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1.
IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering ; 9(1):299-309, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1621806

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of the 2019-nCoV pneumonia has led to illness and loss of life for a large number of people. Many countries built medical-emergency facilities in remote areas to isolate infected people in an attempt to contain the spread of the virus. Various wearable devices based on smart new fabrics can collect life-relevant data from patients on a continuous basis. However, the computing capacity and battery energy of wearable devices are limited. Prolonging the life cycle of the wearable medical-emergency system for as long as possible, while guaranteeing the effectiveness of the monitoring tasks for the users, is a great challenge. Therefore, Medical-Emergency Response Wearable Networking Powered by UAV-assisted (unmanned aerial vehicle) computing offloading and wireless power transfer (WPT), known as MER-WearNet, is presented in this paper. Due to the ultra-low delay demand in the medical emergency scenario, the proposed scheme uses UAV to charge the wearable devices wirelessly, so that the wearable devices can obtain more energy and ensure the efficient completion of the computing offloading in the shortest possible time. The successive convex optimization (SCP) is used to solve the joint optimization model. Finally, simulation experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602189

ABSTRACT

While the immunogenicity of inactivated vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) has been characterized in several well-conducted clinical trials, real-world evidence concerning immune responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) raised by such vaccines is currently missing. Here, we comprehensively characterized various parameters of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in 126 individuals under real-world conditions. After two doses of vaccination, S-receptor binding domain IgG (S-RBD IgG) and neutralizing antibody (NAb) were detected in 87.06% (74/85) and 78.82% (67/85) of individuals, respectively. Female participants developed higher concentrations of S-RBD IgG and NAb compared to male vaccinees. Interestingly, a longer dosing interval between the first and second vaccination resulted in a better long-term SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG response. The frequencies of CD4+ T cells that produce effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α) in response to stimulation with peptide pools corresponding to the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) or membrane (M) protein were significantly higher in individuals received two doses of vaccine than those received one dose of vaccine and unvaccinated individuals. S, N, or M-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were detectable in 95.83% (69/72) and 54.16% (39/72) of double-vaccinated individuals, respectively. The longitudinal analysis demonstrated that CD4+ T cell responses recognizing S, N, and M waned quickly after a single vaccine dose, but were boosted and became more sustained following a second dose. Overall, we provide a comprehensive characterization of immune responses induced by inactivated COVID-19 vaccines in real-world settings, suggesting that both humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity are elicited in the majority of individuals after two doses of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines.

3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 209: 114538, 2022 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587172

ABSTRACT

The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is essential to the virus life cycle and is supposed to be a potential target for the treatment of coronaviral infection. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have played an impressive role in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. The effectiveness of TCM formulations prompts scientists to take continuous effort on searching for bioactive small molecules from the ancient resources. Herein, we developed a native mass spectrometry-based affinity-selection method for rapid screening of active small molecules from crude herbal extracts applied for COVID-19 therapy. Six common herbs named Lonicera japonica, Scutellaria baicalensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Cirsium japonicum, and Andrographis paniculata were investigated. After preliminary separation of the crude extracts, the fractions were incubated with 3CLpro. A native MS-based affinity screening assay was then conducted to search for the protein-ligand complexes. A UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS with UNIFI data acquisition and data processing software was applied to identify the hit compounds. Standard compounds were used to verify the outcomes. Among the 16 hits, three flavonoids, baicalein, scutellarein and ganhuangenin, were identified as potential noncovalent inhibitors against 3CLpro with IC50 values of 0.94, 3.02, and 0.84 µM, respectively. Their binding affinities were further characterized by native MS, with Kd values being 1.43, 3.85, and 1.09 µM, respectively. Overall, we established an efficient native MS-based strategy for discovering 3CLpro ligands from crude mixtures, which supplies a potential strategy of small molecule lead discovery from TCMs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2104192, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589262

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with impact on skin and hair loss are reported. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is detected in the skin of some patients; however, the detailed pathological features of skin tissues from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at a molecular level are limited. Especially, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect skin cells and impact their function is not well understood. A proteome map of COVID-19 skin is established here and the susceptibility of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived skin organoids with hair follicles and nervous system is investigated, to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is shown that KRT17+ hair follicles can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and are associated with the impaired development of hair follicles and epidermis. Different types of nervous system cells are also found to be infected, which can lead to neuron death. Findings from the present work provide evidence for the association between COVID-19 and hair loss. hiPSC-derived skin organoids are also presented as an experimental model which can be used to investigate the susceptibility of skin cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help identify various pathological mechanisms and drug screening strategies.

5.
Harvard Educational Review ; 91(3):293-318, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1566880

ABSTRACT

With the increasing numbers of immigrant and refugee students across the US K--12 system, the xenophobia of the current political climate, and the effects of COVID19 on the immigrant community, it is critical to examine schools that serve immigrant students and their families. Drawing on case studies of two public high schools that exclusively serve immigrant students, authors Adriana Villavicencio, Chandler Patton Miranda, Jia-Lin Liu, and Hua-Yu Sebastian Cherng examine how educators frame the current political context and how this frame informs their collective approach to engaging with and supporting families. The study finds that these schools shifted norms of parental engagement by proactively forging relationships with families, cultivating alliances with community partners, and mediating within families around challenges related to work and higher education to benefit the communities they serve. In so doing, these school actors have shifted the norms of parental engagement to center the perspectives, voices, and experiences of immigrant families.

6.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(44): 918-922, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506116

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the circulation of seasonal influenza virus declined globally and remained below previous seasonal levels. We analyzed the results of the epidemiology, antigenic, and genetic characteristics, and antiviral susceptibilities of seasonal influenza viruses isolated from the mainland of China during October 5, 2020 through September 5, 2021, to better assess the risk of influenza during subsequent influenza season in 2021-2022. Methods: Positive rates of influenza virus detection during this period were based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection by the Chinese National Influenza Surveillance Network laboratories, and isolated viruses from influenza positive samples were submitted to the Chinese National Influenza Center. Antigenic analyses for influenza viruses were conducted using the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Next-generation sequencing was used for genetic analyses. Viruses were tested for resistance to antiviral medications using a phenotypic assay and next-generation sequencing. Results: In southern China, the influenza positivity rate was elevated especially after March 2021 and was higher than the same period the previous year with the COVID-19 pandemic. In northern China, influenza positive rate peaked at Week 18 in 2021 and has declined since then. Nearly all isolated viruses were B/Victoria lineage viruses during the study period, and 37.3% of these viruses are antigenically similar to the reference viruses representing the vaccine components for the 2020-2021 and 2021-2022 Northern Hemisphere influenza season. All seasonal influenza viruses were susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors and endonuclease inhibitors. Conclusions: Influenza activity has gradually increased in the mainland of China in 2021, although the intensity of activity is still lower than before the COVID-19 pandemic. The diversity of circulating influenza types/subtypes decreased, with the vast majority being B/Victoria lineage viruses. The surveillance data from this study suggest that we should strengthen influenza surveillance during the upcoming traditional influenza season. It also provided evidence for vaccine recommendations and prevention and control of influenza and clinical use of antiviral drugs.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26677, 2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494089

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the first case of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 viral infection was described in Wuhan. Similar to SARS in 2003, COVID-19 also had a lasting impact. Approximately 76% of patients discharged after hospitalization for COVID-19 had neurological manifestations which could persist for 6 months, and some long-term consequences such as the gradual loss of lung function due to pulmonary interstitial fibrosis could have comprehensive effects on daily quality of life for people who were initially believed to have recovered from COVID-19. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our comprehensive search strategy developed in consultation with a research librarian. We will search these following electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Google Scholar, Embase, ProQuest, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WANFANG DATA, WHO covid-19 website, and Centers for Disease Control and the Prevention COVID-19 websites of the United States and China. The bias of publication will be confirmed via the P value of Egger test. The quality of studies will be evaluated by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: There are no ethical considerations associated with this study protocol for this systematic review which mainly focuses on the examination of secondary data. On completion of this analysis, we will prepare a manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed medical journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021258711.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Treatment Outcome
9.
Eur J Radiol ; 144: 109997, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458686

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine chest CT changes 6 months and 12 months after the onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes or hyperglycemia and the risk factors for these residual lung abnormalities. METHODS: In total, 141 COVID-19 patients were assigned to group 1 (diabetes), group 2 (secondary hyperglycemia) or group 3 (controls). Initial and six- and twelve-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans were performed 16 days, 175 days and 351 days after symptom onset, respectively. CT findings and clinical and peak laboratory parameters were collected and compared. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the independent predictors for the presence of residual lung abnormalities at the 6-month follow-up exam. Seven variables (age; the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome; the duration of hospitalization; the peak levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and C-reactive protein; and the initial total CT score) were chosen in the final multivariable models. RESULTS: At the six-month follow-up, abnormalities were still observed on chest CT in 77/141 (54.6%) patients. Reticular patterns (40/141, 28.4%) and ground-glass opacities (GGOs) (29/141, 20.6%) were the most common CT abnormalities on the follow-up CT scans. Patients in Groups 1 and 2 had significantly higher incidences of residual lung abnormalities than those in Group 3 (65.4% and 58.3%, respectively vs. 36.6%; p < 0.05). Twelve months after disease onset, the chest CT changes persisted in 13/25 (52.0%) patients. A duration of hospitalization > 20 days (OR: 5.630, 95% CI: 1.394-22.744, p = 0.015), an LDH level ≥ 317 U/L (OR: 7.020, 95% CI: 1.032-47.743, p = 0.046) and a total CT score > 15 (OR: 9.919, 95% CI: 1.378-71.415, p = 0.023) were independent predictors of residual pulmonary abnormalities in patients with diabetes or secondary hyperglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable proportion of surviving COVID-19 patients with diabetes or secondary hyperglycemia had residual pulmonary abnormalities six months after disease onset, and we found evidence of persistent chest CT changes at the one-year follow-up. Residual lung abnormalities were associated with longer hospital stays, higher peak LDH levels and higher initial total CT scores.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e32328, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the importance of the deployment of digital detection surveillance systems to support early warning and monitoring of infectious diseases. These opportunities create a "double-edge sword," as the ethical governance of such approaches often lags behind technological achievements. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate ethical issues identified from utilizing artificial intelligence-augmented surveillance or early warning systems to monitor and detect common or novel infectious disease outbreaks. METHODS: In a number of databases, we searched relevant articles that addressed ethical issues of using artificial intelligence, digital surveillance systems, early warning systems, and/or big data analytics technology for detecting, monitoring, or tracing infectious diseases according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, and further identified and analyzed them with a theoretical framework. RESULTS: This systematic review identified 29 articles presented in 6 major themes clustered under individual, organizational, and societal levels, including awareness of implementing digital surveillance, digital integrity, trust, privacy and confidentiality, civil rights, and governance. While these measures were understandable during a pandemic, the public had concerns about receiving inadequate information; unclear governance frameworks; and lack of privacy protection, data integrity, and autonomy when utilizing infectious disease digital surveillance. The barriers to engagement could widen existing health care disparities or digital divides by underrepresenting vulnerable and at-risk populations, and patients' highly sensitive data, such as their movements and contacts, could be exposed to outside sources, impinging significantly upon basic human and civil rights. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings inform ethical considerations for service delivery models for medical practitioners and policymakers involved in the use of digital surveillance for infectious disease spread, and provide a basis for a global governance structure. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021259180; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=259180.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Artificial Intelligence , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology ; : 1-15, 2021.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1409693
13.
Front Public Health ; 9: 670889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399185

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus 2; ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; S protein, spiked glycoprotein; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2; WHO, World Health Organization. Purpose: Although the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been viably controlled in China, a new normal in healthcare strategies has become standard in China and worldwide. We conducted a questionnaire study to disseminate the experience from China in terms of urology outpatient prevention and control measures under standardized prevention policies against COVID-19. Participants and Methods: From May 3, 2020 to June 25, 2020, we conducted an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire study, focused on the status of and experiences with outpatient urology prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. The targeted respondents were urologists in mainland China, covering all levels of hospitals and clinics. Results: A total of 216 (97%) valid responses were collected. We found that 183 (85%) respondents were from outside of Hubei province in China. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight (73%) respondents believed that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in urine, and that protection against urine exposure was needed. Over 80% of respondents recommended WeChat application or similar online video meetings for virtual outpatient consultations. The suggested flowcharts and recommendations to prevent new cases were easy to understand and approved by most physicians, which could provide reference for outpatient prevention and control. We still need to make adequate preparations under the new normal of the COVID-19 Epidemic, especially for those suspected of being infected. Conclusions: Although the scientific validation of the questionnaire is limited, it provides a first snapshot of the experiences relating to the prevention and control measures in urology clinics in China, and can inform future policies in this field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 722027, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399138

ABSTRACT

Approximately half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections occur without apparent symptoms, raising questions regarding long-term humoral immunity in asymptomatic individuals. Plasma levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) against the viral spike or nucleoprotein were determined for 25,091 individuals enrolled in a surveillance program in Wuhan, China. We compared 405 asymptomatic individuals who mounted a detectable antibody response with 459 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. The well-defined duration of the SARS-CoV-2 endemic in Wuhan allowed a side-by-side comparison of antibody responses following symptomatic and asymptomatic infections without subsequent antigen re-exposure. IgM responses rapidly declined in both groups. However, both the prevalence and durability of IgG responses and neutralizing capacities correlated positively with symptoms. Regardless of sex, age, and body weight, asymptomatic individuals lost their SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies more often and rapidly than symptomatic patients did. These findings have important implications for immunity and favour immunization programs including individuals after asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Epidemiological Monitoring , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Young Adult
15.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(9)2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390719

ABSTRACT

The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection has posed a serious danger to global health and the economy. However, SARS-CoV-2 medications that are specific and effective are still being developed. Honokiol is a bioactive component from Magnoliae officinalis Cortex with damp-drying effect. To develop new potent antiviral molecules, a series of novel honokiol analogues were synthesized by introducing various 3-((5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl)oxazol-2(3H)-ones to its molecule. In a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus model, all honokiol derivatives were examined for their antiviral entry activities. As a result, 6a and 6p demonstrated antiviral entry effect with IC50 values of 29.23 and 9.82 µM, respectively. However, the parental honokiol had a very weak antiviral activity with an IC50 value more than 50 µM. A biolayer interfero-metry (BLI) binding assay and molecular docking study revealed that 6p binds to human ACE2 protein with higher binding affinity and lower binding energy than the parental honokiol. A competitive ELISA assay confirmed the inhibitory effect of 6p on SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD's binding with ACE2. Importantly, 6a and 6p (TC50 > 100 µM) also had higher biological safety for host cells than honokiol (TC50 of 48.23 µM). This research may contribute to the discovery of potential viral entrance inhibitors for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, although 6p's antiviral efficacy needs to be validated on SARS-CoV-2 viral strains in a biosafety level 3 facility.

17.
Cell Discov ; 6(1): 84, 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387260
20.
Cell Res ; 31(10): 1047-1060, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380899

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (SARS2) has caused a global COVID-19 pandemic. The spike protein of SARS2 (SARS2-S) recognizes host receptors, including ACE2, to initiate viral entry in a complex biomechanical environment. Here, we reveal that tensile force, generated by bending of the host cell membrane, strengthens spike recognition of ACE2 and accelerates the detachment of spike's S1 subunit from the S2 subunit to rapidly prime the viral fusion machinery. Mechanistically, such mechano-activation is fulfilled by force-induced opening and rotation of spike's receptor-binding domain to prolong the bond lifetime of spike/ACE2 binding, up to 4 times longer than that of SARS-S binding with ACE2 under 10 pN force application, and subsequently by force-accelerated S1/S2 detachment which is up to ~103 times faster than that in the no-force condition. Interestingly, the SARS2-S D614G mutant, a more infectious variant, shows 3-time stronger force-dependent ACE2 binding and 35-time faster force-induced S1/S2 detachment. We also reveal that an anti-S1/S2 non-RBD-blocking antibody that was derived from convalescent COVID-19 patients with potent neutralizing capability can reduce S1/S2 detachment by 3 × 106 times under force. Our study sheds light on the mechano-chemistry of spike activation and on developing a non-RBD-blocking but S1/S2-locking therapeutic strategy to prevent SARS2 invasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Tensile Strength , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunization, Passive , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Subunits/chemistry , Protein Subunits/immunology , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Internalization
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