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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 215: 114563, 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936099

ABSTRACT

Ultrasensitive, specific, and early identification of Coronavirus Disease (2019) (COVID-19) infection is critical to control virus spread and remains a global public health problem. Herein, we present a novel solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL) platform targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody with rapidity and ultrahigh sensitivity, in which a bipolar silica nanochannel array (bp-SNA) is fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode for the first time to stably confine the ECL probe of tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (Ru(bpy)32+) under dual electrostatic force. The bp-SNA consists of tightly packed bilayer silica nanochannel array (SNA) with asymmetric surface charges, namely an inner negatively charged SNA (n-SNA) and an outer positively charged SNA (p-SNA), serving as an "electrostatic lock" to enrich and stabilize the cationic Ru(bpy)32+ probe without leakage from the electrode surface. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody could be realized via immobilization of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on the utmost of Ru(bpy)32+-confined solid-state ECL platform (Ru@bp-SNA). Upon the capture of target SARS-CoV-2 IgG by immune recognition, the formed immunocomplex will block the nanochannel, leading to the hindered diffusion of the co-reactant (tri-n-propylamine, TPrA) and further producing a decreased ECL signal. The developed solid-stated ECL immunosensor is able to determine SARS-CoV-2 IgG with a wide linear range (5 pg mL-1 to 1 µg mL-1), a low limit-of-detection (2.9 pg mL-1), and a short incubation time (30 min). Furthermore, accurate analysis of SARS-CoV-2 IgG in real serum samples is also obtained by the sensor.

2.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 47(3): 344-351, 2022 Mar 28.
Article in English, Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: With the continuous generation of new variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pressure of epidemic prevention and control continues to increase in China. Omicron with stronger infectiousness, immune escape ability and repeated infection ability spread to many countries and regions around the world in a short period of time. China has also successively reported cases of imported Omicron infections. This study aims to understand the epidemiological characteristics of Omicron variant via analyzing the epidemiological characteristics of imported patients with Omicron in Hunan Province, and to provide reference for preventing and controlling the imported epidemics. METHODS: The clinical data of imported patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to Hunan Province from December 16 to December 31, 2021 were retrospectively collected. The epidemiological information, general information, clinical classification, clinical symptoms, vaccination status, and lung CT were analyzed. Nasopharyngeal swabs and blood samples were collected. Virus nucleic acid was detected by magnetic beads method using SARS-CoV-2 detection kit. Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene were compared between asymptomatic infected patients and confirmed patients. The specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by chemiluminescence assay using SARS-CoV-2 IgM test kit and SARS-CoV-2 IgG test kit, respectively. Ct values of IgM and IgG antibodies were compared between asymptomatic infected patients and confirmed patients. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with Omicron variant infection were treated in Hunan, including 15 confirmed patients (5 common type and 10 mild type) and 2 asymptomatic infection patients. The 17 patients were all Chinese, they were generally young, and 16 were male. There were 9 patients with diseases. Of them 3 patients had respiratory diseases. All 17 patients had completed the whole process of vaccination, but only one person received a booster shot of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. The clinical manifestations of the patients were mild, mainly including dry/painful/itchy throat, cough, and fatigue. The total protein and creatine in the asymptomatic infection and confirmed cases infected with Omicron variant were all within the normal range, but other biochemical indicators were abnormal. There were the significant differences in C-reactive protein and fibrinogen between asymptomatic infection and confirmed patients (both P<0.05). There were more patients with elevated C-reactive protein in confirmed patients than without confirmed ones. The detection rate of specific IgM and IgG antibodies on admission was 100%, and there was no significant difference in the specific antibody levels between asymptomatic infection and confirmed patients (P>0.05). There were no significant differences in Ct values of ORF1ab gene and N gene (21.35 and 18.39 vs 19.22 and 15.67) between the asymptomatic infection and the confirmed patients (both P>0.05). Only 3 patients had abnormal lung CT, showing a small amount of patchy and cord-like shadows. One of them had no abnormality on admission but had pulmonary lesions and migratory phenomenon after admission. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with Omicron variant tend to be young people and have milder clinical symptoms, but the viral load is high and the infectiveness is strong. Therefore, the timely identification and effective isolation and control for asymptomatic infections and confirmed patients with mild symptoms are extremely important. In terms of epidemic prevention and control, the government still needs to strengthen the risk control of overseas input, adhere to normalized epidemic prevention and control measures, to effectively control the source of infection, cut off the route of transmission, and protect vulnerable people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Asymptomatic Infections , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Male , Retrospective Studies
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 1967-1975, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777577

ABSTRACT

We aimed to assess whether blood glucose control can be used as predictors for the severity of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and to improve the management of diabetic patients with COVID-19. A two-center cohort with a total of 241 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes was studied. After the diagnosis of COVID-19, the clinical data and laboratory results were collected, the fasting blood glucose levels were followed up at initial, middle stage of admission and discharge, the severity of the COVID-19 was assessed at any time from admission to discharge. Hyperglycemia patients with COVID-19 were divided into three groups: good blood glucose control, fair blood glucose control, and blood glucose deterioration. The relationship of blood glucose levels, blood glucose control status, and severe COVID-19 were analyzed by univariate and multivariable regression analysis. In our cohort, 21.16% were severe cases and 78.84% were nonsevere cases. Admission hyperglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.938; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.387-2.707), mid-term hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.758; 95% CI, 1.325-2.332), and blood glucose deterioration (aOR, 22.783; 95% CI, 2.661-195.071) were identified as the risk factors of severe COVID-19. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reaching an area under ROC curve of 0.806, and a sensitivity and specificity of 80.40% and 68.40%, respectively, revealed that hyperglycemia on admission and blood glucose deterioration of diabetic patients are potential predictive factors for severe COVID-19. Our results indicated that admission hyperglycemia and blood glucose deterioration were positively correlated with the risk factor for severe COVID-19, and deterioration of blood glucose may be more likely to the occurrence of severe illness in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Blood Glucose/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325399

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has spread globally with more than 80,000 people infected, and nearly 3000 patients died. Currently, we are in an urgent need for effective treatment strategy to control the clinical deterioration of COVID-19 patients. Methods: The clinical data of 10 COVID-19 patients receiving short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid (160mg/d) plus immunoglobulin (20g/d) were studied in the North Yard of The First Hospital of Changsha, Hunan from January 17th to February 27th, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological findings were analyzed. Results: After treatment with combination of low-dose corticosteroid (40-80mg/d) and immunoglobulin (10g/d), patients’lymphocyte count (0.88±0.34 vs 0.59±0.18, P<0.05), oxygenation index including SPO2 (94.90±2.51 vs 90.50±5.91, P<0.05) and PaO2/FiO2 (321.36±136.91 vs 129.30±64.97, P<0.05) were significantly lower than pre-treatment, and CT showed that the pulmonary lesion deteriorated in all patients. While after treatment of short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin, patients’APACHE Ⅱ score (9.10±6.15 vs 5.50±9.01, P<0.05), body temperature (37.59±1.16 vs 36.46±0.25, P<0.05), lymphocyte count (0.59±0.18 vs 1.36±0.51, P<0.05), Lactate dehydrogenase (419.24±251.31 vs 257.40±177.88, P<0.05), and C-reactive protein (49.94±26.21 vs 14.58±15.25, P<0.05) significantly improved compared with post-treatment with low-dose therapy. In addition, oxygenation index including SPO2 (90.50±5.91 vs 97.50±1.18, P<0.05), PaO2 (60.47±14.53 vs 99.07±34.31, P<0.05), and PaO2/FiO2 (129.30±64.97 vs 340.86±146.72, P<0.05) significant improved. Furthermore, CT showed that pulmonary lesions obviously improved in 7 patients. After systematic therapy, 4 out of 10 COVID-19 patients recovered and discharged. Conclusions: Short-term moderate-dose corticosteroid plus immunoglobulin is effective for reversing the continued deterioration of COVID-19 patients who failed to respond to the low-dose therapy. Funding: This work was supported by the Innovative Major Emergency Project Funding against the New Coronavirus Pneumonia in Hunan Province (Dr. Ji-Yang Liu, number 2020SK3014;Dr. Yuan-Lin Xie, number 2020SK3013).

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325274

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 elicits a range of different responses in patients and can manifest into mild to very severe cases in different individuals, depending on many factors. We aimed to establish a prediction model of severe risk in COVID-19 patients, to help clinicians achieve early prevention, intervention, and aid them in choosing effective therapeutic strategy. Methods We selected confirmed COVID-19 patients who admitted to First Hospital of Changsha city between January 29 and February 15, 2020 and collected their clinical data. Multivariate logical regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with severe risk. These factors were incorporated into the nomogram to establish the model. The ROC curve, calibration plot and decision curve were used to assess the performance of model. Results 239 patients were enrolled and 45 (18.83%) patients developed severe pneumonia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that age, COPD, shortness of breath, fatigue, creatine kinase, D-dimer, lymphocytes and h CRP were independent risk factors for severe risk in COVID-19 patients. Incorporating these factors, the nomogram achieved good concordance indexes of 0.873 (95% CI: 0.819–0.927), and well-fitted calibration plot curves. The model provided superior net benefit when clinical decision thresholds were between 10–70% predicted risk. Conclusions Using the model, clinicians can intervene early, improve therapeutic effects and reduce the severity of COVID-19, thus ensuring more targeted and efficient use of medical resources.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325272

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout China and all over the world. Little is known about the dynamic changes in the patient immune responses to SARS-CoV-2, and how different responses are correlated with disease severity and outcomes. Method: 74 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this prospective research. The demographic information, medical history, symptoms, signs and laboratory results were analyzed and compared between severe and non-severe patients. The leukocytes, lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory cytokines were longitudinally collected. Results: : Of the 74 patients included, 17 suffered from severe disease. The severe patients tended be older (65.29 ± 12.33 years vs. 45.37 ± 18.66 years), and had a greater degree of underlying disease (41.18% vs. 24.56%) , lower baseline lymphocytes counts (0.69 ± 0.36 × 10⁹ vs. 1.46 ± 0.75 × 10⁹) , higher neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratios (NLRs;3.76 (3.15–5.51) vs. 2.07 (1.48–2.93)) and lower baseline eosinophil counts (0.01 ± 0.01 × 10⁹ vs. 0.05 ± 0.07 × 10⁹), than that in non-severe patients. The baseline helper T (Th) cells (335.47 vs. 666.46/mL), suppressor T(Ts) cells (158 vs. 334/mL), B cells (95 vs. 210/mL), and natural killer (NK) cells (52 vs. 122/mL) were significantly decreased in severe cases compared to that in non-severe cases. In addition, the baseline neutrophils and B cells were positively correlated with the severity of COVID-19 and the baseline lymphocytes and Th cells were negatively correlated with the severity of COVID-19. The dynamic change of T cells, Th cells and IFN-γ in the severe cases were parallel to the amelioration of the disease. Conclusions: : Collectively, our study provides novel information on the kinetics of the immune responses in a cohort of COVID-19 patients with different disease severities. Furthermore, our study indicates that both innate and adaptive immune responses correlate with better clinical outcomes.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315605

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 began in December and rapidly caused a pandemic. To investigate the significance of lymphopenia for the severity of the disease, this study was performed. Methods: : 115 patients confirmed COVID-19 from a tertiary hospital in Changsha, China were enrolled. The clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome data were collected and compared between patients with lymphopenia or not. Results: : The median age was 42 years (1-75). 54 patients (47.0%) of the patients had lymphopenia on admission. In the group of lymphopenia, more patients had hypertension (30.8% vs 10.0%, P=0.006) and coronary heart disease (3.6% vs 0%, P=0.029) and more patients with leucopenia (48.1% vs 14.8%, P<0.001) and eosinophilia (92.6% vs 54.1%, P<0.001) were observed. Lymphopenia was also correlated with severity grades of pneumonia (P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P=0.0014). Lymphopenia was associated with a prolonged duration of hospitalization (17.0 days vs 14.0 days, P=0.002). Moreover, the recovery of lymphocyte appeared the earliest before CRP and chest radiographs in severe cases, suggesting its predictive value for disease improvement. Conclusion: Our results showed the clinical significance of lymphopenia for predicting the severity of COVID-19 and the recovery of the disease, emphasizing the need to monitor the lymphocyte count dynamically.

8.
European Journal of Psychotraumatology ; 12(1), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602102

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients’ perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54–14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13–212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17–0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTS More than one-third ofpatients met the diagnostic criteria of probable PTSD 1 month post-discharge. Providing timely emotional support during hospitaliza-tion may be one of the key measures for preventing PTSD in patients with COVID-19.

9.
Brain ; 145(5): 1830-1838, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594202

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can affect the CNS. However, data on white matter and cognitive sequelae at the 1-year follow-up are lacking. Therefore, we explored these characteristics in this study. We investigated 22 recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 21 matched healthy controls. Diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging were performed to identify white matter changes, and the subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence scale were used to assess cognitive function. Correlations between diffusion metrics, cognitive function and other clinical characteristics were then examined. We also conducted subgroup analysis based on patient admission to the intensive care unit. The corona radiata, corpus callosum and superior longitudinal fasciculus had a lower volume fraction of intracellular water in the recovered COVID-19 group than in the healthy control group. Patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit had lower fractional anisotropy in the body of the corpus callosum than those who had not. Compared with the healthy controls, the recovered COVID-19 patients demonstrated no significant decline in cognitive function. White matter tended to present with fewer abnormalities for shorter hospital stays and longer follow-up times. Lower axonal density was detected in clinically recovered COVID-19 patients after 1 year. Patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit had slightly more white matter abnormalities. No significant decline in cognitive function was found in recovered COVID-19 patients. The duration of hospital stay may be a predictor for white matter changes at the 1-year follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , White Matter , Anisotropy , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Tensor Imaging/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
10.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(7): 1576-1581, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575953

ABSTRACT

Although some short-term follow-up studies have found that individuals recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibit anxiety, depression, and altered brain microstructure, their long-term physical problems, neuropsychiatric sequelae, and changes in brain function remain unknown. This observational cohort study collected 1-year follow-up data from 22 patients who had been hospitalized with COVID-19 (8 males and 11 females, aged 54.2 ± 8.7 years). Fatigue and myalgia were persistent symptoms at the 1-year follow-up. The resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that compared with 29 healthy controls (7 males and 18 females, aged 50.5 ± 11.6 years), COVID-19 survivors had greatly increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) values in the left precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus of operculum, inferior frontal gyrus of triangle, insula, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, angular gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, caudate, and putamen. ALFF values in the left caudate of the COVID-19 survivors were positively correlated with their Athens Insomnia Scale scores, and those in the left precentral gyrus were positively correlated with neutrophil count during hospitalization. The long-term follow-up results suggest that the ALFF in brain regions related to mood and sleep regulation were altered in COVID-19 survivors. This can help us understand the neurobiological mechanisms of COVID-19-related neuropsychiatric sequelae. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University (approval No. 2020S004) on March 19, 2020.

11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 2099-2109, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1514452

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients appear to maintain sequelae post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affecting daily life and physical health. We investigated the changes in and the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on exercise capacity and immunology six months after COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective cohort reviewed 233 COVID-19 patients admitted from 17 January 2020 to 29 February 2020. Ninety-eight patients who completed 2-week and 6-month follow-ups and tests were included. Among 98 patients, 27 completed at least five sessions of PR at the First Hospital of Changsha, China, during the 6-month convalescence were allocated to the PR group; the reminder who had not performed any PR were assigned to the control group. The primary outcome was the change in six-minute walk distance (6-MWD) between the 2-week and 6-month follow-ups, which was assessed via analysis of covariance with a covariate of propensity score that adjusted for the potential confounders. Secondary outcomes were the changes in 6-MWD, SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulins, T-lymphocytes and blood chemistry, which were evaluated via paired tests. RESULTS: Participants' ages ranged from 19 to 84 years (M = 47, standard deviation (SD)=15) 45.9% identified as male. During the 6-month convalescence, 6-MWD increased 27.0%, with a mean [95% CI] of 113 [92-134] m (p < .001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM decreased 33.3% (p = .002) and 43.8% (p = .009), CD4+ T cells increased 7.9% (p = .04), and the majority of blood chemistry significantly changed. The patients in the PR group acquired a greater increase in 6-MWD than those in control (unadjusted, 194 [167-221] m, p < .001; adjusted, 123 [68-181] m, p < .001), dose-responsiveness of PR on 6-MWD was observed (p < .001). No differences in immunity variables and blood chemistry were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest PR may be a strategy to promote the improvement of exercise capacity after COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Convalescence , Exercise , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
N Engl J Med ; 382(18): 1708-1720, 2020 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS: We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Disease Outbreaks , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Fever/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 3029-3040, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362161

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 can damage not only the lungs but also the liver and kidney. Most critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have liver and kidney dysfunction. We aim to investigate the levels of liver and kidney function indexes in mild and severe COVID-19 patients and their capability to predict the severity of the disease. METHODS: The characteristics and laboratory indexes were compared between patients with different conditions. We applied binary logistic regression to find the independent risk factors of severe patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to predict the severity of COVID-19 using the liver and kidney function indexes. RESULTS: This study enrolled 266 COVID-19 patients, including 235 mild patients and 31 severe patients. Compared with mild patients, severe patients had lower albumin (ALB) and higher alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and urea nitrogen (BUN) (all p<0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis also identified ALB [OR=0.273 (0.079-0.947), p=0.041] and ALT [OR=2.680 (1.036-6.934), p=0.042] as independent factors of severe COVID-19 patients. Combining ALB, ALT, BUN, and LDH exhibited the area under ROC at 0.914, with a sensitivity of 86.7% and specificity of 83.0%. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients, especially severe patients, have damage to liver and kidney function. ALT, AST, LDH, and BUN could be independent factors for predicting the severity of COVID-19. Combining the ALB, ALT, BUN, and LDH could predict the transition from mild to severe in COVID-19 patients.

14.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1915576, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284836

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can place an immense psychological strain on the infected patient. The psychological distress can linger after the initial recovery from the infection. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and predictors of provisional post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with cured COVID-2019. Methods: The baseline survey was conducted from 10 to 25 February 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital. Demographic and clinical characteristics were acquired, and depression and anxiety levels were assessed, using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, respectively. A follow-up survey was conducted 1 month post-discharge. PTSD symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6) and patients' perception of supportive care during hospitalization was investigated using a self-developed questionnaire. Results: In total, 114 patients completed both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Of these, 41 (36.0%) met the cut-off score for provisional PTSD diagnosis according to the IES-6. Female gender [odds ratio (OR) = 4.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-14.37], educational level of high school or below (OR = 15.49, 95% CI 1.13-212.71), higher anxiety levels (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12-1.61) and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.17-0.96) predicted a higher risk for provisional PTSD. Conclusions: PTSD is commonly seen in patients with COVID-19 1 month post-discharge. Female patients, and patients with lower educational levels, higher anxiety levels and lower perceptions of emotional support during hospitalization may be more likely to develop PTSD in the near future. Enhancing emotional support during hospitalization could help to prevent PTSD in patients with COVID-19.


Antecedentes: El COVID-19 ha supuesto una inmensa carga psicológica para el paciente infectado. El malestar psicológico puede persistir aún después de la recuperación inicial de la infección.Objetivos: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar la prevalencia y los factores predictores del trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT) provisional en pacientes recuperados de COVID-2019.Métodos: El cuestionario inicial se realizó en pacientes con el COVID-19 desde el 10 de febrero del 2020 hasta el 25 de febrero del 2020 en un hospital designado. Se consideraron las variables demográficas y clínicas, además, se evaluaron los niveles de depresión y ansiedad mediante el cuestionario de salud del paciente de 9 elementos y el cuestionario del trastorno de ansiedad generalizada de 7 elementos, respectivamente. Un cuestionario de seguimiento fue realizado un mes después del alta. Los síntomas de TEPT fueron medidos por el Cuestionario de Eventos de Impacto 6 (IES-6 por sus siglas en ingles) y el nivel de percepción de los pacientes sobre el cuidado de soporte durante la hospitalización fue investigado utilizando un cuestionario auto-administrado.Resultados: Ciento catorce pacientes completaron tanto el cuestionario inicial como el de seguimiento. Cuarenta y un (36.0%) pacientes cumplieron con el punto de corte para el diagnóstico provisional de TEPT según el IES-6. El sexo femenino (OR = 4.69, 95% CI: 1.54-14.37), un nivel de educación secundaria o inferior (OR = 15.49, 95% CI: 1.13-212.71), niveles elevados de ansiedad (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.12-1.61) y una menor percepción de soporte emocional durante la hospitalización (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96) fueron factores predictores de riesgo elevado para el desarrollo provisional de TEPT.Conclusiones: El TEPT es observado con frecuencia en pacientes con COVID-19 un mes después del alta. Las pacientes de sexo femenino, los pacientes con un nivel de educación bajo, los pacientes con un nivel elevado de ansiedad y una menor percepción de apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podrían tener mayor probabilidad de desarrollar TEPT en el futuro cercano. El reforzamiento del apoyo emocional durante la hospitalización podría ayudar a prevenir el TEPT en pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Survivors/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1391-1405, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263189

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout China and worldwide. Little is known about the dynamic changes in the patient immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and how different responses are correlated with disease severity and outcomes. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled in this prospective research. The demographic information, medical history, symptoms, signs and laboratory results were analyzed and compared between severe and non-severe patients. The leukocytes, lymphocyte subsets and inflammatory cytokines were longitudinally collected. RESULTS: Of the 74 patients included, 17 suffered from severe disease. The severe patients tended be older (65.29 ± 12.33 years vs. 45.37 ± 18.66 years) and had a greater degree of underlying disease (41.18% vs. 24.56%), lower baseline lymphocyte counts [0.64 (0.46-0.95) × 109 vs. 1.27 (0.95-1.70) × 109], higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratios [NLRs; 3.76 (3.15-5.51) vs. 2.07 (1.48-2.93)] and lower baseline eosinophil counts [0 (0-0.01) × 109 vs. 0.03 (0.01-0.06) × 109] than those in non-severe patients. The baseline helper T (Th) cells (335.47 vs. 666.46/µl), suppressor T(Ts) cells (158 vs. 334/µl), B cells (95 vs. 210/µl) and natural killer (NK) cells (52 vs. 122/µl) were significantly decreased in severe cases compared to that in non-severe cases. In addition, the baseline neutrophils were positively correlated with the severity of COVID-19, and the baseline lymphocytes were negatively correlated with the severity of COVID-19. The dynamic change of T cells, Th cells and IFN-γ in the severe cases were parallel to the amelioration of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our study provides novel information on the kinetics of the immune responses in a cohort of COVID-19 patients with different disease severities. Furthermore, our study indicates that both innate and adaptive immune responses correlate with better clinical outcomes.

16.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 585537, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211866

ABSTRACT

Objective: Little is known about the factors affecting the recovery of mental health in COVID-19 patients. The purpose of this study is to look into the change of psychological distress and to explore the role of negative appraisals in the improvement of psychological distress in COVID-19 patients after they recovered from the infection. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal survey on patients with COVID-19 infection in Changsha. The 9-item Patient Health scale, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, and a newly developed measure, the COVID-19 Impact Scale (CIS) were applied to assess patients' depression, anxiety, and negative appraisal toward COVID-19 infection during their hospitalization and 1 month post-discharge. Results: Seventy-two patients were included in the analysis. A significant decrease in anxiety and depression levels was observed after patients were discharged from hospital. Two meaningful factors of the CIS were extracted based on factor analysis, namely "health impact," and "social impact." The change of social impact explained the 12.7 and 10.5% variance in the depression and anxiety symptom improvement, respectively. Conclusions: Change in negative appraisals, especially the appraisals related to COVID-19 social impact may play a vital role in the relief of psychological distress of infected patients. Therefore, a cognitive and social care perspective might be considered when promoting the mental health recovery and readjustment to society among COVID-19 patients.

17.
J Psychosom Res ; 143: 110365, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036448

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of isolation form on the recovery of psychological distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after being discharged from hospital. METHODS: Baseline survey was conducted from February 10, 2020 to February 25, 2020 in patients with COVID-19 in a designated hospital on the discharge day. After discharge, patients were free to choose whether isolate in a centralized isolation site (i.e. designated hotel) or their own home for another two weeks. A follow-up survey was conducted at the end of the 2-week post-discharge isolation. Depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health were assessed at both time points using the 9-item patient health questionnaire, 7-item generalized anxiety disorder scale and self-rated health scores, respectively. RESULTS: Fifty centrally isolated and 45 home isolated patients completed both the baseline and the follow-up assessments. Significant effects of time and time by isolation form were found on depression and anxiety levels, with a significant decrease in depression and anxiety shown in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. Besides, a significant time effect was identified on self-rated health with significant improvement found in home isolated but not in centrally isolated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation is superior to centralized isolation in the recovery of COVID-19-associated depression, anxiety as well as self-rated health. More attention needs to be paid to the psychological well-being of centrally isolated patients. A sustained and integrated rehabilitation plan is warranted for patients with COVID-19 to achieve both physical and psychological recovery.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Depression/complications , Patient Discharge , Patient Isolation/psychology , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aftercare , China/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire , Residence Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Chest ; 158(1): 97-105, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-980155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health emergency. The cumulative number of new confirmed cases and deaths are still increasing out of China. Independent predicted factors associated with fatal outcomes remain uncertain. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of the current study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with fatal outcomes from COVID-19 through a multivariate Cox regression analysis and a nomogram model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,590 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 throughout China was established. The prognostic effects of variables, including clinical features and laboratory findings, were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier methods and a Cox proportional hazards model. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In this nationwide cohort, nonsurvivors included a higher incidence of elderly people and subjects with coexisting chronic illness, dyspnea, and laboratory abnormalities on admission compared with survivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis. The internal bootstrap resampling approach suggested the nomogram has sufficient discriminatory power with a C-index of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97). The calibration plots also showed good consistency between the prediction and the observation. INTERPRETATION: The proposed nomogram accurately predicted clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 based on individual characteristics. Earlier identification, more intensive surveillance, and appropriate therapy should be considered in patients at high risk.


Subject(s)
Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Dyspnea , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Procalcitonin/blood , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Nomograms , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
20.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241659, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934330

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 began in December 2019 and rapidly became a pandemic. The present study investigated the significance of lymphopenia on disease severity. A total of 115 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from a tertiary hospital in Changsha, China, were enrolled. Clinical, laboratory, treatment and outcome data were gathered and compared between patients with and without lymphopenia. The median age was 42 years (1-75). Fifty-four patients (47.0%) of the 115 patients had lymphopenia on admission. More patients in the lymphopenia group had hypertension (30.8% vs. 10.0%, P = 0.006) and coronary heart disease (3.6% vs. 0%, P = 0.029) than in the nonlymphopenia group, and more patients with leukopenia (48.1% vs 14.8%, P<0.001) and eosinopenia (92.6% vs 54.1%, P<0.001) were observed. Lymphopenia was also correlated with severity grades of pneumonia (P<0.001) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level (P = 0.0014). Lymphopenia was associated with a prolonged duration of hospitalization (17.0 days vs. 14.0 days, P = 0.002). Lymphocyte recovery appeared the earliest, prior to CRP and chest radiographs, in severe cases, which suggests its predictive value for disease improvement. Our results demonstrated the clinical significance of lymphopenia for predicting the severity of and recovery from COVID-19, which emphasizes the need to dynamically monitor lymphocyte count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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