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1.
Entropy (Basel) ; 25(4)2023 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2322224

ABSTRACT

During public policy information diffusion, policy interpretation on government microblogs and public attention interact, but there are certain differences. We construct a research framework for the heterogeneous diffusion of public policy information on government microblogs. An empirical study is conducted based on the Network Agenda Setting (NAS) model. First, a combination of topic mining and content analysis is used to identify the issues discussed by government microblogs and citizens. Then, we use the importance of nodes in Degree Structure (DS) and Flow Structure (FS) entropy to measure their attention to different issues. Finally, the Quadratic Assignment Procedure (QAP) correlation and regression analysis explore the degree of heterogeneity and causal relationship between government microblog agenda networks (GMANs) and public agenda networks (PANs). We find that GMANs influence PANs and the degree of heterogeneity between them is relatively low at the beginning of policy implementation. However, as government microblogs reveal positive effects of policy implementation, they fail to influence PANs effectively, and there is a greater degree of heterogeneity between them. Moreover, PANs do not significantly affect GMANs. The dynamic leading relationship between GMANs and PANs in public policy diffusion is clarified, helping to shape the image of digital government in public opinion.

2.
Sci China Life Sci ; 66(7): 1589-1599, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288738

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic emerged at the end of December 2019. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are common lethal outcomes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), avian influenza virus, and SARS-CoV-2. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key target in the pathological pathway of ARDS and ALI. Previous studies have reported that herbal small RNAs (sRNAs) are a functional medical component. BZL-sRNA-20 (Accession number: B59471456; Family ID: F2201.Q001979.B11) is a potent inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BZL-sRNA-20 reduces intracellular levels of cytokines induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)). We found that BZL-sRNA-20 rescued the viability of cells infected with avian influenza H5N1, SARS-CoV-2, and several of its variants of concern (VOCs). Acute lung injury induced by LPS and SARS-CoV-2 in mice was significantly ameliorated by the oral medical decoctosome mimic (bencaosome; sphinganine (d22:0)+BZL-sRNA-20). Our findings suggest that BZL-sRNA-20 could be a pan-anti-ARDS ALI drug.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mice , Humans , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/metabolism , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Lung/metabolism
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114096, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases mainly include asthma, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, lung fibrosis, and lung cancer. Given their high prevalence and poor prognosis, the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases are increasingly essential. In particular, the development for the novel strategies of drug treatment has been a hot topic in the research field. Ginsenosides are the major component of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (ginseng), a food homology and well-known medicinal herb. In this review, we summarize the current therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of ginsenosides in respiratory diseases. METHODS: The reviewed studies were retrieved via a thorough analysis of numerous articles using electronic search tools including Sci-Finder, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Web of Science. The following keywords were used for the online search: ginsenosides, asthma, influenza, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary hypertension (PH), lung fibrosis, lung cancer, and clinical trials. We summarized the findings and the conclusions from 176 manuscripts on ginsenosides, including research articles and reviews. RESULTS: Ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, Rg3, Rh2, and CK, which are the most commonly reported ginsenosides for treating of respiratory diseases, and other ginsenosides such as Rh1, Rk1, Rg5, Rd and Re, all primarily reduce pneumonia, fibrosis, and inhibit tumor progression by targeting NF-κB, TGF-ß/Smad, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and JNK pathways, thereby ameliorating respiratory diseases. CONCLUSION: This review provides novel ideas and important aspects for the future research of ginsenosides for treating respiratory diseases.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Ginsenosides , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Influenza, Human , Lung Neoplasms , Panax , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Pulmonary Fibrosis , Humans , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Ginsenosides/therapeutic use , Ginsenosides/chemistry , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Hypertension, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Asthma/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Panax/chemistry
4.
Front Pharmacol ; 13: 955482, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154780

ABSTRACT

Until today, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused 6,043,094 deaths worldwide, and most of the mortality cases have been related to patients with long-term diseases, especially cancer. Autophagy is a cellular process for material degradation. Recently, studies demonstrated the association of autophagy with cancer development and immune disorder, suggesting autophagy as a possible target for cancer and immune therapy. Laminarin is a polysaccharide commonly found in brown algae and has been reported to have pharmaceutic roles in treating human diseases, including cancers. In the present report, we applied network pharmacology with systematic bioinformatic analysis, including gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, reactome pathway analysis, and molecular docking to determine the pharmaceutic targets of laminarin against COVID-19 and cervical cancer via the autophagic process. Our results showed that the laminarin would target ten genes: CASP8, CFTR, DNMT1, HPSE, KCNH2, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, SERPINE1, TLR4, and VEGFA. The enrichment analysis suggested their involvement in cell death, immune responses, apoptosis, and viral infection. In addition, molecular docking further demonstrated the direct binding of laminarin to its target proteins, VEGFA, TLR4, CASP8, and PIK3R1. The present findings provide evidence that laminarin could be used as a combined therapy for treating patients with COVID-19 and cervical cancer.

5.
Biomed Eng Online ; 21(1): 63, 2022 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009406

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the spread of COVID-19, telemedicine has played an important role, but tele-auscultation is still unavailable in most countries. This study introduces and tests a tele-auscultation system (Stemoscope) and compares the concordance of the Stemoscope with the traditional stethoscope in the evaluation of heart murmurs. METHODS: A total of 57 patients with murmurs were recruited, and echocardiographs were performed. Three cardiologists were asked to correctly categorize heart sounds (both systolic murmur and diastolic murmur) as normal vs. abnormal with both the Stemoscope and a traditional acoustic stethoscope under different conditions. Firstly, we compared the in-person auscultation agreement between Stemoscope and the conventional acoustic stethoscope. Secondly, we compared tele-auscultation (recorded heart sounds) agreement between Stemoscope and acoustic results. Thirdly, we compared both the Stemoscope tele-auscultation results and traditional acoustic stethoscope in-person auscultation results with echocardiography. Finally, ten other cardiologists were asked to complete a qualitative questionnaire to assess their experience using the Stemoscope. RESULTS: For murmurs detection, the in-person auscultation agreement between Stemoscope and the acoustic stethoscope was 91% (p = 0.67). The agreement between Stemoscope tele-auscultation and the acoustic stethoscope in-person auscultation was 90% (p = 0.32). When using the echocardiographic findings as the reference, the agreement between Stemoscope (tele-auscultation) and the acoustic stethoscope (in-person auscultation) was 89% vs. 86% (p = 1.00). The system evaluated by ten cardiologists is considered easy to use, and most of them would consider using it in a telemedical setting. CONCLUSION: In-person auscultation and tele-auscultation by the Stemoscope are in good agreement with manual acoustic auscultation. The Stemoscope is a helpful heart murmur screening tool at a distance and can be used in telemedicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stethoscopes , Auscultation/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electronics , Heart Auscultation/methods , Heart Murmurs , Humans
6.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999029

ABSTRACT

Until today, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused 6,043,094 deaths worldwide, and most of the mortality cases have been related to patients with long-term diseases, especially cancer. Autophagy is a cellular process for material degradation. Recently, studies demonstrated the association of autophagy with cancer development and immune disorder, suggesting autophagy as a possible target for cancer and immune therapy. Laminarin is a polysaccharide commonly found in brown algae and has been reported to have pharmaceutic roles in treating human diseases, including cancers. In the present report, we applied network pharmacology with systematic bioinformatic analysis, including gene ontology (GO) enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, reactome pathway analysis, and molecular docking to determine the pharmaceutic targets of laminarin against COVID-19 and cervical cancer via the autophagic process. Our results showed that the laminarin would target ten genes: CASP8, CFTR, DNMT1, HPSE, KCNH2, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, SERPINE1, TLR4, and VEGFA. The enrichment analysis suggested their involvement in cell death, immune responses, apoptosis, and viral infection. In addition, molecular docking further demonstrated the direct binding of laminarin to its target proteins, VEGFA, TLR4, CASP8, and PIK3R1. The present findings provide evidence that laminarin could be used as a combined therapy for treating patients with COVID-19 and cervical cancer.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 928965, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952872

ABSTRACT

Lexical features are influenced by different languages and genres. The study of lexical features in different genres of texts on the same topic is helpful to understand the universalities and peculiarities of languages. This study constructs a research on the lexical feature and word collocations of two self-build corpora (China's economic Legal Policy Corpus and English News Corpus during the COVID-19 pandemic), the methods of Quantitative Linguistics and context interpretation are adopted. It was found that: (1) the word length, word frequency, word cluster and high frequency word distribution in English economic news and Chinese economic legal policies are influenced by language and genre to some extent, and they conform to different functional image distribution; (2) during the COVID-19 pandemic, "development" has been the focus of China's economic legal policies and English news, the two have attached importance to economic recovery and taken a positive attitude toward it in different ways. These findings suggest that: (1) There are some universalities and peculiarities between English economic news and Chinese economic legal policies in the distribution of lexical feature; (2) there is a certain synchronization between laws and news, and both of them maintain a positive and objective attitude toward the economic development during the pandemic. This study carries out a macroscopic investigation on internal structure and external interpretation, which enriches the study on lexical features and cultural features of language and provides some references for relevant studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Linguistics , Pandemics , Policy
8.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 18(2): 319-326, 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816974

ABSTRACT

Airborne transmission is much more common than previously thought. Based on our knowledge about SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) infection, the aerosol transmission routes for all respiratory infections must be reassessed. Thus far, the COVID-19 outbreak has caused catastrophic public health and economic crises, posing a serious threat to the lives and health of people around the world and directing public attention toward the airborne transmission of pathogens. The novel coronavirus transmission in the form of nanoaerosols in a wider range hinders prevention and early warning efforts. As a classical bioaerosol sampler, the Andersen six-stage sampler is widely used in the collection and research of aerosol particles. In this study, the physical and biological collection efficiency of the six-stage sampler was explored by qPCR and colony counting method. Results showed that the physical collection efficiency reached more than 50% when the particle size was larger than 0.75 µm. However, the overall biological collection efficiency was only 0.25%. In addition, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect the microbial state after sampling, and the results showed that the proportion of the collected live bacteria was less than 15% of the total. This result is of great significance not only for the application of the Andersen six-stage sampler in collecting nanosized bioaerosols, but also provides reference for the selection of subsequent detection technologies for effective collection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Aerosols/analysis , Humans , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2
9.
IUBMB Life ; 74(6): 532-542, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813517

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019, a newly emerging serious infectious disease, has spread worldwide. To date, effective drugs against the disease are limited. Traditional Chinese medicine was commonly used in treating COVID-19 patients in China. Here we tried to identify herbal effective lipid compounds from the lipid library of 92 heat-clearing and detoxication Chinese herbs. Through virtual screening, enzymatic activity and inhibition assays, and surface plasmon resonance tests, we identified lipid compounds targeting the main protease (Mpro ) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and verified their functions. Here, we found that natural lipid compounds LPC (14:0/0:0) and LPC (16:0/0:0) could target SARS-CoV-2 Mpro , recover cell death induced by SARS-CoV-2, and ameliorate acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides and virus poly (I:C) mimics in vivo and in vitro. Our results suggest that LPC (14:0/0:0) and LPC (16:0/0:0) might be potential pan remedy against ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lipids , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Psychol ; 13: 764638, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775762

ABSTRACT

Objective: Investigating the mental health status of Chinese resident physicians during the 2019 new coronavirus outbreak. Methods: A cluster sampling method was adopted to collect all China-wide resident physicians during the epidemic period as the research subjects. The Symptom Checklist-90 self-rating scale was used to assess mental health using WeChat electronic questionnaires. Results: In total, 511 electronic questionnaires were recovered, all of which were valid. The negative psychological detection rate was 93.9% (480/511). Among the symptoms on the self-rating scale, more than half of the Chinese resident physicians had mild to moderate symptoms of mental unhealthiness, and a few had asymptomatic or severe unhealthy mental states. In particular, the detection rate of abnormality was 88.3% (451/511), obsessive-compulsive symptoms was 90.4% (462/511), the sensitive interpersonal relationship was 90.6% (463/511), depression abnormality was 90.8% (464)/511), anxiety abnormality was 88.3% (451/511), hostility abnormality was 85.3% (436/511), terror abnormality was 84.9% (434/511), paranoia abnormality was 86.9% (444/511), psychotic abnormalities was 89.0% (455/511), and abnormal sleeping and eating status was 90.8% (464/511). The scores of various psychological symptoms of pediatric resident physicians were significantly lower than those of non-pediatrics (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The new coronavirus epidemic has a greater impact on the mental health of Chinese resident physicians.

11.
Inf Process Manag ; 59(3): 102935, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773403

ABSTRACT

The rapid dissemination of misinformation in social media during the COVID-19 pandemic triggers panic and threatens the pandemic preparedness and control. Correction is a crucial countermeasure to debunk misperceptions. However, the effective mechanism of correction on social media is not fully verified. Previous works focus on psychological theories and experimental studies, while the applicability of conclusions to the actual social media is unclear. This study explores determinants governing the effectiveness of misinformation corrections on social media with a combination of a data-driven approach and related theories on psychology and communication. Specifically, referring to the Backfire Effect, Source Credibility, and Audience's role in dissemination theories, we propose five hypotheses containing seven potential factors (regarding correction content and publishers' influence), e.g., the proportion of original misinformation and warnings of misinformation. Then, we obtain 1487 significant COVID-19 related corrections on Microblog between January 1st, 2020 and April 30th, 2020, and conduct annotations, which characterize each piece of correction based on the aforementioned factors. We demonstrate several promising conclusions through a comprehensive analysis of the dataset. For example, mentioning excessive original misinformation in corrections would not undermine people's believability within a short period after reading; warnings of misinformation in a demanding tone make correction worse; determinants of correction effectiveness vary among different topics of misinformation. Finally, we build a regression model to predict correction effectiveness. These results provide practical suggestions on misinformation correction on social media, and a tool to guide practitioners to revise corrections before publishing, leading to ideal efficacies.

12.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(6): 1380-1386, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756345

ABSTRACT

A course on vaccine development asked students to write a blog addressing general anti-vaccination strategies and their significance today, in the context of the resistance seen against novel SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines. This perspective explores how and why these efforts are successful at reducing vaccine uptake and why, for the most part, efforts to combat the movement have been unsuccessful. This summary of the collective view of the class provides recommendations for combatting current and future campaigns of misinformation. It is hoped that this perspective will serve as a call to action for clinical pharmacologists and translational scientists to do their part to educate the lay community and promote the science in an open and transparent manner to ensure that current and future vaccines fulfill their potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Vaccination
13.
Urban Climate ; 43:101150, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1740248

ABSTRACT

In this study, TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) observations were resampled to obtain 0.01° × 0.01° NO2 VCD (vertical column density) over Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Based on this high spatial resolution satellite observations, NO2 VCDs in megacities cluster of YRD region were examined with a reduction of ~35% during COVID-19 lockdown. The adjusted Exponentially-Modified Gaussian (EMG) model was used to estimate the NOX emission in typical cities under regionally polluted YRD region. Taking 100 km of mass integration interval as an example, during 2018–2019, the averaged NOX emission of Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, and Ningbo is 139.65 mol/s, 84.49 mol/s, 79.87 mol/s and 88.73 mol/s, respectively. This estimation has a good correlation with Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC) emission with R more than 0.9 but lower results mainly due to the underestimation of NO2 VCD by TROPOMI in polluted areas. It was also found that the NOX emissions of Ningbo are higher than expected, which is closely related to massive ship emissions. This study indicates that this approach based on adjusted EMG model can enhance the ability to quantify NOX emissions at city level by utilizing the high spatial resolution observations of TROPOMI.

14.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(3): 375-382, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to find the correlation between severe computed tomography (CT) lung scores and nasopharyngeal viral load (Ct value) in the severity of COVID-19 disease progression. METHOD: In this study, 37 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were categorized into severely ill and not severely ill samples. Their Ct values, epidemiological data, lung CT, and laboratory test results were collected three times, respectively, on the first day of their hospital admission, 3-5 days thereafter, and prior to hospital discharge. Among the 37 patients, 8 progressed from not severely ill to severely ill; we also paid attention and observed changes in clinical parameters of COVID-19 patients who entered our city from other cities (imported cases) and the infected local residents who contacted these imported patients (non-imported cases). RESULTS: Among the 37 patients, the Ct values and lung severity scores (LSSs) were similar in imported and non-imported cases (F = 0.59 and 2.56; p = 0.45 and 0.12, respectively) but the proportion of severely ill imported patients was significantly higher compared with non-imported patients (F = 7.77; p = 0.01). Additionally, 21.6% of patients' illness worsened; lymphocyte counts and Ct values were significantly lowered, and C-reactive protein and LSS significantly increased during COVID-19 disease progression. Furthermore, LSS negatively correlated with lymphocyte and mononuclear cell counts, as well as Ct values (Pearson's rank = -0.763, -0.824, and -0.588; p = 0.028, 0.012, and 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSION: In the severity of COVID-19 disease progression, nasopharyngeal viral load and lung CT severity were closely related, and LSS negatively correlated with lymphocyte and mononuclear cell counts, as well as Ct values.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Load
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690250

ABSTRACT

During major public health emergencies, a series of coupling problems of rumors getting out of control and public psychological imbalance always emerge in social media, which bring great interference for crisis disposal. From the perspective of social psychological stress, it is important to depict the interactive infection law among distinct types of rumor engagers (i.e., advocates, supporters, and amplifiers) under different social psychological stress states, and explore the effectiveness of rumor intervention strategies (i.e., hindering and persuasion) from multiple dimensions, to scientifically predict the situation of public opinion field and guide the public to restore psychological stability. Therefore, this paper constructs an interactive infection model of multiple rumor engagers under different intervention situations based on a unique user-aggregated dataset collected from a Chinese leading online microblogging platform ("Sina Weibo") during the COVID-19 in 2020. The simulation result shows that (1) in the period of social psychological alarm reaction, the strong level of hindering intervention on the rumor engagers leads to more serious negative consequences; (2) in the period of social psychological resistance, the persuasion and hindering strategies can both produce good outcomes, which can effectively reduce the overall scale of rumor supporters and amplifiers and shorten their survival time in social media; (3) in the period of social psychological exhaustion, rumor intervention strategies are not able to have a significant impact; (4) the greater the intensity of intervention, the more obvious the outcome. Experimental findings provide a solid research basis for enhancing social psychological stress outcomes and offer decision-making references to formulate the rumor combating scheme.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
16.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 786464, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599609

ABSTRACT

Natural flavonoids, formononetin and ononin, possess antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Many complications caused by SARS-CoV-2 make patients difficult to recover. Flavonoids, especially formononetin and ononin, have the potential to treat SARS-CoV-2 and improve myocardial injury. However, their poor water solubility, poor oral absorption, high toxicity, and high-cost purification limit industrial practical application. Succinylation modification provides a solution for the above problems. Formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside (FMP), a new compound, was succinyl glycosylated from formononetin by the organic solvent tolerant bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FJ18 in a 10.0% DMSO (v/v) system. The water solubility of the new compound was improved by over 106 times compared with formononetin, which perfectly promoted the application of formononetin and ononin. The conversion rate of formononetin (0.5 g/L) was almost 94.2% at 24 h, while the yield of formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside could achieve 97.2%. In the isoproterenol (ISO)-induced acute ischemia mice model, the myocardial injury was significantly improved with a high dose (40 mg/kg) of formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside. The lactate dehydrogenase level was decreased, and the catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were increased after formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside treatment. Thus, formononetin-7-O-ß-(6″-O-succinyl)-D-glucoside has high water solubility, low toxicity, and shows significant antimyocardial ischemia effects.

17.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2667-2674, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly suggests using corticosteroids in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Similarly, a large randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) in the UK found that dexamethasone effectively reduced the mortality rate in severe COVID-19 patients. However, the safety profile of corticosteroids has been a controversial area of study. CASE DESCRIPTION: A case of a COVID-19 patient is described and the clinical characteristics are observed as the mildly symptomatic patient progresses into a critically ill patient and during their dramatic improvement with corticosteroid therapy in the early stage of the deterioration process with COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The most suitable timing and dosage for the use of corticosteroids to maximize its effect during the worsening of COVID-19 pneumonia are discussed. One of the main pathophysiological hypotheses for severe COVID-19 patients is related to cytokine storm and virus load, which can be effectively treated with corticosteroid therapy.

18.
IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine ; 28(1):90-100, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1153373

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 has caused immeasurable loss to the world. The highly contagious virus poses a challenging risk to public health, especially medical doctors, who are in close contact with patients. Thus, robots can help reduce the risk of medical professionals conducting massive testing with throat swabs. Soft robots, fabricated with compliant materials, allow for low-cost development and safe interaction with humans and show promising potentiality in testing.

19.
J Xray Sci Technol ; 28(4): 583-589, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia caused by COVID-19 shares overlapping imaging manifestations with other types of pneumonia. How to objectively and quantitatively differentiate pneumonia patients with and without COVID-19 virus remains clinical challenge. OBJECTIVE: To formulate standardized scoring criteria and an objective quantization standard to guide decision making in detection and diagnosis of COVID-19 virus induced pneumonia in clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective dataset includes computed tomography (CT) images acquired from 43 pneumonia patients with COVID-19 virus detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests and 49 pneumonia patients without COVID-19 virus. All patients were treated during the same time period in two hospitals. Key indicators of differential diagnosis were identified in relevant literature and the scores were quantified namely, patients with more than 8 points were identified as high risk, those with 6-8 points as moderate risk, and those with fewer than 6 points as low risk for COVID-19 virus. In the study, 3 radiologists determined the scores for all patients. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were subsequently calculated. RESULTS: A total of 61 patients were determined as high risk, among which 42 were COVID-19 positive by RT-PCR tests. Next, 9 were identified as moderate risk, one of whom was COVID-19 positive. Last, 22 were classified into the low-risk group, all of them are COVID-19 negative. Based on these results, the sensitivity of detection COVID-19 positive cases between the high-risk group and the non-high-risk group was 0.98 with 95% confidence interval [0.88, 1.00], and the specificity was 0.61 [0.46, 0.75]. The detection sensitivity between the moderate-/high-risk group and the low-risk group was 1.00 [0.92, 1.00], and the specificity was 0.45 [0.31, 0.60]. CONCLUSION: The proposed quantitative scoring criteria showed high sensitivity and moderate specificity in detecting COVID-19 using CT images, which indicates that these criteria may be beneficial for screening in real-world practice and helpful for long-term disease control.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
20.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(3): 365-368, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-949

ABSTRACT

Since the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019, there have been a few reports of its imaging findings. Here, we report two confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV pneumonia with chest computed tomography findings of multiple regions of patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. These findings were characteristically located along the bronchial bundle or subpleural lungs.


Subject(s)
Bronchi/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Disease Outbreaks , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Radiography, Thoracic , World Health Organization
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