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1.
Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases ; 39(6):800-806, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1780274

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand and analyze the epidemic status and development trends of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), to provide scientific basis for formulating the disease control strategy, and evaluating the control effect.

2.
MedComm ; 3(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749258

ABSTRACT

New genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) constantly emerge through unmitigated spread of the virus in the ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Omicron (B.1.1.529), the latest variant of concern (VOC), has so far shown exceptional spread and infectivity and has established itself as the dominant variant in recent months. The SARS‐CoV‐2 spike glycoprotein is a key component for the recognition and binding to host cell angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 receptors. The Omicron variant harbors a cluster of substitutions/deletions/insertions, and more than 30 mutations are located in spike. Some noticeable mutations, including K417N, T478K, N501Y, and P681H, are shared with the previous VOCs Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta variants and have been proven to be associated with higher transmissibility, viral infectivity, and immune evasion potential. Studies have revealed that the Omicron variant is partially resistant to the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies and convalescent sera, which poses significant challenges for the clinical effectiveness of the current vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. We provide a comprehensive analysis and summary of the epidemiology and immune escape mechanisms of the Omicron variant. We also suggest some therapeutic strategies against the Omicron variant. This review, therefore, aims to provide information for further research efforts to prevent and contain the impact of new VOCs during the ongoing pandemic. Omicron (B.1.1.529), the latest variant of concern, is partially resistant to the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies and convalescent sera, which poses significant challenges for the clinical effectiveness of the current vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. We provide a comprehensive analysis and summary of the epidemiology and immune escape mechanisms of the Omicron variant. We also suggest some therapeutic strategies against the Omicron variant.

3.
MedComm (2020) ; 3(1): e126, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750417

ABSTRACT

New genetic variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) constantly emerge through unmitigated spread of the virus in the ongoing Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Omicron (B.1.1.529), the latest variant of concern (VOC), has so far shown exceptional spread and infectivity and has established itself as the dominant variant in recent months. The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is a key component for the recognition and binding to host cell angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors. The Omicron variant harbors a cluster of substitutions/deletions/insertions, and more than 30 mutations are located in spike. Some noticeable mutations, including K417N, T478K, N501Y, and P681H, are shared with the previous VOCs Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta variants and have been proven to be associated with higher transmissibility, viral infectivity, and immune evasion potential. Studies have revealed that the Omicron variant is partially resistant to the neutralizing activity of therapeutic antibodies and convalescent sera, which poses significant challenges for the clinical effectiveness of the current vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. We provide a comprehensive analysis and summary of the epidemiology and immune escape mechanisms of the Omicron variant. We also suggest some therapeutic strategies against the Omicron variant. This review, therefore, aims to provide information for further research efforts to prevent and contain the impact of new VOCs during the ongoing pandemic.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324487

ABSTRACT

Background: The World Health Organization characterized the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as a pandemic on March 11. Many clinical trials on COVID-19 have been registered, and we aim to review the characteristics of the trials and provide guidance for future trials to avoid duplicated effort. Methods All the studies on COVID-19 registered before Mar 3, 2020 on eight registry platforms worldwide were searched and the data of design, participants, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and analyzed. The most promising trials were screened based on study design, rationale, and resource availability. Results 393 studies registered were identified until Mar 3 2020 and 380 (96.7%) studies were from mainland China, while 3 in Japan, 3 in France, 2 in the US, and 3 were international collaborative studies. 363 studies (92.4%) recruited participants from hospitals and 266 studies (67.7%) aimed at therapeutic effect, others were for prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, etc. 202 studies (51.4%) were randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The average sample size was 1061 and ranged from 8 to 150,000 per study. 177 out of 266 therapeutic studies (66.5% ) tested Western medicines including antiviral drugs (17.7%), stem cell and cord blood therapy (10.2%), chloroquine and derivatives (8.3%), 16 (6.0%) on Chinese medicines, and 73 (27.4%) on integrated therapy of Western and Chinese medicines. 14 Chinese medicines had its clear rationale for evaluation of therapeutic effects. 31 studies among 266 therapeutic studies (11.7%) used mortality as primary outcome, while the most designed secondary outcomes were symptoms and signs (47.0%). 106 studies (27.0%) were funded by the government, and 268 (68.2%) demonstrated ethical approval. 45.5% studies (179 out of 266) had not started recruiting till Mar 3. Eight RCTs were evaluated as the most promising trials. Conclusions Majority of the studies focused on assessing therapeutics for COVID-19 but inappropriate outcome setting, delayed recruitment and insufficient numbers of new cases in China implied many studies may fail to complete. Strategies and protocols of the studies with robust and rapid data sharing from international collaboration are warranted for emergency public health events, helping to accelerate priority setting for timely evidence-based decision-making.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324133

ABSTRACT

Prolonged school closure has been adopted worldwide to control COVID-19. Such preemptive implementation was predicated on the premise that school children are a core group for COVID-19 transmission. Using surveillance data from the Chinese cities of Shenzhen and Anqing, we inferred that children aged 18 or below are only around half as susceptible to COVID-19 infection as adults. Using transmission models parameterized with synthetic contact matrices for 152 jurisdictions around the world, we showed that the lower susceptibility of school children substantially limited the effectiveness of school closure in reducing COVID-19 transmissibility. Our results, together with recent findings that clinical severity of COVID-19 in children is lower, suggest that school closure may not be ideal as a sustained, primary intervention for controlling COVID-19.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315937

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January 2020, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been fully and deeply involved in the treatment of COVID-19 in China. An increasing number of clinical trials has been registered to evaluate the effects of TCM in the prevention and therapeutic management of COVID-19. Objective: This study aims to review the existing TCM registered trials, identify promising and available TCM therapies, in order to provide reference for the global management of COVID-19. Methods: : All clinical trials on TCM for COVID-19 registered in eight registry platforms worldwide were searched up to May 14, 2020. The data of registration trend, design, objective, interventions, current status, and relevant information were reviewed and summarized. Supportive information on the progress, results and potential value of the included registered trials were searched and reviewed from databases and official websites. Results: : 161 TCM trials registered in three registries from January 26 to May 14 were included. 94 (58.4%) were randomized controlled trials, followed by controlled clinical trials (25, 15.5%), single-arm clinical studies (18, 11.2%) and others (24, 14.9%). 114 trials (70.8%) assessed therapeutic effects;while the remaining were for prevention, rehabilitation, and TCM syndrome epidemiology. The three most evaluated TCM interventions were Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the preparation forms of formulae decoction/granule (41.7%), Chinese patent medicine (24.8%) and Chinese herbal-derived injections (8.1%). The common outcomes in therapeutic trials were symptoms and signs (65.8%), time to viral clearance on PCR (50.9%), and improvement in CT images (43.9%). 78 trials (48.4%) had started recruiting and six trials (3.7%) had completed recruiting. Among the TCM interventions identified from the registered trials, the following are worthy of attention and may have the potential feasibility of being evaluated and then used worldwide due to their rigorous design, previous evidence and availability: for prevention in high-risk populations or suspected cases, moxibustion, Huoxiang Zhengqi pill and Jinye Baidu granule could be considered;for treatment, Qingfei Paidu decoction or granules in mild, moderate and severe cases, Huashi Baidu decoction, Lianhua Qingwen caplsule, Toujie Quwen granule and Xiyanping injection in mild and moderate cases, and Xuebijing injection in severe cases could be considered. For rehabilitation of cured patients, the effect of Tai Chi and Liuzijue on the patients’ lung function and quality of life deserves attention. Conclusion: A series of promising potentially effective TCM interventions including CHM formulae, Chinese patent medicines, herbal-derived injections and non-drug therapies have been identified in clinical practice and are being evaluated by registered clinical trials. Available and applicable interventions within relevant trials are worthy of worldwide attention and application, in order to contribute to the global management of COVID-19 epidemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312630

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, COVID-19 has been confirmed in more than18.8 million patients and leads to 0.70 million deaths worldwide. The mortality and disease severity predictors of COVID-19 have been investigated in many studies. However, they are based on early or partial datasets from high epidemic areas. Here, we retrospect benign clinical and epidemiological outcomes-associated factors from a solved epidemic in a low epidemic area. Methods: : All 98 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in a local epidemic (Zhuhai, China) from January 17, 2020 to March 10, 2020 were enrolled. Data were updated until all patients having final outcomes. Results: : Patients were all hospitalized. The case fatality rate was 1.0%. There were no local secondary infection cases. The median age was 46.3 years. Underlying diseases were found in 33.7% patients. The severe/critical rate was 19.4%. The mean period from disease onset to admission was 4.4 days. Compared with serious/critical cases, mild/common cases on admission were much younger, lacks of comorbidities and normal in functions of vital organs and indicators of secondary bacterial infections. The lymphocyte counts in serious/critical cases began to be significantly lower 3 days before their identification dates. The absence of lymphopenia before the eighth day from disease onset can exclude the possibility of 78.5% to be serious/critical ill. Most patients (88.8%) received antiviral treatments. Early antiviral treatment significantly shortened the viral RNA-negative conversion time. The delayed antiviral treatment was associated with critical patients. Conclusions: : Younger age, lack of aging-related diseases and early hospitalization of all patients to conduct antiviral treatment and prevention of secondary epidemic were the important benign clinical and epidemiological outcomes-associated factors of COVID-19. In combating COVID-19, the active intervention strategies are crucial in low epidemic areas and the continuous monitoring of lymphocytes may be useful to sort patients reasonably in high epidemic areas.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310887

ABSTRACT

We propose an equilibrium-driven deformation algorithm (EDDA) to simulate the inbetweening transformations starting from an initial image to an equilibrium image, which covers images varying from a greyscale type to a colorful type on plane or manifold. The algorithm is based on Fokker-Planck dynamics on manifold, which automatically cooperates positivity, unconditional stability, mass conservation law, exponentially convergence and also the manifold structure suggested by dataset. The thresholding scheme is adapted for the sharp interface dynamics and is used to achieve the finite time convergence. Using EDDA, three challenging examples, (I) facial aging process, (II) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) invading/treatment process, and (III) continental evolution process are conducted efficiently.

9.
Jianzhu Jieneng = Construction Conserves Energy ; 49(12):126, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1652409

ABSTRACT

Creating a good local microclimate can alleviate urban heat islands and poor urban ventilation. During the COVID-19 epidemic, citizens' cross-city and cross-regional activities were restricted, and most activities were conducted in open/semi-open areas next to residential areas, and local pedestrians were also quantitatively explored. The new characteristics of the microclimate bring difficulties. The RNG k-ε model in the Reynolds time-average method is used to simulate and analyze the wind environment of a typical street valley with a pocket park in a hot summer and a cold winter, and explore whether there are plants in the pocket park. The results show that the results obtained by the used turbulence model, initial edge conditions and numerical method are in good agreement with the selected verification experimental results, which meet the needs of the wind environment simulation of the pocket park. Only under the action of the pocket park, the pedestrian area is dimensionless. The difference in wind speed can reach 0.5 compared to the time when there is no park. When the plants in the park are added, the average wind speed in the pedestrian area of ​​the surrounding street valley is less affected by the plants, and the dimensionless wind speed is only reduced by 0.1 in the core area of ​​the park. Pocket parks can significantly improve the low wind speed in pedestrian areas, and the research results can provide reference for the design of low-carbon livable blocks and microclimate simulation during the epidemic period.

10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262657, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tests for SARS-CoV-2 immunity are needed to help assess responses to vaccination, which can be heterogeneous and may wane over time. The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is considered the gold standard for measuring serum neutralizing antibodies but requires high level biosafety, live viral cultures and days to complete. We hypothesized that competitive enzyme linked immunoassays (ELISAs) based on SARS-CoV-2 spike protein's receptor binding domain (RBD) attachment to its host receptor, the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (ACE2r), would correlate with PRNT, given the central role of RBD-ACE2r interactions in infection and published studies to date, and enable evaluation of vaccine responses. METHODS AND RESULTS: Configuration and development of a competitive ELISA with plate-bound RBD and soluble biotinylated ACE2r was accomplished using pairs of pre/post vaccine serum. When the competitive ELISA was used to evaluate N = 32 samples from COVID-19 patients previously tested by PRNT, excellent correlation in IC50 results were observed (rs = .83, p < 0.0001). When the competitive ELISA was used to evaluate N = 42 vaccinated individuals and an additional N = 13 unvaccinated recovered COVID-19 patients, significant differences in RBD-ACE2r inhibitory activity were associated with prior history of COVID-19 and type of vaccine received. In longitudinal analyses pre and up to 200 days post vaccine, surrogate neutralizing activity increased markedly after primary and booster vaccine doses, but fell substantially, up to <12% maximal levels within 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: A competitive ELISA based on inhibition of RBD-ACE2r attachment correlates well with PRNT, quantifies significantly higher activity among vaccine recipients with prior COVID (vs. those without), and highlights marked declines in surrogate neutralizing activity over a 6 month period post vaccination. The findings raise concern about the duration of vaccine responses and potential need for booster shots.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , /administration & dosage
11.
Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare ; 14:3597-3606, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1609858

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination is an effective strategy to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to compare predictors of vaccination intention between healthcare workers (HCWs) and non-healthcare workers (non-HCWs) in China. Methods A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among HCWs and non-HCWs. Several bivariate analysis techniques, eg, crosstab with Chi-square, independent t-test and single factor ANOVA, were performed to analyze the correlation. After that, a series of multivariate binary regressions were employed to determine predictors of vaccination intention. Results Intention was closely and significantly related with gender, perceived vaccination knowledge, perceived importance and effectiveness of vaccine to prevent COVID-19. HCWs and non-HCWs were heterogeneous, since vaccination intention, perceived knowledge, and attitudes (eg, importance, severity, risk) toward COVID-19 or vaccine had statistically significant difference between the two groups. With comparison of predictors of vaccination intention, for HCWs, demographic factors were the major predictors of COVID-19 vaccination intention. Female HCWs and HCWs with a Master’s or higher degree were more hesitant about vaccination (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), while HCWs had greater vaccination intention as their age increased (P = 0.02). For non-HCWs, perceived vaccination knowledge was the major predictor of COVID-19 vaccination intention (P < 0.001). Additionally, perceived importance and effectiveness of vaccine were predictors for both HCWs and non-HCWs. Conclusion Vaccination intention of HCWs was greater than that of non-HCWs in China. Measures should be taken to improve the vaccination rate based on the predictors of vaccination intention identified in this study. For HCWs, especially those with a high level of education or who were females, the safety and effectiveness of vaccines in use may reinforce their vaccination intention. For non-HCWs, popularization of general medical knowledge, including of vaccine-preventable diseases, may increase their vaccination intention.

12.
Anal Methods ; 14(1): 7-16, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559288

ABSTRACT

The detection of biomolecular analytes is of great importance in clinical, environmental, and argo-food areas, among which the electrochemical methodology is attracting much attention. In particular, screen-printed electrode (SPE)-based sensing applications have exhibited potential possibility for on-site detection, especially for fast clinical biomarker detection, since they provide a miniaturized but robust and portable electrode detection system. In this context, we focused on the modification of SPE with functional antibodies to improve the electrochemical detection performance in versatile sensing applications, particularly for COVID-19 detection. These antibodies were immobilized onto the electrode surface via various methodologies, through which the powerful potential from the modification of SPE was revealed. Finally, more novel and excellent works on the biomolecular modification of SPE and the prospects of this technology from its state-of-art status to commercialization are previewed and future perspectives in this field are mentioned.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Electrodes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(50)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555255

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), binds to host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) through its spike (S) glycoprotein, which mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. However, the expression of ACE2 is extremely low in a variety of human tissues, especially in the airways. Thus, other coreceptors and/or cofactors on the surface of host cells may contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here, we identified nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (MYH9) as an important host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection of human pulmonary cells by using APEX2 proximity-labeling techniques. Genetic ablation of MYH9 significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in wild type (WT) A549 and Calu-3 cells, and overexpression of MYH9 enhanced the pseudovirus infection in WT A549 and H1299 cells. MYH9 was colocalized with the SARS-CoV-2 S and directly interacted with SARS-CoV-2 S through the S2 subunit and S1-NTD (N-terminal domain) by its C-terminal domain (designated as PRA). Further experiments suggested that endosomal or myosin inhibitors effectively block the viral entry of SARS-CoV-2 into PRA-A549 cells, while transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and cathepsin B and L (CatB/L) inhibitors do not, indicating that MYH9 promotes SARS-CoV-2 endocytosis and bypasses TMPRSS2 and CatB/L pathway. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of MYH9 reduces authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection in Calu-3, ACE2-A549, and ACE2-H1299 cells. Together, our results suggest that MYH9 is a candidate host factor for SARS-CoV-2, which mediates the virus entering host cells by endocytosis in an ACE2-dependent manner, and may serve as a potential target for future clinical intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Myosin Heavy Chains/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Myosin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Myosin Heavy Chains/genetics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS Virus/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534091

ABSTRACT

Myopia is the second leading cause of visual impairment globally. Myopia can induce sight-threatening retinal degeneration and the underlying mechanism remains poorly defined. We generated a model of myopia-induced early-stage retinal degeneration in guinea pigs and investigated the mechanism of action. Methods: The form-deprivation-induced myopia (FDM) was induced in the right eyes of 2~3-week-old guinea pigs using a translucent balloon for 15 weeks. The left eye remained untreated and served as a self-control. Another group of untreated age-matched animals was used as naïve controls. The refractive error and ocular biometrics were measured at 3, 7, 9, 12 and 15 weeks post-FDM induction. Visual function was evaluated by electroretinography. Retinal neurons and synaptic structures were examined by confocal microscopy of immunolabelled retinal sections. The total RNAs were extracted from the retinas and processed for RNA sequencing analysis. Results: The FDM eyes presented a progressive axial length elongation and refractive error development. After 15 weeks of intervention, the average refractive power was -3.40 ± 1.85 D in the FDM eyes, +2.94 ± 0.59 D and +2.69 ± 0.56 D in the self-control and naïve control eyes, respectively. The a-wave amplitude was significantly lower in FDM eyes and these eyes had a significantly lower number of rods, secretagogin+ bipolar cells, and GABAergic amacrine cells in selected retinal areas. RNA-seq analysis showed that 288 genes were upregulated and 119 genes were downregulated in FDM retinas compared to naïve control retinas. In addition, 152 genes were upregulated and 12 were downregulated in FDM retinas compared to self-control retinas. The KEGG enrichment analysis showed that tyrosine metabolism, ABC transporters and inflammatory pathways were upregulated, whereas tight junction, lipid and glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis were downregulated in FDM eyes. Conclusions: The long-term (15-week) FDM in the guinea pig models induced an early-stage retinal degeneration. The dysregulation of the tyrosine metabolism and inflammatory pathways may contribute to the pathogenesis of myopia-induced retinal degeneration.


Subject(s)
Inflammation/genetics , Myopia/genetics , Retinal Degeneration/genetics , Tyrosine/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Glycosaminoglycans/genetics , Glycosaminoglycans/metabolism , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Myopia/complications , Myopia/pathology , RNA-Seq , Retina/metabolism , Retina/pathology , Retinal Degeneration/etiology , Retinal Degeneration/pathology , Tyrosine/genetics
15.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 380(2214): 20210124, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528261

ABSTRACT

Prolonged school closure has been adopted worldwide to control COVID-19. Indeed, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization figures show that two-thirds of an academic year was lost on average worldwide due to COVID-19 school closures. Such pre-emptive implementation was predicated on the premise that school children are a core group for COVID-19 transmission. Using surveillance data from the Chinese cities of Shenzhen and Anqing together, we inferred that compared with the elderly aged 60 and over, children aged 18 and under and adults aged 19-59 were 75% and 32% less susceptible to infection, respectively. Using transmission models parametrized with synthetic contact matrices for 177 jurisdictions around the world, we showed that the lower susceptibility of school children substantially limited the effectiveness of school closure in reducing COVID-19 transmissibility. Our results, together with recent findings that clinical severity of COVID-19 in children is lower, suggest that school closure may not be ideal as a sustained, primary intervention for controlling COVID-19. This article is part of the theme issue 'Data science approach to infectious disease surveillance'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
16.
Educ Stud Math ; 108(1-2): 65-85, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1507062

ABSTRACT

The article introduces a mathematics education measure in response to the COVID-19 epidemic in China and explores students' degree of approval and perception of digital equity towards the response. After the outbreak of the COVID-19, the Chinese New Century Primary School Mathematics Textbook (NCPM) committee had developed a series of micro classes (abbreviated as NCPM micro classes), and more than 25 million teachers and students in China watched the NCPM micro classes during the 3 months social isolation. Then, students' degree of approval towards the NCPM micro classes and perception of digital equity were examined after social isolation. A total of 132,740 pieces of data were collected from Chinese primary school students. Quantitative analysis of student's degree of approval towards different parts of NCPM micro classes indicated that the introduction, interaction, summary and consolidation, curriculum characteristics, and goal achievement parts of the NCPM micro classes have received high approval from students, and students with higher former achievement perceived a higher degree of approval towards the NCPM micro classes. Furthermore, we found that gender, socioeconomic status, school location, and learning location had no significant impact on students' degree of approval, indicating a digital equity exists. This study helps researchers or educators understand the mathematics education response to the COVID-19 outbreak in China and extends our understanding of primary students' degree of approval and perception of digital equity with these online classes.

17.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue = China Environmental Science ; 41(8):3927, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1498172

ABSTRACT

Based on the meteorological forecast data from the National Meteorological Bureau, this study developed an AERMOD-based pollution forecasting model for iron and steel plants, simulated air quality impacts of a typical iron and steel plant located in Hebei Province during the controlled period(from February to March in 2020) and the uncontrolled period(from April to October in 2020) of the COVID-19 epidemic, and validated the model with real monitoring air quality data. In case of adverse wind direction, the results showed that the average contribution of SO2, NOx and PM10 from the plant to three state-controlled monitoring stations were 20.19~33.81%, 17.49~23.46% and 2.02~2.69% respectively during the controlled period, and 13.43~21.01%, 11.09~20.92% and 1.20~2.22% during the uncontrolled period. The correlation coefficients between the forecast values of SO2, NOx and PM10 emission of the plant and the real monitoring values of the three state-controlled monitoring stations were higher in the controlled period(the highest values are 0.43,0.48 and 0.29, respectively, at individual monitoring station) compared with the uncontrolled period(the highest values are 0.42,0.39 and 0.07, respectively) due to the less interference from other anthropogenic emission sources during the controlled period.

18.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 1329-1337, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to investigate incidence and risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we enrolled 823 COVID-19 patients with at least two evaluations of renal function during hospitalization from four hospitals in Wuhan, China between February 2020 and April 2020. Clinical and laboratory parameters at the time of admission and follow-up data were recorded. Systemic renal tubular dysfunction was evaluated via 24-h urine collections in a subgroup of 55 patients. RESULTS: In total, 823 patients were enrolled (50.5% male) with a mean age of 60.9 ± 14.9 years. AKI occurred in 38 (40.9%) ICU cases but only 6 (0.8%) non-ICU cases. Using forward stepwise Cox regression analysis, we found eight independent risk factors for AKI including decreased platelet level, lower albumin level, lower phosphorus level, higher level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin, C-reactive protein (CRP), urea, and prothrombin time (PT) on admission. For every 0.1 mmol/L decreases in serum phosphorus level, patients had a 1.34-fold (95% CI 1.14-1.58) increased risk of AKI. Patients with hypophosphatemia were likely to be older and with lower lymphocyte count, lower serum albumin level, lower uric acid, higher LDH, and higher CRP. Furthermore, serum phosphorus level was positively correlated with phosphate tubular maximum per volume of filtrate (TmP/GFR) (Pearson r = 0.66, p < .001) in subgroup analysis, indicating renal phosphate loss via proximal renal tubular dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The AKI incidence was very low in non-ICU patients as compared to ICU patients. Hypophosphatemia is an independent risk factor for AKI in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hypophosphatemia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypophosphatemia/epidemiology , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(20)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480852

ABSTRACT

TPU-coated polyester fabric was used as the substrate of a flexible temperature sensor and Ag nanoparticles were deposited on its surface as the temperature sensing layer by the magnetron sputtering method. The effects of sputtering powers and heat treatment on properties of the sensing layers, such as the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR), linearity, hysteresis, drift, reliability, and bending resistance, were mainly studied. The results showed that the TCR (0.00234 °C-1) was the highest when sputtering power was 90 W and sputtering pressure was 0.8 Pa. The crystallinity of Ag particles would improve, as the TCR was improved to 0.00262 °C-1 under heat treatment condition at 160°. The Ag layer obtained excellent linearity, lower hysteresis and drift value, as well as good reliability and bending resistance when the sputtering power was 90 W. The flexible temperature sensor based on the coated polyester fabric improved the softness and comfortableness of sensor, which can be further applied in intelligent wearable products.

20.
Integr Med Res ; 10: 100798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate use of infection control behaviours, preventative and therapeutic interventions, and outcomes among respondents to an online survey during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: The survey was designed by an international team, translated and adapted to simplified Chinese, including 132 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation recommended by guidelines. It was distributed and collected from February to May 2021, with data analysed by WPS spreadsheet and wjx.cn. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatments, preventative behaviours and interventions, and their associated outcomes. RESULTS: The survey was accessed 503 times with 341 (67.8%) completions covering 23 provinces and four municipalities in China. Most (282/341, 82.7%) respondents reported no symptoms during the pandemic and the majority (290/341, 85.0%) reported having a SARS-CoV-2 PCR test at some point. Forty-five (13.2%) reported having a respiratory infection, among which 19 (42.2%) took one or more categories of modern medicine, e.g. painkillers, antibiotics; 16 (35.6%) used TCM interventions(s); while seven respondents combined TCM with modern medicine. All respondents reported using at least one behavioural or medical approach to prevention, with 22.3% taking TCM and 5.3% taking modern medicines. No respondents reported having a critical condition related to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We found evidence of widespread use of infection control behaviours, modern medicines and TCM for treatment and prevention of COVID-19 and other respiratory symptoms. Larger scale studies are warranted, including a more representative sample exploring TCM preparations recommended in clinical guidelines.

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