asian J Soc Psychol ; 24(1): 42-47, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096656

ABSTRACT

Growing efforts have been made to pool coronavirus data and control measures from countries and regions to compare the effectiveness of government policies. We examine whether these strategies can explain East Asia's effective control of the COVID-19 pandemic based on time-series data with cross-correlations between the Stringency Index and number of confirmed cases during the early period of outbreaks. We suggest that multidisciplinary empirical research in healthcare and social sciences, personality, and social psychology is needed for a clear understanding of how cultural values, social norms, and individual predispositions interact with policy to affect life-saving behavioural changes in different societies.

10.
Asian Journal of Social Psychology ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1077201

ABSTRACT

United Nations and World Health Organization data show a positive correlation, r = .53, p < .0001, N = 189, between COVID-19 infection rates and the human development index (HDI). Less wealthy, less educated countries with lower life spans were also more successful in maintaining lower fatality rates, r = .46, p < .0001, N = 189 whereas 9 of the top-10 countries in the world in per capita fatalities due to COVID-19 were Western societies high in HDI. Similar positive correlations were found between COVID-19 infection and fatality rates and a smaller sample of 76 countries measured on Schwartz intellectual autonomy (or individualism), and negative correlations of similar magnitude were found for embeddedness (or collectivism). East Asia was a global leader in preventing the spread of COVID-19 because of a vigilant public concerned for public safety and compliant with public safety measures. African Union leaders coordinated their responses, and bought into a continent-wide African Medical Supplies Platform that prevented panicked competition for scare supplies. Western global media and scholars have not paid attention to the successes of East Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific in fighting the pandemic. It is worth asking why this should be the case;understand the weaknesses of extreme individualism in fighting a pandemic requiring coordinated and unified public response, and consider the lessons for global scholars from the pandemic for doing research in the future.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 140: 374-377, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A novel viral strain known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has created a worldwide pandemic known as coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Early reports from China have highlighted the risks associated with performing endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery in patients with SARS-CoV-2. We present a rare complication of nasoseptal flap (NSF) necrosis associated with COVID-19, further emphasizing the challenges of performing these procedures in this era. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 78-year-old man underwent an extended endoscopic endonasal transplanum resection of a pituitary macroadenoma for decompression of the optic chiasm. The resulting skull base defect was repaired using a pedicled NSF. The patient developed meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak on postoperative day 13, requiring revision repair of the defect. Twelve days later, he developed persistent fever and rhinorrhea. The patient was reexplored endoscopically, and the NSF was noted to be necrotic and devitalized with evident CSF leakage. At that time, the patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Postoperatively, he developed acute respiratory distress syndrome complicated by hypoxic respiratory failure and death. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of NSF necrosis in a patient with COVID-19. We postulate that the thrombotic complications of COVID-19 may have contributed to vascular pedicle thrombosis and NSF necrosis. Although the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 and its effect on the nasal tissues is still being elucidated, this case highlights some challenges of performing endoscopic skull base surgery in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Skull Base/surgery , Surgical Flaps/surgery , Aged , COVID-19 , Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak/etiology , Humans , Male , Necrosis/etiology , Postoperative Complications/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Flaps/virology
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