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1.
Appl Mater Today ; 27: 101473, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777973

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made biotextiles, including face masks and protective clothing, quite familiar in our daily lives. Biotextiles are one broad category of textile products that are beyond our imagination. Currently, biotextiles have been routinely utilized in various biomedical fields, like daily protection, wound healing, tissue regeneration, drug delivery, and sensing, to improve the health and medical conditions of individuals. However, these biotextiles are commonly manufactured with fibers with diameters on the micrometer scale (> 10 µm). Recently, nanofibrous materials have aroused extensive attention in the fields of fiber science and textile engineering because the fibers with nanoscale diameters exhibited obviously superior performances, such as size and surface/interface effects as well as optical, electrical, mechanical, and biological properties, compared to microfibers. A combination of innovative electrospinning techniques and traditional textile-forming strategies opens a new window for the generation of nanofibrous biotextiles to renew and update traditional microfibrous biotextiles. In the last two decades, the conventional electrospinning device has been widely modified to generate nanofiber yarns (NYs) with the fiber diameters less than 1000 nm. The electrospun NYs can be further employed as the primary processing unit for manufacturing a new generation of nano-textiles using various textile-forming strategies. In this review, starting from the basic information of conventional electrospinning techniques, we summarize the innovative electrospinning strategies for NY fabrication and critically discuss their advantages and limitations. This review further covers the progress in the construction of electrospun NY-based nanotextiles and their recent applications in biomedical fields, mainly including surgical sutures, various scaffolds and implants for tissue engineering, smart wearable bioelectronics, and their current and potential applications in the COVID-19 pandemic. At the end, this review highlights and identifies the future needs and opportunities of electrospun NYs and NY-based nanotextiles for clinical use.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315599

ABSTRACT

Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcomes remain unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19. Methods: : This retrospective multi-center study evaluated 28-day mortality and time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Propensity score matching was used to control confounding factors. Logistic regression and competing risk analyses were performed. Results: : The study included 850 patients (421 patients received IVIG). No significant differences in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were observed ( p =0.357 and p =0.123, respectively). High-dose of IVIG treatment (>10 g/day) (n=27) was associated with decreased 28-day mortality (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14–0.77;p =0.011). The IVIG group had prolonged median hospitalization, less shock, and higher incidences of acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury. Furthermore, IVIG-treated patients were more likely to require non-invasive mechanical ventilation and less likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: : IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19 patients was not associated with significant improvements in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. However, some improvements in 28-day survival were observed for high-dose IVIG treatment (>10 g/day).

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321377

ABSTRACT

Background: The prognosis of children and adolescents with COVID-19 obtain increasing attention worldwide. This study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis to identify risk factors which predict poor prognosis in this group.Methods: Electronic databases from inception to March, 2021 were searched for cohort studies, case-control studies and case series that investigated risk factors for poor prognosis of children and adolescents with COVID-19. We estimated the summary effect size by use of random-effects models and the 95% confidential interval (CI).Findings: We identified 33 studies, comprising 32,225 individuals. The risk of bias were generally high. In children and adolescents with COVID-19, risk of death was significantly increased in patients with MIS-C complication (odds ratio [OR]=58.00, 95% CI 6.39 to 526.79) and in need for intensive care (OR=15.25, 95% CI 1.98 to 117.44). Congenital heart disease (OR=2.90, 95% CI 1.26 to 6.67), chronic pulmonary disease (OR=3.45, 95% CI 1.47 to 8.07), and gastrointestinal symptoms (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.12) increased the odds to be admitted to ICU;MIS-C complication (OR=70.00, 95% CI 6.51 to 752.27) and neurological diseases (OR=2.51, 95% CI 1.03 to 6.15) increased the odds of respiratory support;neurological diseases (OR=4.59, 95% CI 1.99 to 10.61), obesity (OR=2.51, 95% CI 2.02 to 3.12), C-reactive protein (CRP) level ≥80mg/L (OR=11.70, 95% CI 4.37 to 31.37) and D-dimer level ≥0.5ug/mL (OR=20.40, 95% CI 1.76 to 236.44) on admission increased the odds of progression to severe/critical disease.Interpretation: Very low to moderate quality evidence found that MIS-C, congenital heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, neurological diseases, obesity, and gastrointestinal symptoms, in need for intensive care, elevated CRP and D-dimer are risk factors for poor prognosis in children and adolescents with COVID-19.Funding: None.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 757113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648939

ABSTRACT

Background: To investigate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among Chinese female nurses during the controlled coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) period and explore its associated socio-demographic factors and job characteristics. Methods: With the multistage, stratified sampling method, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September to October 2020 in China. The survey tool included revised Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with 15 items, socio-demographic and job characteristics. Univariate logistic regression analysis and multivariate factor logistic regression analysis were used to identify the risk factors for burnout of female nurses. Results: During controlled COVID-19 period in China, the overall prevalence of burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses was 60.2% with a breakdown in severity as follows: 451 (39.8 %) mild, 163 (14.4%) moderate, and 68 (6.0%) severe burnout. Little variance was reported for burnout symptoms according to job tenure (Waldχ 2 = 14.828, P < 0.05,odds ratio [OR] <1), monthly salary income (Waldχ 2 = 12.460, P < 0.05, OR <1), and night shift (Waldχ 2 = 3.821, P < 0.05, OR > 1). Conclusion: Burnout symptoms among Chinese female nurses were prevalent and associated with job tenure, monthly salary income, and night shift. Female nurses who were with shorter job tenure, worked at night shifts, and had lower monthly salaries tended to exhibit increasing high-level burnout than their counterparts. This study serves as an implication for administrators and policy-makers to improve the work conditions of nurses for promoting overall healthcare service quality.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 41: 101155, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study provides the first systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the predictors of unfavorable prognosis of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched literature databases until July 2021 for studies that investigated risk factors for unfavorable prognosis of children and adolescents with COVID-19. We used random-effects models to estimate the effect size with 95% confidence interval (CI). FINDINGS: We identified 56 studies comprising 79,104 individuals. Mortality was higher in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) (odds ratio [OR]=58.00, 95% CI 6.39-526.79) and who were admitted to intensive care (OR=12.64, 95% CI 3.42-46.68). Acute respiratry distress syndrme (ARDS) (OR=29.54, 95% CI 12.69-68.78) and acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR=55.02, 95% CI 6.26-483.35) increased the odds to be admitted to intensive care; shortness of breath (OR=16.96, 95% CI 7.66-37.51) increased the need of respiratory support; and neurological diseases (OR=5.16, 95% CI 2.30-11.60), C-reactive protein (CRP) level ≥80 mg/L (OR=11.70, 95% CI 4.37-31.37) and D-dimer level ≥0.5ug/mL (OR=20.40, 95% CI 1.76-236.44) increased the odds of progression to severe or critical disease. INTERPRETATION: Congenital heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, neurological diseases, obesity, MIS-C, shortness of breath, ARDS, AKI, gastrointestinal symptoms, elevated CRP and D-dimer are associated with unfavourable prognosis in children and adolescents with COVID-19.

6.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 5(1): e00301, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441962

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a strong risk factor for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The effect of T2DM medications on COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 131 patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 in Wuhan, we have previously found that metformin use prior to hospitalization is associated with reduced mortality. The current study aims to investigate the effects of inpatient use of T2DM medications, including metformin, acarbose, insulin and sulfonylureas, on the mortality of COVID-19 patients with T2DM during hospitalization. METHODS: We continue to carry out a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 131 patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 and treated with different combinations of diabetes medications. RESULTS: We found that patients using metformin (p = .02) and acarbose (p = .04), alone or both together (p = .03), after admission were significantly more likely to survive than those who did not use either metformin or acarbose. 37 patients continued to take metformin after admission and 35 (94.6%) survived. Among the 57 patients who used acarbose after admission, 52 survived (91.2%). A total of 20 patients used both metformin and acarbose, while 57 used neither. Of the 20 dual-use patients, 19 (95.0%) survived. CONCLUSION: Our analyses suggest that inpatient use of metformin and acarbose together or alone during hospitalization should be studied in randomized trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Acarbose/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Inpatients , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 673693, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365541

ABSTRACT

Background: Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) is widely used to treat patients with COVID-19 in China; however, its efficacy remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of Tα1 as a COVID-19 therapy. Methods: We performed a multicenter cohort study in five tertiary hospitals in the Hubei province of China between December 2019 and March 2020. The patient non-recovery rate was used as the primary outcome. Results: All crude outcomes, including non-recovery rate (65/306 vs. 290/1,976, p = 0.003), in-hospital mortality rate (62/306 vs. 271/1,976, p = 0.003), intubation rate (31/306 vs. 106/1,976, p = 0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) incidence (104/306 vs. 499/1,976, p = 0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence (26/306 vs. 66/1,976, p < 0.001), and length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay (14.9 ± 12.7 vs. 8.7 ± 8.2 days, p < 0.001), were significantly higher in the Tα1 treatment group. After adjusting for confounding factors, Tα1 use was found to be significantly associated with a higher non-recovery rate than non-Tα1 use (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1, p = 0.028). An increased risk of non-recovery rate associated with Tα1 use was observed in the patient subgroups with maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores ≥2 (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.9, p = 0.024), a record of ICU admission (OR 5.4, 95%CI 2.1-14.0, p < 0.001), and lower PaO2/FiO2 values (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.4, p = 0.046). Furthermore, later initiation of Tα1 use was associated with a higher non-recovery rate. Conclusion: Tα1 use in COVID-19 patients was associated with an increased non-recovery rate, especially in those with greater disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Thymalfasin/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Thymalfasin/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(10): 1488-1493, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcome of such treatment remains unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment in severe COVID-19 patients. METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study evaluated 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Each patient treated with IVIG was matched with one untreated patient. Logistic regression and inverse probability weighting (IPW) were used to control confounding factors. RESULTS: The study included 850 patients (421 IVIG-treated patients and 429 non-IVIG-treated patients). After matching, 406 patients per group remained. No significant difference in 28-day mortality was observed after IPW analysis (average treatment effect (ATE) = 0.008, 95% CI -0.081 to 0.097, p 0.863). There were no significant differences between the IVIG group and non-IVIG group for acute respiratory distress syndrome, diffuse intravascular coagulation, myocardial injury, acute hepatic injury, shock, acute kidney injury, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation except for prone position ventilation (ATE = -0.022, 95% CI -0.041 to -0.002, p 0.028). DISCUSSION: IVIG treatment was not associated with significant changes in 28-day mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. The effectiveness of IVIG in treating patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be further investigated through future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 121, 2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease has heterogeneous clinical features; however, the reasons for the heterogeneity are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify clinical phenotypes according to patients' temperature trajectory. METHOD: A retrospective review was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province from November 2019 to March 2020. We explored potential temperature-based trajectory phenotypes and assessed patients' clinical outcomes, inflammatory response, and response to immunotherapy according to phenotypes. RESULTS: A total of 1580 patients were included. Four temperature-based trajectory phenotypes were identified: normothermic (Phenotype 1); fever, rapid defervescence (Phenotype 2); gradual fever onset (Phenotype 3); and fever, slow defervescence (Phenotype 4). Compared with Phenotypes 1 and 2, Phenotypes 3 and 4 had a significantly higher C-reactive protein level and neutrophil count and a significantly lower lymphocyte count. After adjusting for confounders, Phenotypes 3 and 4 had higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 2.1, 1.1-4.0; and 3.3, 1.4-8.2, respectively), while Phenotype 2 had similar mortality, compared with Phenotype 1. Corticosteroid use was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality in Phenotypes 1 and 2, but not in Phenotypes 3 or 4 (p for interaction < 0.01). A similar trend was observed for gamma-globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with different temperature-trajectory phenotypes had different inflammatory responses, clinical outcomes, and responses to corticosteroid therapy.

10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 398, 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory event and a fatal complication of viral infections. Whether sHLH may also be observed in patients with a cytokine storm induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is still uncertain. We aimed to determine the incidence of sHLH in severe COVID-19 patients and evaluate the underlying risk factors. METHOD: Four hundred fifteen severe COVID-19 adult patients were retrospectively assessed for hemophagocytosis score (HScore). A subset of 7 patients were unable to be conclusively scored due to insufficient patient data. RESULTS: In 408 patients, 41 (10.04%) had an HScore ≥169 and were characterized as "suspected sHLH positive". Compared with patients below a HScore threshold of 98, the suspected sHLH positive group had higher D-dimer, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, triglycerides, ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, troponin, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, while leukocyte, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocyte, fibrinogen, pre-albumin, albumin levels were significantly lower (all P < 0.05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that high ferritin (>1922.58 ng/mL), low platelets (<101 × 109/L) and high triglycerides (>2.28 mmol/L) were independent risk factors for suspected sHLH in COVID-19 patients. Importantly, COVID-19 patients that were suspected sHLH positive had significantly more multi-organ failure. Additionally, a high HScore (>98) was an independent predictor for mortality in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: HScore should be measured as a prognostic biomarker in COVID-19 patients. In particular, it is important that HScore is assessed in patients with high ferritin, triglycerides and low platelets to improve the detection of suspected sHLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Adult , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Incidence , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/epidemiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1240457

ABSTRACT

Background Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic with high mortality. Although several studies have reported different risk factors for mortality in patients based on traditional analytics, few studies have used artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. This study investigated prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients using AI methods. Methods COVID-19 patients who were admitted in Wuhan Infectious Diseases Hospital from December 29, 2019 to March 2, 2020 were included. The whole cohort was randomly divided into training and testing sets at a 6:4 ratio. Demographic and clinical data were analyzed to identify predictors of mortality using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression and LASSO-based artificial neural network (ANN) models. The predictive performance of the models was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results A total of 1145 patients (610 men, 53.3%) were included in the study. Of the 1145 patients, 704 were assigned to the training set and 441 were assigned to the testing set. The median age of the patients was 57 years (range: 47–66 years). Severity of illness, age, platelet count, leukocyte count, prealbumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), total bilirubin, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score were identified as independent prognostic factors for mortality. Incorporating these nine factors into the LASSO regression model yielded a correct classification rate of 0.98, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of 0.980 and 0.990 in the training and testing cohorts, respectively. Incorporating the same factors into the LASSO-based ANN model yielded a correct classification rate of 0.990, with an AUC of 0.980 in both the training and testing cohorts. Conclusions Both the LASSO regression and LASSO-based ANN model accurately predicted the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19. Severity of illness, age, platelet count, leukocyte count, prealbumin, CRP, total bilirubin, APACHE II score, and SOFA score were identified as prognostic factors for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

12.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 569266, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207699

ABSTRACT

Background: Nucleic acid detection and CT scanning have been reported in COVID-19 diagnosis. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical significance of IgM and IgG testing for the diagnosis of highly suspected COVID-19. Methods: A total of 63 patients with suspected COVID-19 were observed, 57 of whom were enrolled (24 males and 33 females). The selection was based on the diagnosis and treatment protocol for COVID-19 (trial Sixth Edition) released by the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China. Patients were divided into positive and negative groups according to the first nucleic acid results from pharyngeal swab tests. Routine blood tests were detected on the second day after each patient was hospitalized. The remaining serum samples were used for detection of novel coronavirus-specific IgM/IgG antibodies. Results: The rate of COVID-19 nucleic acid positivity was 42.10%. The positive detection rates with a combination of IgM and IgG testing for patients with COVID-19 negative and positive nucleic acid test results were 72.73 and 87.50%, respectively. Conclusions: We report a rapid, simple, and accurate detection method for patients with suspected COVID-19 and for on-site screening for close contacts within the population. IgM and IgG antibody detection can identify COVID-19 after a negative nucleic acid test. Diagnostic accuracy of COVID-19 might be improved by nucleic acid testing in patients with a history of epidemic disease or with clinical symptoms, as well as CT scans when necessary, and serum-specific IgM and IgG antibody testing after the window period.

13.
J Clin Invest ; 130(12): 6417-6428, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDCorticosteroids are widely used in patients with COVID 19, although their benefit-to-risk ratio remains controversial.METHODSPatients with severe COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were included from December 29, 2019 to March 16, 2020 in 5 tertiary Chinese hospitals. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks analyses were conducted to analyze the impact of corticosteroids on mortality and SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance, respectively. We performed a propensity score (PS) matching analysis to control confounding factors.RESULTSOf 774 eligible patients, 409 patients received corticosteroids, with a median time from hospitalization to starting corticosteroids of 1.0 day (IQR 0.0-3.0 days) . As compared with usual care, treatment with corticosteroids was associated with increased rate of myocardial (15.6% vs. 10.4%, P = 0.041) and liver injury (18.3% vs. 9.9%, P = 0.001), of shock (22.0% vs. 12.6%, P < 0.001), of need for mechanical ventilation (38.1% vs. 19.5%, P < 0.001), and increased rate of 28-day all-cause mortality (44.3% vs. 31.0%, P < 0.001). After PS matching, corticosteroid therapy was associated with 28-day mortality (adjusted HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.01-2.13, P = 0.045). High dose (>200 mg) and early initiation (≤3 days from hospitalization) of corticosteroid therapy were associated with a higher 28-day mortality rate. Corticosteroid use was also associated with a delay in SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance in the competing risk analysis (subhazard ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.15, P = 0.003).CONCLUSIONAdministration of corticosteroids in severe COVID-19-related ARDS is associated with increased 28-day mortality and delayed SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus RNA clearance after adjustment for time-varying confounders.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
14.
Endocr Pract ; 26(10): 1166-1172, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the effect of pharmacologic agents used to treat T2DM, such as metformin, on COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. Metformin increases the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2, a known receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Data from people with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 were used to test the hypothesis that metformin use is associated with improved survival in this population. METHODS: Retrospective analyses were performed on de-identified clinical data from a major hospital in Wuhan, China, that included patients with T2DM hospitalized for COVID-19 during the recent epidemic. One hundred and thirty-one patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and T2DM were used in this study. The primary outcome was mortality. Demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory data, diabetes medications, and respiratory therapy data were also included in the analysis. RESULTS: Of these 131 patients, 37 used metformin with or without other antidiabetes medications. Among the 37 metformin-taking patients, 35 (94.6%) survived and 2 (5.4%) did not survive. The mortality rates in the metformin-taking group versus the non-metformin group were 5.4% (2/37) versus 22.3% (21/94). Using multivariate analysis, metformin was found to be an independent predictor of survival in this cohort (P = .02). CONCLUSION: This study reveals a significant association between metformin use and survival in people with T2DM diagnosed with COVID-19. These clinical data are consistent with potential benefits of the use of metformin for COVID-19 patients with T2DM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , China , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Metformin/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Heliyon ; 6(12): e05672, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059793

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has attracted global attention due to its rapid spread around the world with substantial morbidity and associated mortality. Severe COVID-19 can be complicated by the acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and septic shock leading to death. These complications are thought to result from an overactivation of the immune system, leading to a cytokine storm syndrome associated with multiple organ failure. Here, we report that high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a prototypical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) and a central mediator of lethal inflammation, could be a potential target for innovative therapeutic strategies for COVID-19. Serum HMGB1 in severe COVID-19 patients is elevated (189.40 ± 140.88 ng/ml). Exogenous HMGB1 induces the expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor ACE2 in alveolar epithelial cells in an AGER-dependent manner. Importantly, genetic (using AGER siRNA) or pharmacological (using glycyrrhizin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and FPS-ZM1) inhibition of the HMGB1-AGER pathway blocks ACE2 expression. Thus, HMGB1 inhibitors are likewise promising drug candidates for the treatment of patients suffering from COVID-19.

16.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(20): 4908-4916, 2020 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-918545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia poses a particular challenge to the emergency surgical treatment of elderly patients with high-risk acute abdominal diseases. Elderly patients are a high-risk group for surgical treatment. If the incarceration of gallstones cannot be relieved, emergency surgery is unavoidable. CASE SUMMARY: We report an 89-year-old male patient with acute gangrenous cholecystitis and septic shock induced by incarcerated cholecystolithiasis. He had several coexisting, high-risk underlying diseases, had a history of radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, and was taking aspirin before the operation. Nevertheless, he underwent emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy, with maintenance of postoperative heart and lung function, successfully recovered, and was discharged on day 8 after the operation. CONCLUSION: Emergency surgery for elderly patients with acute abdominal disease is safe and feasible during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, the key is to abide strictly by the hospital's epidemic prevention regulations, fully implement the epidemic prevention procedure for emergency surgery, fully prepare before the operation, accurately perform the operation, and carefully manage the patient postoperatively.

18.
Respir Med ; 173: 106159, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799518

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been a pandemic. The objective of our study was to explore the association between sex and clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Detailed clinical data including clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, imaging features and treatments of 1190 cases of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Associations between sex and clinical outcomes were identified by multivariable Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: There were 635 (53.4%) male and 555 (46.6%) female patients in this study. Higher rates of acute kidney injury (5.5% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.026), acute cardiac injury (9.1% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.001), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (2.5% vs. 0.7%, P = 0.024) were observed in males. Compared with female patients, male patients with COVID-19 had a higher inhospital mortality rate (15.7% vs. 10.3%, p = 0.005). However, Cox regression analysis showed that sex did not influence inhospital mortality of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Male sex was associated with a worse prognosis of COVID-19, but it seems not to be an independent prognostic factor.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
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