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2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(10): 1395-1400, 2022 Oct 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090421

ABSTRACT

In the context of the global pandemic of COVID-19, the epidemic intensity, epidemic characteristics and infection risk of influenza have presented new features. COVID-19 and influenza have simultaneously emerged in many regions of the world. COVID-19 and influenza are similar in terms of transmission mode, clinical symptoms and other aspects. There are also similarities in the mechanism of influenza virus and novel coronavirus on cells. At the same time, it is feasible and significant to do a good job in the prevention and control of COVID-19 and influenza. This paper discusses the relevant strategies and measures for the joint prevention and control of influenza and novel coronavirus from the aspects of influenza vaccination to prevent co-infection, simultaneous vaccination of influenza vaccine and novel coronavirus vaccine, etc., and puts forward corresponding thoughts and suggestions, in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of strategies on seasonal influenza vaccine and novel coronavirus vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Seasons , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2
3.
23rd International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, ICEPT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078212

ABSTRACT

Along with the COVID-19 pandemic and the large-scale application of 5G, IoT has become more critical for our daily lives. GaAs is a promising semiconductor for field effect transistors in IoT applications. Due to the high electron mobility of GaAs, n-type FinFET based on GaAs is expected with a higher conductance and electron velocity than Silicon. FinFET based on GaAs has a lower subthreshold swing (SS) and higher Ion/Ioff than FinFET based on Silicon, particularly at high temperatures.Negative Capacitance FinFET(NC-FinFET) is an important emerging technology for low-power applications. To further enhance the performance of the GaAs FinFET, we incorporate Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films in the gate to achieve Negative Capacitance (NC). The NC effect brings a higher Ion/Ioff and a negative coefficient to reduce the SS of the FinFET. Our simulation research proves the GaAs-NC-FinFET has the slightest SS variation in 300K-400K and maximum Ion/Ioff compared with other FinFETs. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 31(18):1804-1809, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057656

ABSTRACT

During the regular COVID-19 prevention and control period, the running of fever-related clinical trial projects faces many problems, which will affect the development of new drugs. How to coordinate the regular COVID-19 prevention and control with the clinical trial process is the key to ensure that the clinical trial participants are successfully enrolled. In this paper, taking the influenza project as an example, combined with the practice of operation and management of the influenza clinical trial project in our hospital, the problems faced in the operation of fever-related clinical trial projects during the regular COVID-19 prevention and control period were discussed and the countermeasures and suggestions were proposed. In order to meet the dual needs of infectious disease prevention and control and clinical trials, it is recommended that in low-risk areas for COVID-19, the subject screening process be integrated with the COVID-19 exclusion process, the starting time of subject screening be moved forward, clinical trial enrollment be conducted while waiting for COVID-19 screening results, in addition, the clinical trial process after COVID-19 screening results are returned should be established in advance. Copyright © 2022, Chinese Journal of New Drugs Co. Ltd. All right reserved.

5.
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies ; 31(5):4197-4204, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056513

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 has led to a surge increase in the production of masks. Due to the rapid propagation of COVID-19 and the long survival time of plastic surfaces, a large number of masks are discharged into the environment without treatment. In this paper, the release of microplastics (MPs) in nature was simulated by using mask samples irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. After 28 days of ultraviolet radiation, part of the main chain of the mask was broken and a large number of transparent MPs fell off. The longer the UV irradiation time, the larger the proportion of small particle MPs. The middle layer of surgical mask is the most difficult to release MPs due to charge treatment, and N95 mask is the most difficult to degrade the inner material. © 2022, HARD Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

6.
Journal of Medical Pest Control ; 38(2):103-107, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056259

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the data collected by 12320 health hotline and network public opinion since the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Guangzhou, and to provide development strategies for health administration departments. Methods The telephone work orders of 12320 health hotline public consulting in Guangzhou, quantity of confirmed cases of COVID-19 daily disclosed by Guangzhou Municipal Health Commission and data of network public opinion (Search Indexes out of Baidu Indexes) from January 21 to May 31,2020 were collected and analyzed. Results A total of 60 421 times public call consultations of 12320 health hotline in Guangzhou from January 21 to May 31, 2020 were counted, there were 40 607 consultations related to COVID-19,accounting for 67. 2% of total consultations. Top three of consultations of COVID-19 were 17 271 times (42. 5%) for the policy category, 12 328 times ( 30. 4%) for supervision category, and 5 489 times (13. 5%) for cognition category. The quantity of COVID-19 related consultations and data of network public opinion showed a synchronous rising trend with the increase of confirmed cases in Guangzhou. When confirmed cases of COVID-19 imported from overseas were found, whereas the data of network public opinion did not increase, the consultations of 12320 health hotline reached a peak, which still maintained a high level of fluctuations after the national epidemic prevention and control entered the normalization stage. Public consultation hot topics drew varied at different periods of epidemic of COVID-19. Conclusion The 12320 health hotline in Guangzhou objectively and truly reflect the demands of the public for COVID-19 related information, and plays an important role in public opinion monitoring and risk communication. © 2022, Editorial Department of Medical Pest Control. All rights reserved.

7.
2nd ACM Conference on Information Technology for Social Good, GoodIT 2022 ; : 32-38, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2053341

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic forced many educational institutions to transition to online learning activities. This significantly impacted various aspects of students' lives. Many of the studies aimed at assessing the impact of the online instruction on students' wellbeing and performance have mainly focused on issues such as mental health. However, the impact on student grades-a key measure of student success-has been given little attention. The handful existing studies are either focused on primary schools-where the dynamics are different from higher education-or based on statistical correlations, which are usually not causally rigorous, therefore, prone to biased estimates due to various confounding variables. There are many variables associated with students' grades, thus, to assess the causal impact of the online instruction on students' grades, there is a need for a causally-grounded approach that can control for confounding variables. To that end, we use a causal tree to investigate the impact of online instruction on the grades of the general population as well as different demographic subgroups. Our analysis is based on the demographic and engagement data for the 2019 (offline/control) and 2020 (online/treatment) cohorts of 3 mandatory courses in an Australian university. For all 3 courses, our results show that for any given student in the population, the average grade they would have gotten, had they studied offline, reduced by 3.6%, 4.7%, and 14% respectively. Further analyses show that among students with similar level of (low) engagement with the virtual learning environment, the average grade international students would have gotten, had they studied face-to-face, reduced by 19.9%, 36.6%, and 46.9% more than their domestic counterparts despite having similar engagement for the 3 courses respectively. These subgroup disparities have the potential to exacerbate existing inequalities. Given the current concerns about algorithmic bias in learning analytics (LA), we trained grade prediction models with the data and investigated for algorithmic bias. Interestingly, we find that by simply changing citizenship status, a student gets a new predicted grade, entirely different from what was initially predicted given their actual citizenship status. This implies that researchers must be careful when building LA models on COVID-19 era data. © 2022 ACM.

8.
Journal of the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology ; 4, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032053

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with chronic refractory constipation show colon dysmotility, including impaired coordination of descending colon-sigmoid colon-rectum-anal sphincter motor functions;this may involve slow colonic transit and colo-anal dyssynergia. Impaired neuronal communication between the sacral defecation center and the distal colon may be causative. In addition, patients with lumbosacral neurological conditions (with lower back pain) may not be able to evoke an effective defecation reflex. Aims: To evaluate if a single therapeutic session of sacral low-level laser therapy (LLLT) would affect the autonomic activity in patients with chronic constipation as revealed by changes in heart rate variability, and to report a multi-session treatment case study. Methods: In 41 patients with chronic constipation, one session of LLLT was executed, using red LED light at a wavelength of 660 nm for 10 minutes and infrared LED light at wavelength of 840 nm for 10 minutes followed by infrared laser light with wavelength of 825 nm for 20 minutes, while measuring the electrocardiogram. One patient received this treatment 8x over 3 weeks. Results: The lumbar-sacral light array treatment showed a significant decrease in parasympathetic activity (RSA & RMSSD) whereas pure sacral laser light treatment showed a significant increase in parasympathetic activity (RSA & RMSSD) as well as a reduction in sympathetic activity (Baevsky's stress index: SI) (table). A single session of LLLT was also executed during HRCM in 8 patients with some but not all showing evoked colonic motility. Before COVID-19 shutdown, one patient was successfully treated. With a history of chronic constipation without ability to have spontaneous bowel movements for 5 years, symptoms improved from 13 to 8 (on a 20 scale) and quality of life improved from 1.5 to 2.5 (on a 0-4 scale) after 8 sessions. Sympathetic reactivity from supine to standing markedly reduced, from highly elevated measured as the Baevsky index from 55 to 153 s-2 it improved from 42 to 75 s-2 upon standing after 4 sessions. Parasympathetic reactivity did not change. Conclusions: A single session of sacral LLLT markedly affected autonomic nervous activity reflected in changes in HRV. The LLLT is likely affecting the sacral defecation center through peripheral nerves entering and exiting the spinal cord including the dorsal root ganglia. LLLT treatment of a patient with inability to generate spontaneous bowel movements, resulted in ability to have complete evacuations associated with marked reduction in sympathetic reactivity during the supine-standing test, after 4 LLLT sessions.

9.
Harvard Educational Review ; 92(3):413-436, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2030423

ABSTRACT

In this "ethnographically-oriented" study, authors Marjorie Faulstich Orellana, Lu Liu, and Sophia L. Ángeles examine the learning experiences expressed in the diaries of thirty-five families from diverse ethnicities/races, cultures, national origins, and social classes living in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exploring participants' reflections on the learning they engaged in during this time and attending to what families prioritized as they reorganized their daily lives, the authors identify several common themes that emerged as participants figured out new ways of "reinventing themselves" during this unprecedented time by centering their cultural heritage, creativity, health, well-being, and connections to nature and to others and by using technology in creative and innovative ways. In offering the life lessons and richness of learning the families experienced as a counter to the current focus on pandemic learning loss, this study has implications for reimagining education in culturally sustaining ways. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Harvard Educational Review is the property of Harvard Education Publishing Group and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

10.
7th International Conference on Distance Education and Learning, ICDEL 2022 ; : 127-132, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020434

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has altered the way people view online learning, which has experienced explosive growth since the pandemic and quickly cultivated the habit of online learning among the students. Online learning is not limited by time or space, and students can learn the courses repeatedly. Despite these advantages, it still has serious limitations in face of hardware-related courses like embedded technology, because it is not likely to provide opportunities for close-up observation of the real objects or any hands-on experience. Therefore, the learning effect will be greatly compromised. This paper proposed a solution for online learning of embedded technology course. It introduced the objective and content design of the course, the integration of ideological and political elements into the course, the teaching platforms that have been used as well as the concrete implementation process of online learning of the course, and it also statistically examined the effect of online learning. © 2022 ACM.

11.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009616

ABSTRACT

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) constitute the mainstay of treatment in several unresectable locally advanced and metastatic solid cancers. mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are immunogenic and can modulate intrinsic host immunostimulatory properties however the effect of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination on outcomes in patients receiving ICI is not well understood. This study examines the outcomes in cancer patients receiving ICI according to their vaccination status. Methods: From January 2021 to December 2021, we identified adult patients with locally advanced and metastatic solid tumors at the University of Illinois Hospital & Health Sciences System who had received at least one dose of ICI, either as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy or targeted therapy, in any line of cancer treatment. Patients were stratified by COVID-19 vaccination status and treatment type (monotherapy versus combined chemoimmunotherapy). Endpoints included immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), progression-free survival (PFS) from ICI initiation and overall survival (OS). Results: Among 89 patients meeting these inclusion criteria, the mean age at diagnosis was 66 years, patient sex was about equally split (female 50.5% to male 49.5%), most patients were minorities (including 58.4% African American), vaccinated (78.7%), had lung cancer (57.3%), were stage IV (71.1%), and had received ICI monotherapy (67.4%). There were no significant differences in the rate of IRAEs between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients (p= 0.53). Patients who received ICI monotherapy had higher rates of IRAEs (p< 0.001). There was no difference in PFS between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients (p= 0.7) and no difference in OS between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients (p= 0.59). Conclusions: In this real-world sample of patients with advanced solid cancers who received ICI there were no significant differences in IRAEs, PFS or OS between vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients, which may be due to the relatively small sample size. Larger real-world datasets with long-term follow-up are needed to study the effect of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination on outcomes in advanced cancer patients receiving ICI.

12.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005664

ABSTRACT

Background: GC012F is a B cell maturation antigen (BCMA)/CD19 dual-targeting CAR-T developed on the novel FasT CAR-T platform with overnight manufacturing and designed to improve depth of response and efficacy. Data was presented at ASCO and EHA 2021 for initial 19 pts. We present updated data for study (NCT04236011;NCT04182581) with longer follow up and 9 additional pts treated (n = 28) in 3 different dose levels. Methods: From October 2019 to November 2021, 28 heavily pretreated RRMM pts (age 27-76) median of 5 prior lines (range 2-9) were treated on a single-arm, open label, multicenter Investigator Initiated Trial receiving a single infusion of GC012F. 89.3% (25/ 28) were high risk (HR- mSMART), 8 pts had EM disease, 3 had never achieved a CR including after transplant, 1 pts presented with plasma cell leukemia, 24/28 pts were refractory to last therapy, 3 pts primary refractory. 9/28 pts had received prior anti-CD38, 27/28 pts prior IMiDs. 26/28 pts were refractory to PI, 26/28 pts to IMiDs. After lymphodepletion over 2-3 days (30 mg/m2/d, 300mg/ m2/d Flu/Cy) GC012F was administered as single infusion at 3 dose levels: 1x105/kg (DL1) n = 2, 2x105/kg (DL2) n = 10 and 3x105/kg (DL3) n = 16. Results: As of Jan 26th 2022, 28 pts - median follow-up (f/ u) 6.3 mths (1.8-29.9) - had been evaluated for response. Overall response rate (ORR) in DL1 was 100% (2/2)- DL 2 -80% (8/10) DL 3 -93.8% (15/16) with 27 pts MRD negative by flow cytometry (sensitivity 10-4-10-6). 100% of MRD assessable pts (27/27) achieved MRD negativity. One patient out of 28 could not get assessed. At d28, 21/24 assessable patients were MRD negative (81.5%), 4/ 28 pts could not get d28 MRD assessment f/u due to COVID-19 restrictions however were assessed at a later timepoint. To date best response is MRD- sCR in 21/28 patients(75.0%) across all dose levels. Some pts after short f/u show responses that are still deepening. Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) was mostly low grade: gr 0 n = 3 (10.7%), gr 1-2 n = 23 (82.1%), gr 3 n = 2 (7.1%) - no gr 4/5 CRS and no ICANs were observed (Graded by ASBMT criteria). Median duration of CRS was 3 d (1-8 d). PK results showed no difference amongst dose levels DL1 to DL3. Overall, CAR-T median Tmax was 10 d (range 8-14 d), median peak copy number (Cmax) was 97009 (16,011-374,346) copies /μg DNA with long duration of persistence of up to d793 (data cut-off). CAR-T geometric mean AUC0-28 for DL1, DL2 and DL3 were 468863, 631540 and 581620 copies/μg DNA×day, respectively. Pts continue to be monitored for safety and efficacy including DOR. Conclusions: BCMA-CD19 dual FasT CAR-T GC012F continues to provide deep and durable responses with a favorable safety profile in additional RRMM pts across all dose levels demonstrating a very high MRD negativity rate including in pts refractory to anti-CD38, PI and IMIDs. GC012F is currently being studied in earlier lines of therapy as well as additional indications.

13.
International Journal of Production Research ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1984636

ABSTRACT

Food supply chains hold significant embodied carbon emissions that need to be mitigated and neutralized. This study aimed to explore the historical Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions associated with household food consumption at a local scale i.e. across the eight English regions and the four nations that comprise the United Kingdom (UK). UK EatWell guidelines were used to explore the potential change in emissions and food costs in a scenario of transitions to healthier diets across the study areas. These emissions were calculated based on food consumption data before the advent of the Covid-pandemic i.e. between the years 2001 and 2018. Spatial data analysis was used to explore if the study areas had any significant correlations with respect to the emissions during the study period. The results displayed a potential reduction in GHG emissions for all study areas in the explored scenario. Further impacts include a reduction in household food costs across a majority of the areas during the study period. However, a consistent trend of significant correlations among the study areas was absent. This study concludes that local or regional policymaking should take precedence over national regulations to achieve healthier diets that are both carbon-neutral and affordable for the households. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

14.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(4):528-533, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1969736

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and potential mechanism of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine-related myocarditis. Methods: We made a systematic literature retrieval based on PubMed to search for all reports on COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis published by August 31, 2021. A total of 29 reports involving 71 patients with myocarditis were enrolled after screening. The patients' demographic data, vaccination, clinical manifestations, biochemical and imaging results, treatments, and outcomes were extracted and summarized. The patients were divided into prior COVID (n=12) and non-prior COVID (n=59) according to their previous medical history. Results: COVID vaccine-related myocarditis was more common in men (91.5%) and after the second dose of mRNA vaccine (81.7%). The average time to onset was 3 (1, 25) days, and the main symptoms included chest pain (94.4%), fever (45.1%), myalgia (26.8%), and shortness of breath (16.9%). Abnormal troponin level was present in almost all the patients, with a common elevation of C-reactive protein. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine were widely used in clinical treatment, and the symptoms of one-fifth of the patients were relieved after symptomatic therapy, with 1 to 2 weeks' length of hospital stay. However, the risk of vaccine-related myocarditis was significantly increased in patients with previous COVID-19 infection, which was more common after the first dose of vaccine (58.3%) other than the second dose. And the clinical symptoms and outcomes were somewhat different from those without COVID-19 infection previously. Conclusion: Myocarditis is one of the serious adverse events related to COVID-19 vaccine, with an overall relatively low incidence, mild clinical severity, and favorable prognosis. Vaccine-related myocarditis may be a combined result of primed immune system and individual susceptibility after infection with COVID-19.

15.
Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada-Research Policy and Practice ; 42(5):247-255, 2022.
Article in French | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1897293

ABSTRACT

Based on results from the 2020 COVID-19 and Mental Health Survey (CMHS), positive mental health among adults in Canada was lower during the second wave of the pandemic (fall 2020) than in 2019. Using the winter and spring 2021 CMHS data analyzed in this study, we were able to find that average life satisfaction and the prevalence of high self-rated mental health, strong sense of community, and perceived stable or better mental health were even lower during the third wave of the pandemic than during the second wave , both in the overall adult population and among most sociodemographic groups.

16.
Ieee Access ; 10:53640-53651, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1883114

ABSTRACT

Recently, the Healthcare Internet of Things (H-IoT) has been widely applied to alleviate the global challenge of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, security and limited energy capacity issues remain the two main factors that prevent the large-scale application of the H-IoT. Therefore, a permissioned blockchain and deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-empowered H-IoT system is presented in this research to address these two issues. The proposed H-IoT system can provide real-time security and energy-efficient healthcare services to control the propagation of the COVID-19 pandemic. To address the security issue, a permissioned blockchain method is adopted to guarantee the security of the proposed H-IoT system. As for handling the limited energy constraint, we employ the mobile edge computing (MEC) method to offload the computing tasks to alleviate the computational burden and energy consumption of the proposed H-IoT system. We also adopt an energy harvesting method to improve performance. In addition, a DRL method is employed to jointly optimize both the security and energy efficiency performance of the proposed system. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed solution can balance the requirements of security and energy efficiency issues and hence can better respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
Environmental Science-Water Research & Technology ; : 17, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882773

ABSTRACT

Background: recent applications of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) have demonstrated its ability to track the spread and dynamics of COVID-19 at the community level. Despite the growing body of research, quantitative synthesis of SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in wastewater generated from studies across space and time using diverse methods has not been performed. Objective: the objective of this study is to examine the correlations between SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in wastewater and epidemiological indicators across studies, stratified by key covariates in study methodologies. In addition, we examined the association of proportions of positive detections in wastewater samples and methodological covariates. Methods: we systematically searched the Web of Science for studies published by February 16th, 2021, performed a reproducible screening, and employed mixed-effects models to estimate the levels of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA quantities in wastewater samples and their correlations to the case prevalence, the sampling mode (grab or composite sampling), and the wastewater fraction analyzed (i.e., solids, solid-supernatant mixtures, or supernatants/filtrates). Results: a hundred and one studies were found;twenty studies (671 biosamples and 1751 observations) were retained following a reproducible screening. The mean positivity across all studies was 0.68 (95%-CI, [0.52;0.85]). The mean viral RNA abundance was 5244 marker copies per mL (95%-CI, [0;16 432]). The Pearson correlation coefficients between the viral RNA levels and case prevalence were 0.28 (95%-CI, [0.01;0.51]) for daily new cases or 0.29 (95%-CI, [-0.15;0.73]) for cumulative cases. The fraction analyzed accounted for 12.4% of the variability in the percentage of positive detections, followed by the case prevalence (9.3% by daily new cases and 5.9% by cumulative cases) and sampling mode (0.6%). Among observations with positive detections, the fraction analyzed accounted for 56.0% of the variability in viral RNA levels, followed by the sampling mode (6.9%) and case prevalence (0.9% by daily new cases and 0.8% by cumulative cases). While the sampling mode and fraction analyzed both significantly correlated with the SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA levels, the magnitude of the increase in positive detection associated with the fraction analyzed was larger. The mixed-effects model treating studies as random effects and case prevalence as fixed effects accounted for over 90% of the variability in SARS-CoV-2 positive detections and viral RNA levels. Interpretations: positive pooled means and confidence intervals in the Pearson correlation coefficients between the SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA levels and case prevalence indicators provide quantitative evidence that reinforces the value of wastewater-based monitoring of COVID-19. Large heterogeneities among studies in proportions of positive detections, viral RNA levels, and Pearson correlation coefficients suggest a strong demand for methods to generate data accounting for cross-study heterogeneities and more detailed metadata reporting. Large variance was explained by the fraction analyzed, suggesting sample pre-processing and fractionation as a direction that needs to be prioritized in method standardization. Mixed-effects models accounting for study level variations provide a new perspective to synthesize data from multiple studies.

18.
Networks and Heterogeneous Media ; 17(3):401-425, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875877

ABSTRACT

Uncertainty in data is certainly one of the main problems in epidemiology, as shown by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. The need for efficient methods capable of quantifying uncertainty in the mathematical model is essential in order to produce realistic scenarios of the spread of infection. In this paper, we introduce a bi-fidelity approach to quantify uncertainty in spatially dependent epidemic models. The approach is based on evaluating a high-fidelity model on a small number of samples properly selected from a large number of evaluations of a low-fidelity model. In particular, we will consider the class of multiscale transport models recently introduced in [13, 7] as the high-fidelity reference and use simple two-velocity discrete models for lowfidelity evaluations. Both models share the same diffusive behavior and are solved with ad-hoc asymptotic-preserving numerical discretizations. A series of numerical experiments confirm the validity of the approach. © 2021 Giulia Bertaglia, Liu Liu, Lorenzo Pareschi and Xueyu Zhu.

19.
The Sustainability of Asia’s Debt: Problems, Policies, and Practices ; : 167-187, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1871286

ABSTRACT

Decentralization of infrastructure responsibility to subnational governments and the immense needs of infrastructure financing argue for expanding subnational borrowing responsibly. India, Indonesia, the People’s Republic of China, and the Philippines embarked on developing their subnational debt market at differing paces and progresses. The transition to market-based financing is path dependent, requiring sequencing of reforms. Moral hazard is inherent in subnational borrowing for both borrowers and lenders. Subnational borrowing also intertwines with the intergovernmental fiscal system, which prescribes the division of spending, revenues, and deficit financing among tiers of government. Linking borrowing to debt-service revenues and allowing fiscal space for subnational government borrowing are paramount. The challenges facing subnational governments from COVID-19 are similar to those from other macroeconomic shocks. A long-term view is required as to the allocation of fiscal space between sovereign and subsovereign. Financial transparency is key as markets need to digest comprehensive information to appropriately price risks. © Asian Development Bank 2022.

20.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):2090-2090, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849095
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