Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 12 de 12
Filter
4.
J Infect Public Health ; 2020 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670745

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started from Wuhan, China has infected more than 6.7 million individuals and killed more than 390,000 individuals globally. Due to the higher transmissibility and infectiousness, asymptomatic infection, and lack of effective treatment options and vaccine, fatalities and morbidities are increasing day by day globally. Despite physical health consequences, COVID-19 pandemic has created stress and anxiety, as result there is an increased risk of mental illnesses both in the infected and normal individuals. To eradicate these risks, it is necessary to determine the COVID-19 zoonotic source of transmission to humans and clinical manifestations in infected individuals. Although, identification or development of the highly effective therapeutic agents is necessary, however, development of protective strategies against the COVID-19 by enhancing immune responses will be an asset in the current scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we discuss the transmission, health consequences, and potential management (therapeutic and preventive) options for COVID-19 disease.

5.
Front. Med. ; (7)20200609.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-615509

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading across the world to cause thousands of mortalities each day. Poor responses from the authorities to the spread of infection, lack of effective measures for prevention, unavailability of promising treatment options, and sufficient diagnostic options have created an alarming for the world. The transmission routes from human to human of SARS-CoV-2 can be the direct transmission, droplet inhalation transmission, contact transmission, transmission through saliva, and transmission via fecal–oral routes. Due to the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2's, developing control and prevention measures is challenging. Implementing proper strategies addressing the infection control and clinical supplies, understanding the mechanism associated with pathogenesis, advancing in preventive measures and effective treatment and diagnostic options are necessary to control the ongoing pandemic. In this article, we briefly discuss the features, entry mechanism, infectiousness, and health consequences related to the COVID-19 outbreak.

6.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-2, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327128
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 439-456, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124861

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a newly discovered enteric coronavirus, is the aetiological agent that causes severe clinical diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets. To understand the effect of SADS-CoV on host cells, we characterized the apoptotic pathways and elucidated mechanisms underlying the process of apoptotic cell death after SADS-CoV infection. SADS-CoV-infected cells showed evidence of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The use of a pan-caspase inhibitor resulted in the inhibition of SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and reduction in SADS-CoV replication, suggestive of the association of a caspase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, SADS-CoV infection activated the initiators caspase-8 and -9 and upregulated FasL and Bid cleavage, demonstrating a crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) relocalized to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively, after infection by SADS-CoV. Moreover, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells treated with cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, were completely protected from SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and viral replication, suggesting the involvement of cyclophilin D (CypD) in these processes. Altogether, our results indicate that caspase-dependent FasL (extrinsic)- and mitochondria (intrinsic)- mediated apoptotic pathways play a central role in SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis that facilitates viral replication. In summary, these findings demonstrate mechanisms by which SADS-CoV induces apoptosis and improve our understanding of SADS-CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cyclophilin D/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cyclophilin D/genetics , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108853

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7146

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
12.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 845-851, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that can cause vomiting and watery diarrhea in pigs and death in piglets. Since PDCoV was first detected in 2009 in Hong Kong, the prevalence of PDCoV has increased in recent years, resulting in serious economic losses to the swine industry. The coronavirus spike (S) protein is an antigen that has been demonstrated to contain epitopes that induce neutralizing antibodies. The presence of serum and milk IgA antibodies against pathogens that replicate primarily on mucosal surfaces is important for mucosal immunity. Here, an indirect anti-PDCoV IgA antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PDCoV S1 IgA ELISA) using the purified S1 portion of S protein as the coating antigen was developed to detect PDCoV IgA antibodies in serum and sow's milk. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed high specificity and sensitivity of the PDCoV-S1-IgA-ELISA based on samples confirmed by IFA. Anti-PDCoV IgA antibodies in 152 serum samples and 65 milk samples collected from six farms that had experienced diarrhea outbreaks within previous last two years were detected by this assay, and 62.5% of the serum samples and 100% of the milk samples were positive for PDCoV. The indirect ELISA method established in this study will provide a convenient tool for measurement of serum and milk IgA levels against PDCoV in pig herds, rapid detection of PDCoV infection in pigs, and evaluation of the immunogenicity of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Swine Diseases/blood , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL