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1.
J Med Chem ; 65(1): 876-884, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606194

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a global health threat, was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like cysteine protease (PLpro) was recognized as a promising drug target because of multiple functions in virus maturation and antiviral immune responses. Inhibitor GRL0617 occupied the interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) C-terminus-binding pocket and showed an effective antiviral inhibition. Here, we described a novel peptide-drug conjugate (PDC), in which GRL0617 was linked to a sulfonium-tethered peptide derived from PLpro-specific substrate LRGG. The EM-C and EC-M PDCs showed a promising in vitro IC50 of 7.40 ± 0.37 and 8.63 ± 0.55 µM, respectively. EC-M could covalently label PLpro active site C111 and display anti-ISGylation activities in cellular assays. The results represent the first attempt to design PDCs composed of stabilized peptide inhibitors and GRL0617 to inhibit PLpro. These novel PDCs provide promising opportunities for antiviral drug design.


Subject(s)
Aniline Compounds/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Benzamides/chemistry , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/metabolism , Drug Design , Naphthalenes/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Aniline Compounds/metabolism , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Benzamides/metabolism , Benzamides/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/chemistry , Cytokines/chemistry , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Naphthalenes/metabolism , Naphthalenes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Ubiquitins/chemistry
2.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109299, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559479

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging porcine enteric coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea in piglets and results in serious economic losses. There are no effective vaccines and antiviral drugs to prevent and treat PDCoV infection currently. Griffithsin (GRFT) is a lectin with potent antiviral activity against enveloped viruses because of its ability to specifically bind N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides. GRFT has been reported to possess antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we first confirmed the antiviral activity of GRFT against PDCoV in vitro. The infected cells (%) and virus titers were significantly decreased at concentration 1 µg/mL or above of GRFT. Time-course experiments revealed that GRFT inhibits PDCoV infection at the adsorption and penetration step. GRFT binding to PDCoV spike (S) protein on the surface wraps the virus and blocks its entry. The outstanding antiviral potency indicates that GRFT has the potential value as a candidate drug for the prevention and treatment of PDCoV infection.


Subject(s)
Deltacoronavirus , Plant Lectins , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Culture Techniques/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/drug effects , Plant Lectins/pharmacology , Swine , Swine Diseases/drug therapy
3.
Arab J Chem ; 14(10): 103353, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479562

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of interaction between quercetin-3-O-sophoroside and different SARS-CoV-2's proteins which can bring some useful details about the control of different variants of coronavirus including the recent case, Delta. The chemical structure of the quercetin-3-O-sophoroside was first optimized. Docking studies were performed by CoV disease-2019 (COVID-19) Docking Server. Afterwards, the molecular dynamic study was done using High Throughput Molecular Dynamics (HTMD) tool. The results showed a remarkable stability of the quercetin-3-O-sophoroside based on the calculated parameters. Docking outcomes revealed that the highest affinity of quercetin-3-O-sophoroside was related to the RdRp with RNA. Molecular dynamic studies showed that the target E protein tends to be destabilized in the presence of quercetin-3-O-sophoroside. Based on these results, quercetin-3-O-sophoroside can show promising inhibitory effects on the binding site of the different receptors and may be considered as effective inhibitor of the entry and proliferation of the SARS-CoV-2 and its different variants. Finally, it should be noted, although this paper does not directly deal with the exploring the interaction of main proteins of SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with quercetin-3-O-sophoroside, at the time of writing, no direct theoretical investigation was reported on the interaction of ligands with the main proteins of Delta variant. Therefore, the present data may provide useful information for designing some theoretical studies in the future for studying the control of SARS-CoV-2 variants due to possible structural similarity between proteins of different variants.

5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 615867, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285328

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of the current study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances among Chinese people during the COVID-19 pandemic in a large national survey, analyze the relationship between sleep disturbances and mental health status, and explore the influencing factors of the relationship between sleep disturbances and mental health status. Methods: An online survey was accessed by 19,740 people throughout China from February 14 to 21, 2020. The survey included the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) to measure psychological distress and two questions about sleep disturbances. Logistic regression analyses and moderation analysis were performed. Results: (1) Among the 14,505 respondents included in analyses, 3,783 (26.08%) reported sleep disturbances at least 3 days during the past week. (2) Sleep disturbances increased the risk of depression, anxiety, and stress (p < 0.05). (3) Gender, age, education, occupation, frequency of attending to epidemic information, nervousness about supplies, receiving provisions of living necessities from the service department during the outbreak, number of correct responses to questions about the epidemic, and isolation/quarantine affected the risk of mental health problems among participants experiencing sleep disturbances (p < 0.05). (4) A moderation analysis found that sleep problems were more likely to affect depression, anxiety, and stress scores in men than women during the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 outbreak, 26.08% people surveyed experienced sleep disturbances, and the presence of sleep disturbances was positively related to depression, anxiety, and stress, especially among front-line anti-epidemic workers, younger people, people living in isolation/quarantine, people with a college or greater education, and males.

6.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(5): 851-861, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122763

ABSTRACT

Patients with rheumatic diseases are often more susceptible to different bacteria and viruses because of immune impairment, but it is not clear whether there is a higher risk of infection and a more serious course of disease for novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). We performed this systematic review and meta analysis to assess the risk and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with rheumatic diseases compared with the general population. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science databases from January 1, 2020 to October 20, 2020 to determine epidemiological information related to patients with rheumatic diseases and COVID-19, including clear risk estimate or data that could be converted and extracted. We included 26 observational studies, totaling about 2000 patients with rheumatic diseases of whom were infected with COVID-19. Meta-analysis showed that the risk of COVID-19 infection in rheumatic patients was significantly higher than that in the general population (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.24-1.88, P = 0.000). In terms of hospitalization and severe clinical outcomes associated with COVID-19, we found that rheumatic patients showed similar results to the reference population (hospitalization OR = 1.36, 95% CI 0.81-2.29, P = 0.247; admitted to ICU OR = 1.94, 95% CI 0.88-4.27, P = 0.098; death OR = 1.29, 95% CI 0.84-1.97, P = 0.248). The presence of comorbidities, hypertension, lung diseases were significantly associated with the increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in rheumatic patients and anti-TNF drugs were associated with lower hospitalization risk. Older age was related to severe COVID-19. Our meta-analysis indicated that rheumatic patients were at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection but might not lead to a more serious disease process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/therapy , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3187, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065963

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a novel coronavirus causing the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. High adaptive plasticity on the spike protein of SASR-CoV-2 enables it to transmit across different host species. In the present study, we collected 2092 high-quality genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from 160 regions in over 50 countries and reconstructed their phylogeny. We also analyzed the polymorphic interaction between spike protein and human ACE2 (hACE2). Phylogenetic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that SARS-CoV-2 is probably originated from a recombination event on the spike protein between a bat coronavirus and a pangolin coronavirus that endows it humans infectivity. Compared with other regions in the S gene of SARS-CoV-2, the direct-binding sites of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is more conserved. We focused on 3,860 amino acid mutations in spike protein RBD (T333-C525) of SARS-CoV-2 and simulated their differential stability and binding affinity to hACE2 (S19-D615). The results indicate no preference for SARS-CoV-2 infectivity on people of different ethnic groups. The variants in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 may also be a good indicator demonstrating the transmission route of SARS-CoV-2 from its natural reservoir to human hosts.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Binding Sites , Humans , Mutation , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1840-1844, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023642

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started from Wuhan, China has infected more than 6.7 million individuals and killed more than 390,000 individuals globally. Due to the higher transmissibility and infectiousness, asymptomatic infection, and lack of effective treatment options and vaccine, fatalities and morbidities are increasing day by day globally. Despite physical health consequences, COVID-19 pandemic has created stress and anxiety, as result there is an increased risk of mental illnesses both in the infected and normal individuals. To eradicate these risks, it is necessary to determine the COVID-19 zoonotic source of transmission to humans and clinical manifestations in infected individuals. Although, identification or development of the highly effective therapeutic agents is necessary, however, development of protective strategies against the COVID-19 by enhancing immune responses will be an asset in the current scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we discuss the transmission, health consequences, and potential management (therapeutic and preventive) options for COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Disorders , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans
10.
Brain Behav ; 11(2): e01901, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and stress like mental illnesses are the common outcomes of viral epidemics and pandemics. Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China, and then spread all over the world in a short time. OBJECTIVES: To highlight and discuss the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental or psychological health. METHOD: Literature search and collection of the information were performed using PubMed, the reports from the World health organization, and the Center for disease control and prevention. RESULTS: COVID-19 infection has already been declared as a global pandemic, which in association with infodemic has increased the risk of psychiatric/psychological disorders. A large population of the world is prone to develop anxiety, depressive disorders, and other mental abnormalities. Therefore, timely psychological interventions and preventive strategies are required. Moreover, the infection has been reported to be linked with cerebrovascular conditions; therefore, patients with underlying cerebrovascular diseases should be given attention. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-mediated mental health complications and cerebrovascular conditions may cause a huge burden on healthcare communities in the future. Therefore, timely intervention and the development or application of preventive strategies are required to decrease the risk of neurological consequences.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Mental Disorders , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Virol Methods ; 279: 113855, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827847

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes very high mortality in newborn piglets. The mucosal immune system in the gut must eliminate potential pathogens while maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with the commensal microbiota. Antibodies derived from the secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) class, act as the first line of antigen-specific immunity in the gut by recognizing both pathogens and commensals. Therefore, the measurement of SIgA levels is an important index in evaluating PEDV infections and immune status. A simple and rapid method for the detection of PEDV-specific SIgA using an immunochromatographic test strip has been developed; incorporating a colloidal gold-labeled anti-SIgA secretory component (SC) mAb probe for the detection of anti-PEDV-specific SIgA in swine. On the strip, a gold-labeled anti-SIgA SC mAb was applied to a conjugate pad; purified PEDV particles and goat anti-mouse antibodies were blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane to form the test and control lines, respectively. Results showed that the immunochromatographic test strip had high sensitivity and specificity. When compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, kappa value suggesting that the strip could be used to detect PEDV specific SIgA in colostrum samples. Furthermore, the strip assay is rapid and easy to perform with no requirement for professional-level skills or equipment. We found that the immunochromatographic test strip was a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the identification of PEDV specific SIgA, indicating its suitability for epidemiological surveillance as well as vaccine immunity when studying PEDV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Colostrum/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/isolation & purification , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Animals , Female , Gold Colloid , Reagent Strips , Sensitivity and Specificity , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 310, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615509

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading across the world to cause thousands of mortalities each day. Poor responses from the authorities to the spread of infection, lack of effective measures for prevention, unavailability of promising treatment options, and sufficient diagnostic options have created an alarming for the world. The transmission routes from human to human of SARS-CoV-2 can be the direct transmission, droplet inhalation transmission, contact transmission, transmission through saliva, and transmission via fecal-oral routes. Due to the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2's, developing control and prevention measures is challenging. Implementing proper strategies addressing the infection control and clinical supplies, understanding the mechanism associated with pathogenesis, advancing in preventive measures and effective treatment and diagnostic options are necessary to control the ongoing pandemic. In this article, we briefly discuss the features, entry mechanism, infectiousness, and health consequences related to the COVID-19 outbreak.

18.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 439-456, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-124861

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), a newly discovered enteric coronavirus, is the aetiological agent that causes severe clinical diarrhea and intestinal pathological damage in piglets. To understand the effect of SADS-CoV on host cells, we characterized the apoptotic pathways and elucidated mechanisms underlying the process of apoptotic cell death after SADS-CoV infection. SADS-CoV-infected cells showed evidence of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. The use of a pan-caspase inhibitor resulted in the inhibition of SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and reduction in SADS-CoV replication, suggestive of the association of a caspase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, SADS-CoV infection activated the initiators caspase-8 and -9 and upregulated FasL and Bid cleavage, demonstrating a crosstalk between the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. However, the proapoptotic proteins Bax and Cytochrome c (Cyt c) relocalized to the mitochondria and cytoplasm, respectively, after infection by SADS-CoV. Moreover, Vero E6 and IPI-2I cells treated with cyclosporin A (CsA), an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening, were completely protected from SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis and viral replication, suggesting the involvement of cyclophilin D (CypD) in these processes. Altogether, our results indicate that caspase-dependent FasL (extrinsic)- and mitochondria (intrinsic)- mediated apoptotic pathways play a central role in SADS-CoV-induced apoptosis that facilitates viral replication. In summary, these findings demonstrate mechanisms by which SADS-CoV induces apoptosis and improve our understanding of SADS-CoV pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus/physiology , Apoptosis , Caspases/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Cyclophilin D/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cyclophilin D/genetics , Swine , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108853

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
20.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 845-851, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-877

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that can cause vomiting and watery diarrhea in pigs and death in piglets. Since PDCoV was first detected in 2009 in Hong Kong, the prevalence of PDCoV has increased in recent years, resulting in serious economic losses to the swine industry. The coronavirus spike (S) protein is an antigen that has been demonstrated to contain epitopes that induce neutralizing antibodies. The presence of serum and milk IgA antibodies against pathogens that replicate primarily on mucosal surfaces is important for mucosal immunity. Here, an indirect anti-PDCoV IgA antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PDCoV S1 IgA ELISA) using the purified S1 portion of S protein as the coating antigen was developed to detect PDCoV IgA antibodies in serum and sow's milk. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed high specificity and sensitivity of the PDCoV-S1-IgA-ELISA based on samples confirmed by IFA. Anti-PDCoV IgA antibodies in 152 serum samples and 65 milk samples collected from six farms that had experienced diarrhea outbreaks within previous last two years were detected by this assay, and 62.5% of the serum samples and 100% of the milk samples were positive for PDCoV. The indirect ELISA method established in this study will provide a convenient tool for measurement of serum and milk IgA levels against PDCoV in pig herds, rapid detection of PDCoV infection in pigs, and evaluation of the immunogenicity of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Swine Diseases/blood , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis
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