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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1967-1975, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777577

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether blood glucose control can be used as predictors for the severity of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to improve the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19. A two-center cohort with a total of 241 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes was studied. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, the clinical data and laboratory results were collected, the fasting blood glucose levels were followed up at initial, middle stage of admission and discharge, the severity of the COVID-19 was assessed at any time from admission to discharge. Hyperglycemia patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups: good blood glucose control, fair blood glucose control, and blood glucose deterioration. The relationship of blood glucose levels, blood glucose control status, and severe COVID-19 were analyzed by univariate and multivariable regression analysis. In our cohort, 21.16% were severe cases and 78.84% were nonsevere cases. Admission hyperglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.938; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.387-2.707), mid-term hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.758; 95% CI, 1.325-2.332), and blood glucose deterioration (aOR, 22.783; 95% CI, 2.661-195.071) were identified as the risk factors of severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reaching an area under ROC curve of 0.806, and a sensitivity and specificity of 80.40% and 68.40%, respectively, revealed that hyperglycemia on admission and blood glucose deterioration of diabetic patients are potential predictive factors for severe COVID-19. Our results indicated that admission hyperglycemia and blood glucose deterioration were positively correlated with the risk factor for severe COVID-19, and deterioration of blood glucose may be more likely to the occurrence of severe illness in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324309

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized illness that has spread rapidly all over the world. Severe hypoxemic respiratory failure from COVID-19 will bring high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our study aims to identify in-hospital VTE risk and bleeding risk in COVID-19 patients. Methods We retrospectively studied 138 consecutively enrolled patients with COVID-19 and identified in-hospital VTE and bleeding risk by Padua Prediction Score and Improve bleed risk assessment model. The clinical data and features were analyzed in VTE patients. Results Our findings identified that 23 (16.67%) patients with COVID-19 were at high risk for VTE according to Padua prediction score, and 9(6.52%) patients were at high risk of bleeding for VTE prophylaxis according to Improve prediction score. Fifteen critically ill patients faced double high risk from thrombosis (Padua score more than 4 points in all 15[100%] patients) and hemorrhage (Improve score more than 7 points in 9[60.0%] patients). Thrombotic events were identified in four patients (2.9%) of all COVID-19 patients. All of them were diagnosed as deep vein thrombosis by ultrasound after 3 to 18 days after admission. Three (75.0%) were critically ill patients, which means the incidence of VTE among critically ill patients was 20%. One major hemorrhage was happened in critically ill patients during VTE treatment. Conclusion Critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered both high risk of thrombosis and bleeding risks. More effective VTE prevention strategies based on an individual assessment of bleeding risks were necessary for critically ill patients with COVID-19.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324230

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has crushed daily routines and is still rampaging through the world. Existing solution for nonpharmaceutical interventions usually needs to timely and precisely select a subset of residential urban areas for containment or even quarantine, where the spatial distribution of confirmed cases has been considered as a key criterion for the subset selection. While such containment measure has successfully stopped or slowed down the spread of COVID-19 in some countries, it is criticized for being inefficient or ineffective, as the statistics of confirmed cases are usually time-delayed and coarse-grained. To tackle the issues, we propose C-Watcher, a novel data-driven framework that aims at screening every neighborhood in a target city and predicting infection risks, prior to the spread of COVID-19 from epicenters to the city. In terms of design, C-Watcher collects large-scale long-term human mobility data from Baidu Maps, then characterizes every residential neighborhood in the city using a set of features based on urban mobility patterns. Furthermore, to transfer the firsthand knowledge (witted in epicenters) to the target city before local outbreaks, we adopt a novel adversarial encoder framework to learn "city-invariant" representations from the mobility-related features for precise early detection of high-risk neighborhoods, even before any confirmed cases known, in the target city. We carried out extensive experiments on C-Watcher using the real-data records in the early stage of COVID-19 outbreaks, where the results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of C-Watcher for early detection of high-risk neighborhoods from a large number of cities.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315612

ABSTRACT

As the recent COVID-19 outbreak rapidly expands all over the world, various containment measures have been carried out to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. In Mainland China, the containment measures consist of three types, i.e., Wuhan travel ban, intra-city quarantine and isolation, and inter-city travel restriction. In order to carry out the measures, local economy and information acquisition play an important role. In this paper, we investigate the correlation of local economy and the information acquisition on the execution of containment measures to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in Mainland China. First, we use a parsimonious model, i.e., SIR-X model, to estimate the parameters, which represent the execution of intra-city quarantine and isolation in major cities of Mainland China. In order to understand the execution of intra-city quarantine and isolation, we analyze the correlation between the representative parameters including local economy, mobility, and information acquisition. To this end, we collect the data of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the inflows from Wuhan and outflows, and the COVID-19 related search frequency from a widely-used Web mapping service, i.e., Baidu Maps, and Web search engine, i.e., Baidu Search Engine, in Mainland China. Based on the analysis, we confirm the strong correlation between the local economy and the execution of information acquisition in major cities of Mainland China. We further evidence that, although the cities with high GDP per capita attracts bigger inflows from Wuhan, people are more likely to conduct the quarantine measure and to reduce going out to other cities. Finally, the correlation analysis using search data shows that well-informed individuals are likely to carry out containment measures.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312731

ABSTRACT

Recent literature has suggested that climate conditions have considerably significant influences on the transmission of coronavirus COVID-19. However, there is a lack of comprehensive study that investigates the relationships between multiple weather factors and the development of COVID-19 pandemic while excluding the impact of social factors. In this paper, we study the relationships between six main weather factors and the infection statistics of COVID-19 on 250 cities in Mainland China. Our correlation analysis using weather and infection statistics indicates that all the studied weather factors are correlated with the spread of COVID-19, where precipitation shows the strongest correlation. We also build a weather-aware predictive model that forecasts the number of infected cases should there be a second wave of the outbreak in Mainland China. Our predicted results show that cities located in different geographical areas are likely to be challenged with the second wave of COVID-19 at very different time periods and the severity of the outbreak varies to a large degree, in correspondence with the varying weather conditions.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325399

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014;Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).

7.
Clin Respir J ; 16(3): 182-189, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly recognized illness that has spread rapidly all over the world. More and more reports highlight the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in COVID-19. Our study aims to identify in-hospital VTE risk and bleeding risk in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 138 consecutively enrolled patients with COVID-19 and identified in-hospital VTE and bleeding risk by Padua Prediction Score and Improve bleed risk assessment model. The clinical data and features were analyzed in VTE patients. RESULTS: Our findings identified that 23 (16.7%) patients with COVID-19 were at high risk for VTE according to Padua prediction score and 9 (6.5%) patients were at high risk of bleeding for VTE prophylaxis according to Improve prediction score. Fifteen critically ill patients faced double high risk from thrombosis (Padua score more than 4 points in all 15 [100%] patients) and hemorrhage (Improve score more than 7 points in 9 [60.0%] patients). Thrombotic events were identified in four patients (2.9%) of all COVID-19 patients. All of them were diagnosed with deep vein thrombosis by ultrasound 3 to 18 days after admission. Three (75.0%) were critically ill patients, which means that the incidence of VTE among critically ill patients was 20%. One major hemorrhage happened in critically ill patients during VTE treatment. CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 suffered both a high risk of thrombosis and bleeding risks. More effective VTE prevention strategies based on an individual assessment of bleeding risks were necessary for critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
8.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(7): 1576-1581, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575953

ABSTRACT

Although some short-term follow-up studies have found that individuals recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit anxiety, depression, and altered brain microstructure, their long-term physical problems, neuropsychiatric sequelae, and changes in brain function remain unknown. This observational cohort study collected 1-year follow-up data from 22 patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19 (8 males and 11 females, aged 54.2 ± 8.7 years). Fatigue and myalgia were persistent symptoms at the 1-year follow-up. The resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that compared with 29 healthy controls (7 males and 18 females, aged 50.5 ± 11.6 years), COVID-19 survivors had greatly increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values in the left precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus of operculum, inferior frontal gyrus of triangle, insula, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, caudate, and putamen. ALFF values in the left caudate of the COVID-19 survivors were positively correlated with their Athens Insomnia Scale scores, and those in the left precentral gyrus were positively correlated with neutrophil count during hospitalization. The long-term follow-up results suggest that the ALFF in brain regions related to mood and sleep regulation were altered in COVID-19 survivors. This can help us understand the neurobiological mechanisms of COVID-19-related neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (approval No. 2020S004) on March 19, 2020.

9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 370, 2021 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477301

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite effectiveness in delaying the spread of the pandemic, frequent and extended disruption to children's livelihoods have fomented new norms in which learning routines encounter immense change. In particular, increased sedentary e-learning engagement with electronic screens and exposure to stressful circumstances are likely to pose adverse risks for children's vision development. METHODS: This present study examines the link between near-sighted refractive error, and sedentary exposure to electronic screens, psychosocial stress level, and outdoor activities. A Rapid Survey Methodology (RSM) design was utilized to collect information on subject's vision condition, sedentary electronic screen use, and level of psychosocial stress, in addition to detailed socio-demographic background characteristics. RESULTS: This study involves 2234 subjects enrolled in 1st to 6th grade in primary schools. Every 1 diopter hour increase in electronic screen use per day is associated with 1.036 OR (95% CI =1.024-1.047, p-value< 0.050), while every 1 h • W m- 2 sr- 1 of illuminance-weighted electronic screen use per day is associated with 2.285 OR (95% CI =1.829-2.855, p-value< 0.050) increased likelihood of near-sighted refractive error. Higher level of psychosocial stress is associated with 2.441 OR (95% CI =1.870-3.187, p-value< 0.050) and 2.403 OR (95% CI =1.839-3.141, p-value< 0.050) increased likelihood of near-sighted refractive error. Frequency of outdoor activity is not significantly associated with increased likelihood of near-sighted refractive error (p-value> 0.050). CONCLUSIONS: Findings in this study show that many factors, including grade level and prior vision condition, contribute to increased risks of near-sighted refractive error during the COVID-19 pandemic. More strikingly, pandemic-related behavioral modifications such as lengthy sedentary electronic screen use and elevated levels of psychosocial stress are two critical channels affecting children's eye health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Refractive Errors , Child , China/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Refractive Errors/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
11.
J Glob Health ; 11: 05020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395250

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Around the globe, various self-quarantine, social distancing, and school-closure policies were implemented during the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak to reduce disease transmission. Many economies/territories were compelled to consider digital learning modalities. In particular, increased digital learning engagement with digital devices and mounting psychosocial stress due to social isolation are likely to pose adverse risks for youth visual health globally. This study examines the association between increased digital device use, psychosocial stress, and myopia symptoms among Chinese youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational population study consisting of 3918 participants enrolled in primary, secondary, and university in China. Participants are recruited through an online survey, which included self-reported information on daily digital device use, psychosocial stress level, condition of visual acuity, and demographic information. We utilize statistical tools including χ2 test, paired sample t test, and multiple multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Each hour increase in digital device use is associated with 1.25 odds ratio OR (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.21-1.30; P < 0.001) increased risk of developing myopic symptoms, each additional hour of digital device use weighted by near-view and blue-light exposure is associated with OR = 1.04 OR (95% CI = 1.03-1.05; P < 0.001) and OR = 2.25 (95% CI = 1.94-2.60; P < 0.001) increased risk respectively. Subjects reporting under stressful conditions are between OR = 1.98 (95% CI = 1.67-2.36; P < 0.001) and OR = 2.03 (95% CI = 1.71-2.42; P < 0.001) more likely to develop myopic symptoms, relative to those citing less stress. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic led to favorable conditions for myopigenic behavioral changes characterized by extended sedentary engagement with digital devices, which are significantly associated with higher risks of myopia incidence. Relatedly, psychosocial stress accompanying prolonged social isolation during the pandemic is a less noticeable, albeit significant risk factor for myopia development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Visual Acuity , Adolescent , China , Humans , Myopia , Risk Factors
12.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 317, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376185

ABSTRACT

Owing to the limitations of the present efforts on drug discovery against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the lack of the understanding of the biological regulation mechanisms underlying COVID-19, alternative or novel therapeutic targets for COVID-19 treatment are still urgently required. SARS-CoV-2 infection and immunity dysfunction are the two main courses driving the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Both the virus and host factors are potential targets for antiviral therapy. Hence, in this study, the current therapeutic strategies of COVID-19 have been classified into "target virus" and "target host" categories. Repurposing drugs, emerging approaches, and promising potential targets are the implementations of the above two strategies. First, a comprehensive review of the highly acclaimed old drugs was performed according to evidence-based medicine to provide recommendations for clinicians. Additionally, their unavailability in the fight against COVID-19 was analyzed. Next, a profound analysis of the emerging approaches was conducted, particularly all licensed vaccines and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) enrolled in clinical trials against primary SARS-CoV-2 and mutant strains. Furthermore, the pros and cons of the present licensed vaccines were compared from different perspectives. Finally, the most promising potential targets were reviewed, and the update of the progress of treatments has been summarized based on these reviews.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans
13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 3029-3040, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can damage not only the lungs but also the liver and kidney. Most critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have liver and kidney dysfunction. We aim to investigate the levels of liver and kidney function indexes in mild and severe COVID-19 patients and their capability to predict the severity of the disease. METHODS: The characteristics and laboratory indexes were compared between patients with different conditions. We applied binary logistic regression to find the independent risk factors of severe patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to predict the severity of COVID-19 using the liver and kidney function indexes. RESULTS: This study enrolled 266 COVID-19 patients, including 235 mild patients and 31 severe patients. Compared with mild patients, severe patients had lower albumin (ALB) and higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and urea nitrogen (BUN) (all p<0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis also identified ALB [OR=0.273 (0.079-0.947), p=0.041] and ALT [OR=2.680 (1.036-6.934), p=0.042] as independent factors of severe COVID-19 patients. Combining ALB, ALT, BUN, and LDH exhibited the area under ROC at 0.914, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 83.0%. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, have damage to liver and kidney function. ALT, AST, LDH, and BUN could be independent factors for predicting the severity of COVID-19. Combining the ALB, ALT, BUN, and LDH could predict the transition from mild to severe in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1821-1830, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278363

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019, and the outbreak rapidly evolved into the current coronavirus disease pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus that causes symptoms similar to those caused by influenza A and B viruses. On July 2, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization for in vitro diagnostic use of the Influenza SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex Assay. This assay detects influenza A virus at 102.0, influenza B virus at 102.2, and SARS-CoV-2 at 100.3 50% tissue culture or egg infectious dose, or as few as 5 RNA copies/reaction. The simultaneous detection and differentiation of these 3 major pathogens increases overall testing capacity, conserves resources, identifies co-infections, and enables efficient surveillance of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 662984, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266674

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted education systems globally, making digital devices common arrangements for adolescent learning. However, vision consequences of such behavioral changes are not well-understood. This study investigates the association between duration of daily digital screen engagement and myopic progression among 3,831 Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Study subjects report an average of 2.70 (SD = 1.77), 3.88 (SD = 2.23), 3.58 (SD = 2.30), and 3.42 (SD = 2.49) hours of television, computer, and smartphone for digital learning use at home, respectively. Researchers analyzed the association between digital screen use and myopic symptoms using statistical tools, and find that every 1 h increase in daily digital screen use is associated with 1.26 OR [Odds Ratio] (95% CI [Confidence Interval: 1.21-1.31, p < 0.001]) higher risks of myopic progression. Using computers (OR = 1.813, 95% CI = 1.05-3.12, p = 0.032) and using smartphones (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.19-3.43, p = 0.009) are shown to be associated with higher risks of myopic progression than television use. Results from additional sensitivity tests that included inverse probability weights which accounted for heterogeneous user profile across different device type categories confirm that these findings are robust. In conclusion, this study finds that daily digital screen use is positively associated with prevalence of myopic progression and holds serious vision health implications for adolescents.

16.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(11): 2366-2371, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222282

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerges as a global pandemic and there is a lack of evidence about the clinical course and outcome of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Here we conducted a retrospective longitudinal study aimed to analyze the clinical features and outcome of MHD patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Of 3126 inpatients with COVID-19 at 3 Branches of Wuhan Tongji Hospital from Jan 18th to Mar 9th, 2020, 19 patients were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Among the 19 MHD patients with COVID-19, 6 patients (31.6%) died, and 13 patients (68.4%) were able to be discharged. Baseline characteristics, clinical courses, laboratory findings, and dynamic trajectories of major laboratory markers were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. According to our findings, MHD patients with COVID-19 who experienced non-surviving outcome had more elevated CRP, IL6 and procalcitonin as well as fibrinogen levels at various points compared to survivors. Thus the dysregulation of immune response as well as coagulation abnormalities might be highly involved in the pathological process of COVID-19, contributing to the poor prognosis in MHD patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
17.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202258

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced many education systems to consider alternative remote e-learning modalities, which have consequential behavioral and health implications for youth. In particular, increased e-learning engagement with digital screens and reduction in outdoor activities are two likely channels posing adverse risks for myopia development. This study investigated the association between e-learning screen use, outdoor activity, lighting condition, and myopia development among school-age children in China, during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from 3405 school-age children attending primary, lower-secondary, and upper-secondary schools in China. Univariate parametric and nonparametric tests, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Findings show that each diopter hour increase in daily e-learning screen use is significantly associated with progression of myopia symptoms (OR: 1.074, 95% CI: 1.058-1.089; p < 0.001), whereas engaging in outdoor exercise four to six times per week (OR: 0.745, 95% CI: 0.568-0.977; p = 0.034) and one to three times per week (OR: 0.829, 95% CI: 0.686-0.991; p = 0.048) is associated with a lower likelihood of myopia progression than none at all. In addition, we found that indoor lighting that is either "too dim" (OR: 1.686, 95% CI: 1.226-2.319; p = 0.001) or "too bright" (OR: 1.529, 95% CI: 1.007-2.366; p = 0.036) is significantly associated higher likelihood of myopic symptoms. Findings in this study uncover the less observable vision consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on youths through digital online learning and highlight the importance of considering appropriate mitigation strategies to deal with this emerging public health challenge.

18.
Sci Total Environ ; 761: 144114, 2021 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997515

ABSTRACT

In the outbreak of infectious diseases such as COVID-19, social media channels are important tools for the public to obtain information and form their opinions on infection risk, which can affect their disease prevention behaviors and the consequent disease transmission processes. However, there has been a lack of theoretical investigation into how social media and human behaviors jointly affect the spread of infectious diseases. In this study, we develop an agent-based modeling framework that couples (1) a general opinion dynamics model that describes how individuals form their opinions on epidemic risk with various information sources, (2) a behavioral adoption model that simulates the adoption of disease prevention behaviors, and (3) an epidemiological SEIR model that simulates the spread of diseases in a host population. Through simulating the spread of a coronavirus-like disease in a hypothetical residential area, the modeling results show that social media can make a community more sensitive to external drivers. Social media can increase the public's awareness of infection risk, which is beneficial for epidemic containment, when high-quality epidemic information exists at the early stage of pandemics. However, fabricated and fake news on social media, after a "latent period", can lead to a significant increase in infection rate. The modeling results provide scientific evidence for the intricate interplay between social media and human behaviors in epidemic dynamics and control, and highlight the importance of public education to promote behavioral changes and the need to correct misinformation and fake news on social media in a timely manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Social Media , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Hepatol ; 74(6): 1295-1302, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The evolution and clinical significance of abnormal liver chemistries and the impact of hepatitis B infection on outcome in patients with COVID-19 is not well characterized. This study aimed to explore these issues. METHODS: This large retrospective cohort study included 2,073 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and definite outcomes in Wuhan, China. Longitudinal liver function tests were conducted, with associated factors and risk of death determined by multivariate regression analyses. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. The characteristics of liver abnormalities and outcomes of patients with COVID-19, with and without hepatitis B, were compared after 1:3 propensity score matching. RESULTS: Of the 2,073 patients, 1,282 (61.8%) had abnormal liver chemistries during hospitalization, and 297 (14.3%) had a liver injury. The mean levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and direct bilirubin (D-Bil) increased early after symptom onset in deceased patients and showed disparity compared to levels in discharged patients throughout the clinical course of the disease. Abnormal AST (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.39; 95% CI 1.04-1.86, p = 0.027) and D-Bil (adjusted HR 1.66; 95% CI 1.22-2.26; p = 0.001) levels at admission were independent risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis and showed sufficient discriminatory power and good consistency between the prediction and the observation. HBV infection in patients did not increase the risk of poor COVID-19-associated outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal AST and D-Bil levels at admission were independent predictors of COVID-19-related mortality. Therefore, monitoring liver chemistries, especially AST and D-Bil levels, is necessary in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. LAY SUMMARY: Liver test abnormalities (in particular elevations in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and direct bilirubin [D-Bil]) were observed after symptom onset in patients who went on to die of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Abnormal levels of AST and D-Bil at admission were independent predictors of COVID-19-related mortality. HBV infection in patients did not increase the risk of poor COVID-19-associated outcomes.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Bilirubin/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Liver Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Hepatitis B/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 161, 2020 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic. It is critical to identify COVID-19 patients who are most likely to develop a severe disease. This study was designed to determine the clinical and epidemiological features of COVID-19 patients associated with the development of pneumonia and factors associated with disease progression. METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients with etiologically confirmed COVID-19 admitted to PLA General Hospital in Beijing, China from December 27, 2019 to March 12, 2020 were enrolled in this study and followed-up to March 16, 2020. Differences in clinical and laboratory findings between COVID-19 patients with pneumonia and those without were determined by the χ2 test or the Fisher exact test (categorical variables) and independent group t test or Mann-Whitney U test (continuous variables). The Cox proportional hazard model and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied to evaluate factors that predicted the progression of COVID-19. RESULTS: The mean incubation was 8.67 (95% confidence interval, 6.78-10.56) days. Mean duration from the first test severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-positive to conversion was 11.38 (9.86-12.90) days. Compared to pneumonia-free patients, pneumonia patients were 16.5 years older and had higher frequencies of having hypertension, fever, and cough and higher circulating levels of neutrophil proportion, interleukin-6, low count (< 190/µl) of CD8+ T cells, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Thirteen patients deteriorated during hospitalization. Cox regression analysis indicated that older age and higher serum levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and lactate at admission significantly predicted the progression of COVID-19. During hospitalization, circulating counts of T lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells were lower, whereas neutrophil proportion, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, and the circulating levels of interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were higher, in pneumonia patients than in pneumonia-free patients. CD8+ lymphocyte count in pneumonia patients did not recover when discharged. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and higher levels of C-reactive protein, procalcitionin, interleukin-6, and lactate might predict COVID-19 progression. T lymphocyte, especially CD8+ cell-mediated immunity is critical in recovery of COVID-19. This study may help in predicting disease progression and designing immunotherapy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Interleukin-6/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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