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1.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615842

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Characteristics of blood coagulation and its relation to clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients are still rarely reported. We aimed to investigate the blood coagulation function and its influences on clinical outcomes of patients with syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: A total of 71 severe patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection who were treated in Wuhan First Hospital from February 12 to March 20, 2020, were enrolled. The blood coagulation data in these patients and in 61 healthy controls were collected. The patients with COVID-19 were divided into two groups: the aggravated group and the nonaggravated group, respectively, basing on whether the patients' conditions turned to critically ill or not after admission. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, patients with COVID-19 had significant performances with coagulation dysfunction, including dramatically elevated values of FIB, PT, APTT, INR, FDP, and D-Dimers but markedly reduced AT value (P < .05). Importantly, more noteworthy coagulation disorders similar to the differences between patients and controls were found in the aggravated patients with conditions deterioration after admission than those in the nonaggravated patients without conditions deterioration (P < .05). Moreover, the aggravated patients possessed a longer hospital stay and a higher mortality compared with the nonaggravated patients (P < .001). The coagulation parameters of COVID-19 patients were widely and closely related to the indexes of liver function and inflammation (P < .05), indicating the coagulation dysfunction of these patients may be caused by liver injury and inflammatory storm. CONCLUSION: Severe patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection often possess coagulation dysfunction on admission. A certain correlation exists in coagulation disorder and adverse clinical outcome among severe COVID-19 patients.

2.
Kidney International Reports ; 2020.
Article | COVIDWHO | ID: covidwho-591501

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of highly contagious COVID-19 has posed a serious threat to human life and health, especially for those with underlying diseases However, the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on HD center and HD patients has not been reported Methods We reviewed the whole course of the COVID-19 in the HD center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University (from January 14, 2020 till March 12, 2020) We compared the clinical manifestation and immune profiles among different patient groups with healthy individuals Results 42 out of 230 HD patients (18 26%) and 4 out of 33 medical staff (12 12%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the study period 15 HD patients (6 52%), including 10 COVID-19 diagnosed, died Only 2 deaths of the COVID-19 HD patients were associated with pneumonia/lung failure, others were ascribed to cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases or hyperkalemia Except for 3 patients who were admitted to ICU for severe condition (8 11%), including 2 dead, most COVID-19 diagnosed patients presented mild or non-respiratory symptoms The flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood showed that multiple lymphocyte populations in HD patients were significantly decreased HD patients with COVID-19 even displayed more remarkable reduction of serum inflammatory cytokines than other COVID-19 patients Conclusions Compared with the general population, HD patients and health care professionals are the highly susceptible population and HD centers are high risk area during the outbreak A majority of HD Patients with COVID-19 exhibited mild clinical symptoms and did not progress to severe pneumonia likely due to the impaired cellular immune function and incapability of mounting cytokines storm More attention should be paid to prevent cardiovascular events, which may be the collateral impacts of COVID-19 epidemic on HD patients

3.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(6)2020 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590624

ABSTRACT

At present, PCR-based nucleic acid detection cannot meet the demands for coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) diagnosis. Two hundred fourteen confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in the General Hospital of Central Theater Command of the People's Liberation Army between 18 January and 26 February 2020 were recruited. Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits based on recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid protein (rN) and spike protein (rS) were used for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies, and their diagnostic feasibility was evaluated. Among the 214 patients, 146 (68.2%) and 150 (70.1%) were successfully diagnosed with the rN-based IgM and IgG ELISAs, respectively; 165 (77.1%) and 159 (74.3%) were successfully diagnosed with the rS-based IgM and IgG ELISAs, respectively. The positive rates of the rN-based and rS-based ELISAs for antibody (IgM and/or IgG) detection were 80.4% and 82.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of the rS-based ELISA for IgM detection was significantly higher than that of the rN-based ELISA. We observed an increase in the positive rate for IgM and IgG with an increasing number of days post-disease onset (d.p.o.), but the positive rate of IgM dropped after 35 d.p.o. The positive rate of rN-based and rS-based IgM and IgG ELISAs was less than 60% during the early stage of the illness, 0 to 10 d.p.o., and that of IgM and IgG was obviously increased after 10 d.p.o. ELISA has a high sensitivity, especially for the detection of serum samples from patients after 10 d.p.o., so it could be an important supplementary method for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Pandemics
4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 452-453, 2020 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525657

ABSTRACT

We report a familial cluster of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to assess its potential transmission during the incubation period. The first patient in this familial cluster was identified during the presymptomatic period, as a close contact of a confirmed patient. Five family members had close contact with this first patient during his incubation period, with four of them confirmed positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the subsequent sampling tests.

5.
Nature ; 2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381745

ABSTRACT

The emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic presents a global health emergency in urgent need of interventions1-3. SARS-CoV-2 entry into the target cells depends on binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike protein and the ACE2 cell receptor2,4-6. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from single B cells of eight SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. We identified antibodies with potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity that correlates with their competitive capacity with ACE2 for RBD binding. Surprisingly, neither the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies nor the infected plasma cross-reacted with SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV RBDs, although substantial plasma cross-reactivity to their trimeric Spike proteins was found. Crystal structure analysis of RBD-bound antibody revealed steric hindrance that inhibits viral engagement with ACE2 and thereby blocks viral entry. These findings suggest that anti-RBD antibodies are viral species-specific inhibitors. The antibodies identified here may be candidates for the development of SARS-CoV-2 clinical interventions.

6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 2020.
Article | COVIDWHO | ID: covidwho-327631

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic of early 2020 poses an enormous challenge to global public health Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the virus has spread rapidly throughout the world, taking thousands of lives in just over 2 months It is critical to refine the incidence and mortality risks of COVID-19 for the effective management of the general public and patients during the outbreak In this report, we investigate the incidence and mortality risks of the infection by analyzing the age composition of 5,319 infected patients, 76 fatal cases, and 1,144,648 individuals of the general public in China Our results show a relatively low incidence risk for young people but a very high mortality risk for seniors Notably, mortality risk could be as high as 0 48 for people older than 80 years Furthermore, our study suggests that a good medical service can effectively reduce the mortality rate of the viral infection to 1% or less

7.
Front. Med. ; (7)20200430.
Article in English | COVIDWHO | ID: covidwhomdl-32426363

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic of early 2020 poses an enormous challenge to global public health. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the virus has spread rapidly throughout the world, taking thousands of lives in just over 2 months. It is critical to refine the incidence and mortality risks of COVID-19 for the effective management of the general public and patients during the outbreak. In this report, we investigate the incidence and mortality risks of the infection by analyzing the age composition of 5,319 infected patients, 76 fatal cases, and 1,144,648 individuals of the general public in China. Our results show a relatively low incidence risk for young people but a very high mortality risk for seniors. Notably, mortality risk could be as high as 0.48 for people older than 80 years. Furthermore, our study suggests that a good medical service can effectively reduce the mortality rate of the viral infection to 1% or less.

8.
Microbes Infect ; 22(4-5): 206-211, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306058

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serological assay for SARS-CoV-2. A newly-developed ELISA assay for IgM and IgG antibodies against N protein of SARS-CoV-2 was used to screen the serums of 238 admitted hospital patients between February 6 and February 14, 2020 with confirmed or suspected SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected on pharyngeal swab specimens using real time RT-PCR. 194 (81.5%) of the serums were detected to be antibody (IgM and/or IgG) positive, significantly higher than the positive rate of viral RNA (64.3%). There was no difference in the positive rate of antibodies between the confirmed patients (83.0%, 127/153) and the suspected patients (78.8%, 67/85), whose nucleic acid tests were negative. The antibody positive rates were very low in the first five days after initial onset of symptoms, and then rapidly increased as the disease progressed. After 10 days, the antibody positive rates jumped from below 50% to over 80%. However, the positive rates of viral RNA maintained above 60% in the first 11 days after initial onset of symptoms, and then rapidly decreased. Overall, the suspected patients were most likely infected by SARS-CoV-2. Before the 11th day after initial onset of symptoms, nucleic acid test is key for confirmation of viral infection. The combination of serological assay can greatly improve the diagnostic efficacy. After the 11th day post-disease onset, the diagnosis for viral infection should be majorly dependent on serological assay.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Inpatients , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Serologic Tests , Adult , Aged , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/blood
10.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1392-1398, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-273383

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with obesity are at increased risk of exacerbations from viral respiratory infections. However, the association of obesity with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unclear. We examined this association using data from the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 383 consecutively hospitalized patients with COVID-19 admitted from 11 January 2020 to 16 February 2020 and followed until 26 March 2020 at the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen were included. Underweight was defined as a BMI <18.5 kg/m2, normal weight as 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m2, and obesity as ≥28 kg/m2. RESULTS: Of the 383 patients, 53.1% were normal weight, 4.2% were underweight, 32.0% were overweight, and 10.7% were obese at admission. Obese patients tended to have symptoms of cough (P = 0.03) and fever (P = 0.06) compared with patients who were not obese. Compared with normal weight patients, those who were overweight had 1.84-fold odds of developing severe COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% CI 0.99-3.43, P = 0.05), while those who were obese were at 3.40-fold odds of developing severe disease (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.40-2.86, P = 0.007), after adjusting for age, sex, epidemiological characteristics, days from disease onset to hospitalization, presence of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, and cancer, and drug used for treatment. Additionally, after similar adjustment, men who were obese versus those who were normal weight were at increased odds of developing severe COVID-19 (OR 5.66, 95% CI 1.80-17.75, P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, obese patients had increased odds of progressing to severe COVID-19. As the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may continue to spread worldwide, clinicians should pay close attention to obese patients, who should be carefully managed with prompt and aggressive treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Body Mass Index , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology , Odds Ratio , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Risk Factors
11.
Diabetes Care ; 43(7): 1382-1391, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-263677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is common in COVID-19 patients and associated with unfavorable outcomes. We aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes and to analyze the risk factors for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This two-center retrospective study was performed at two tertiary hospitals in Wuhan, China. Confirmed COVID-19 patients with diabetes (N = 153) who were discharged or died from 1 January 2020 to 8 March 2020 were identified. One sex- and age-matched COVID-19 patient without diabetes was randomly selected for each patient with diabetes. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were abstracted. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with the mortality in these patients. RESULTS: Of 1,561 COVID-19 patients, 153 (9.8%) had diabetes, with a median age of 64.0 (interquartile range 56.0-72.0) years. A higher proportion of intensive care unit admission (17.6% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.01) and more fatal cases (20.3% vs. 10.5%, P = 0.017) were identified in COVID-19 patients with diabetes than in the matched patients. Multivariable Cox regression analyses of these 306 patients showed that hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] 2.50, 95% CI 1.30-4.78), cardiovascular disease (HR 2.24, 95% CI 1.19-4.23), and chronic pulmonary disease (HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.07-5.90) were independently associated with in-hospital death. Diabetes (HR 1.58, 95% CI 0.84-2.99) was not statistically significantly associated with in-hospital death after adjustment. Among patients with diabetes, nonsurvivors were older (76.0 vs. 63.0 years), most were male (71.0% vs. 29.0%), and they were more likely to have underlying hypertension (83.9% vs. 50.0%) and cardiovascular disease (45.2% vs. 14.8%) (all P values <0.05). Age ≥70 years (HR 2.39, 95% CI 1.03-5.56) and hypertension (HR 3.10, 95% CI 1.14-8.44) were independent risk factors for in-hospital death of patients with diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients with diabetes had worse outcomes compared with the sex- and age-matched patients without diabetes. Older age and comorbid hypertension independently contributed to in-hospital death of patients with diabetes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
12.
Science ; 368(6496): 1274-1278, 2020 06 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260594

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibodies could potentially be used as antivirals against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we report isolation of four human-origin monoclonal antibodies from a convalescent patient, all of which display neutralization abilities. The antibodies B38 and H4 block binding between the spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD) of the virus and the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). A competition assay indicated different epitopes on the RBD for these two antibodies, making them a potentially promising virus-targeting monoclonal antibody pair for avoiding immune escape in future clinical applications. Moreover, a therapeutic study in a mouse model validated that these antibodies can reduce virus titers in infected lungs. The RBD-B38 complex structure revealed that most residues on the epitope overlap with the RBD-ACE2 binding interface, explaining the blocking effect and neutralizing capacity. Our results highlight the promise of antibody-based therapeutics and provide a structural basis for rational vaccine design.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Protein Domains , Viral Load/immunology
13.
J Infect Dis ; 221(11): 1770-1774, 2020 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245019

ABSTRACT

An epidemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread unexpectedly in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, since December 2019. There are few reports about asymptomatic contacts of infected patients identified as positive for SARS-CoV-2 through screening. We studied the epidemiological and clinical outcomes in 55 asymptomatic carriers who were laboratory confirmed to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 through nucleic acid testing of pharyngeal swab samples. The asymptomatic carriers seldom occurred among young people (aged 18-29 years) who had close contact with infected family members. In the majority of patients, the outcome was mild or ordinary 2019 novel coronavirus disease during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 842-844, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-244490

ABSTRACT

Respiratory immune characteristics associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are currently unclear. We characterized bronchoalveolar lavage fluid immune cells from patients with varying severity of COVID-19 and from healthy people by using single-cell RNA sequencing. Proinflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages were abundant in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe COVID-9. Moderate cases were characterized by the presence of highly clonally expanded CD8+ T cells. This atlas of the bronchoalveolar immune microenvironment suggests potential mechanisms underlying pathogenesis and recovery in COVID-19.

15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232588

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Crucial roles of hematologic and immunologic responses in progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain largely unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to address the dynamic changes in hematologic and immunologic biomarkers and their associations with severity and outcomes of COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective study including 548 patients with COVID-19 with clarified outcome (discharged or deceased) from a national cohort in China was performed. Cross-sectional and longitudinal variations were compared and the associations with different severity and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: On admission, the counts of lymphocytes, T-cell subsets, eosinophils, and platelets decreased markedly, especially in severe/critical and fatal patients. Increased neutrophil count and neutrophils-to-lymphocytes ratio were predominant in severe/critical cases or nonsurvivors. During hospitalization, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and platelets showed an increasing trend in survivors, but maintained lower levels or dropped significantly afterwards in nonsurvivors. Nonsurvivors kept a high level or showed an upward trend for neutrophils, IL-6, procalcitonin, D-dimer, amyloid A protein, and C-reactive protein, which were kept stable or showed a downward trend in survivors. Positive correlation between CD8+ T-cell and lymphocytes count was found in survivors but not in nonsurvivors. A multivariate Cox regression model suggested that restored levels of lymphocytes, eosinophils, and platelets could serve as predictors for recovery, whereas progressive increases in neutrophils, basophils, and IL-6 were associated with fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Hematologic and immunologic impairment showed a significantly different profile between survivors and nonsurvivors in patients with COVID-19 with different severity. The longitudinal variations in these biomarkers could serve to predict recovery or fatal outcome.

16.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent data on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has begun to shine light on the impact of the disease on the liver. But no studies to date have systematically described liver test abnormalities in patients with COVID-19. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in patients with abnormal liver test results. METHODS: Clinical records and laboratory results were obtained from 417 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 who were admitted to the only referral hospital in Shenzhen, China from January 11 to February 21, 2020 and followed up to March 7, 2020. Information on clinical features of patients with abnormal liver tests were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 patients with COVID-19, 318 (76.3%) had abnormal liver test results and 90 (21.5%) had liver injury during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests became more pronounced during hospitalization within 2 weeks, with 49 (23.4%), 31 (14.8%), 24 (11.5%) and 51 (24.4%) patients having alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels elevated to more than 3× the upper limit of normal, respectively. Patients with abnormal liver tests of hepatocellular type or mixed type at admission had higher odds of progressing to severe disease (odds ratios [ORs] 2.73; 95% CI 1.19-6.3, and 4.44, 95% CI 1.93-10.23, respectively). The use of lopinavir/ritonavir was also found to lead to increased odds of liver injury (OR from 4.44 to 5.03, both p <0.01). CONCLUSION: Patients with abnormal liver tests were at higher risk of progressing to severe disease. The detrimental effects on liver injury mainly related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which should be monitored and evaluated frequently. LAY SUMMARY: Data on liver tests in patients with COVID-19 are scarce. We observed a high prevalence of liver test abnormalities and liver injury in 417 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our referral center, and the prevalence increased substantially during hospitalization. The presence of abnormal liver tests and liver injury were associated with the progression to severe pneumonia. The detrimental effects on liver injury were related to certain medications used during hospitalization, which warrants frequent monitoring and evaluation for these patients.

17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 2020 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-170708

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first reported in Wuhan, December 2019, and continuously poses a serious threat to public health, highlighting the urgent need of identifying biomarkers for disease severity and progression. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify biomarkers for disease severity and progression of COVID-19. METHODS: Forty-eight cytokines in the plasma samples from 50 COVID-19 cases including 11 critically ill, 25 severe, and 14 moderate patients were measured and analyzed in combination with clinical data. RESULTS: Levels of 14 cytokines were found to be significantly elevated in COVID-19 cases and showed different expression profiles in patients with different disease severity. Moreover, expression levels of IFN-γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemotactic protein-3, hepatocyte growth factor, monokine-induced gamma IFN, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, which were shown to be highly associated with disease severity during disease progression, were remarkably higher in critically ill patients, followed by severe and then the moderate patients. Serial detection of the 5 cytokines in 16 cases showed that continuously high levels were associated with deteriorated progression of disease and fatal outcome. Furthermore, IFN-γ-induced protein 10 and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 were excellent predictors for the progression of COVID-19, and the combination of the 2 cytokines showed the biggest area under the curve of the receiver-operating characteristics calculations with a value of 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we report biomarkers that are highly associated with disease severity and progression of COVID-19. These findings add to our understanding of the immunopathologic mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, and provide potential therapeutic targets and strategies.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125357

ABSTRACT

We profiled the serological responses to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N) protein and spike (S) glycoprotein. The majority of the patients developed robust antibody responses between 17 and 23 days after illness onset. Delayed, but stronger antibody responses were observed in critical patients.

19.
Global Health & Medicine ; 2020.
Article | COVIDWHO | ID: covidwho-72241

ABSTRACT

The whole world is now facing an unprecedented pandemic with over 1 8 million confirmed cases and more than one hundred thousand deaths To counter the pandemic, Shenzhen created a central command and control structure based on the only designated hospital- Shenzhen Third People's Hospital which is a large general hospital specialized on infectious diseases in the bay area The hospital has taken many decisive and effective actions to respond to the epidemic Here, we will describe and share healthcare experiences from Shenzhen and call for international cooperation and collaboration

20.
Chest ; 2020 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health emergency. The cumulative number of new confirmed cases and deaths are still increasing out of China. Independent predicted factors associated with fatal outcomes remain uncertain. RESEARCH QUESTION: The goal of the current study was to investigate the potential risk factors associated with fatal outcomes from COVID-19 through a multivariate Cox regression analysis and a nomogram model. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,590 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 throughout China was established. The prognostic effects of variables, including clinical features and laboratory findings, were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier methods and a Cox proportional hazards model. A prognostic nomogram was formulated to predict the survival of patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: In this nationwide cohort, nonsurvivors included a higher incidence of elderly people and subjects with coexisting chronic illness, dyspnea, and laboratory abnormalities on admission compared with survivors. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that age ≥ 75 years (hazard ratio [HR], 7.86; 95% CI, 2.44-25.35), age between 65 and 74 years (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.24-9.5), coronary heart disease (HR, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.14-16.13), cerebrovascular disease (HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.07-8.94), dyspnea (HR, 3.96; 95% CI, 1.42-11), procalcitonin level > 0.5 ng/mL (HR, 8.72; 95% CI, 3.42-22.28), and aspartate aminotransferase level > 40 U/L (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-6.73) were independent risk factors associated with fatal outcome. A nomogram was established based on the results of multivariate analysis. The internal bootstrap resampling approach suggested the nomogram has sufficient discriminatory power with a C-index of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97). The calibration plots also showed good consistency between the prediction and the observation. INTERPRETATION: The proposed nomogram accurately predicted clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 based on individual characteristics. Earlier identification, more intensive surveillance, and appropriate therapy should be considered in patients at high risk.

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