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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25924, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191010

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: At present, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a significant challenge for health workers around the world. This survey aims to highlight the status of the implementation of occupational protection measures for nurses working on the front line against COVID-19, and to analyze the problems in the process of wearing protective equipment.This cross-sectional study was conducted among 165 nurses who worked in COVID-19-stricken areas in China in March 2020. The questionnaire covered 3 aspects, namely: general information, the current condition of protective equipment wearing, and the wearing experience of protective equipment.A total of 160 (96.97%) valid questionnaires were collected. The average time of wearing protective equipment for the nurses surveyed was 6.38 ±â€Š3.30 hours per working day. For first-line nurses with low risk of infection, repeated wear of protective equipment was as follows: medical protective mask 30.77%, double latex gloves 8.46%, goggles/protective mask 15.38%, protective suit 15.38%; less wear of protective equipment were as follows: work cap 7.69%, surgical mask 7.69%, single layer latex gloves 30.77%, goggles/protective mask 30.77%, and isolation gown 46.15%. For nurses who were at moderate risk of infection, repeated wear of protective equipment was as follows: surgical mask 62.22%, goggles/protective mask 68.89%, and isolation gown 65.56%; less wear: work cap 3.33%, medical protective mask 15.56%, latex gloves 15.56%, goggles/protective mask 5.56%, and protective suit 16.67%. For front-line nurses with high risk of infection, repeated wear of protective equipment was as follows: surgical mask 64.91%, more than double latex gloves 8.77%, goggles/protective mask 75.44%, isolation gown 75.44%; less wear: work cap 1.75%, medical protective mask 1.75%, latex gloves 26.32%, goggles/ protective mask 1.75%, protective suit 1.75%. The main discomforts of wearing protective equipment were poor vision due to fogging (81.88%), stuffiness (79.38%), poor mobility (74.38%), sweating (72.5%), and skin damage (61.25%).More detailed personal protection standards should be developed, and the work load of nurses should be reduced. Actions should be taken to ensure the scientific implementation of personal protective measures. To solve practical clinical problems, future protective equipment may focus on the research and development of protective equipment applicable for different risk levels, as well as the research on integrated design, fabric innovation, and reusability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Vaccines ; 11(1):188, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2200956

ABSTRACT

To obtain more insight into IgM in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity a prospective cohort study was carried out in 32 volunteers to longitudinally profile the kinetics of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM response induced by administration of a three-dose inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine regimen at 19 serial time points over 456 days. The first and second doses were considered primary immunization, while the third dose was considered secondary immunization. IgM antibodies showed a low secondary response that was different from the other three antibodies (neutralizing, total, and IgG antibodies). There were 31.25% (10/32) (95% CI, 14.30-48.20%) of participants who never achieved a positive IgM antibody conversion over 456 days after vaccination. The seropositivity rate of IgM antibodies was 68.75% (22/32) (95% CI, 51.80-85.70%) after primary immunization. Unexpectedly, after secondary immunization the seropositivity response rate was only 9.38% (3/32) (95% CI, 1.30-20.10%), which was much lower than that after primary immunization (p = 0.000). Spearman's correlation analysis indicated a poor correlation of IgM antibodies with the other three antibodies. IgM response in vaccinees was completely different from the response patterns of neutralizing, total, and IgG antibodies following both the primary immunization and the secondary immunization and was suppressed by pre-existing immunity induced by primary immunization.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 444(Pt A): 130406, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170572

ABSTRACT

People constantly move their heads during conversation, as such movement is an important non-verbal mode of communication. Head movement alters the direction of people's expired air flow, therefore affecting their conversational partners' level of exposure. Nevertheless, there is a lack of understanding of the mechanism whereby head movement affects people's exposure. In this study, a dynamic meshing method in computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate the head movement of a human-shaped thermal manikin. Droplets were released during the oral expiration periods of the source manikin, during which it was either motionless, was shaking its head or was nodding its head, while the head of a face-to-face target manikin remained motionless. The results indicate that the target manikin had a high level of exposure to respiratory droplets when the source manikin was motionless, whereas the target manikin's level of exposure was significantly reduced when the source manikin was shaking or nodding its head. The source manikin had the highest level of self-exposure when it was nodding its head and the lowest level of self-exposure when its head was motionless. People's level of exposure during close contact is highly variable, highlighting the need for further investigations in more realistic conversational scenarios.

4.
Obesity ; 30:286, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2156689

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity has arisen as a prominent risk factor for COVID-19 severity and mortality, potentially owed to an obesity-induced proinflammatory state impacting immune and thrombotic responses. This report characterized the associations between BMI and inflammatory biomarkers in an adult population recently diagnosed with COVID-19 and not hospitalized. Methods: These data were derived from a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted October 2020-March 2021 (NCT04912921). Participants (N=60) were unvaccinated and reported to the test site following diagnosis as allowed by the CDC's return to work policy. At study baseline and week four, anthropometrics and non-fasting blood samples were collected from participants. We examined the associations between BMI (continuous and categorical) and inflammatory markers via multiple regression models. Results: Our analyses revealed significant associations between baseline BMI and IL-6 (ß=0.036, p=0.0001), TNF-α (ß=0.015, p=0.0059), Ferritin (ß=0.018, p=0.0097), C-reactive protein (ß=0.057, p<0.0001), and WBC count (ß=0.104, p=0.0308) adjusting for age, sex, existing conditions, and interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and trial initiation. Analyses of BMI categories revealed similar significant associations between obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2) and elevations in IL-6, CRP, Ferritin, and WBC at baseline (p<0.05). For those individuals in the control group (n=30), after four weeks, an obese BMI was significantly associated with increases in CRP, TNF-α, soluble P-selectin, and ICAM-1 (p<0.05). Conclusions: The presence of a hyperinflammatory state is a main driver of the severity of COVID-19, and a suggested link between the increased risk of poor COVID-19 outcomes in individuals with obesity. The present study demonstrated significant associations between BMI and several proinflammatory markers associated with disease severity in an adult population recently diagnosed with COVID-19.

5.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2149855

ABSTRACT

Objective To describe the full scope of long-term outcomes and the ongoing pathophysiological alterations among the COVID-19 survivor. Methods We established a longitudinal cohort of 208 COVID-19 convalescents and followed them at 3.3 (IQR: 1.3, 4.4, visit 1), 9.2 (IQR: 9.0, 9.6, visit 2), and 18.5 (IQR: 18.2, 19.1, visit 3) months after infection, respectively. Serial changes in multiple physical and psychological outcomes were comprehensively characterized. We additionally explored the potential risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and sequelae symptoms. Results We observed continuous improvement of sequelae symptoms, lung function, chest CT, 6-minute walk test, and the Borg dyspnoea scale, whereas sequelae symptoms (at least one) and abnormal chest CT patterns still existed in 45.2% and about 30% of the patients at 18.5 months, respectively. Both anxiety and depression disorders were alleviated for the convalescents, although the depression status was sustained for a longer duration. Conclusions Most COVID-19 convalescents had an overall improved physical and psychological health status, whereas sequelae symptoms, residual lesions on lung function, exercise impairment, and mental health disorders were still observed in a small proportion of the participants at 18.5 months after infection. Implementing appropriate preventive and management strategies for the ever-growing COVID-19 population is warranted.

6.
Advanced Materials Interfaces ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2148248

ABSTRACT

A novel localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) system based on the coupling of gold nanomushrooms (AuNMs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is developed to enable a significant plasmonic resonant shift. The AuNP size, surface chemistry, and concentration are characterized to maximize the LSPR effect. A 31 nm redshift is achieved when the AuNMs are saturated by the AuNPs. This giant redshift also increases the full width of the spectrum and is explained by the 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculation. In addition, this LSPR substrate is packaged in a microfluidic cell and integrated with a CRISPR-Cas13a RNA detection assay for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA targets. Once activated by the target, the AuNPs are cleaved from linker probes and randomly deposited on the AuNM substrate, demonstrating a large redshift. The novel LSPR chip using AuNP as an indicator is simple, specific, isothermal, and label-free;and thus, provides a new opportunity to achieve the next generation multiplexing and sensitive molecular diagnostic system.

7.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147764

ABSTRACT

Objectives Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lineage B.1.617.2 (also named the Delta variant) was declared as a variant of concern by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study aimed to describe the outbreak that occurred in Nanjing city triggered by the Delta variant through the epidemiological parameters and to understand the evolving epidemiology of the Delta variant. Methods We collected the data of all COVID-19 cases during the outbreak from 20 July 2021 to 24 August 2021 and estimated the distribution of serial interval, basic and time-dependent reproduction numbers (R0 and Rt), and household secondary attack rate (SAR). We also analyzed the cycle threshold (Ct) values of infections. Results A total of 235 cases have been confirmed. The mean value of serial interval was estimated to be 4.79 days with the Weibull distribution. The R0 was 3.73 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.66–5.15] as estimated by the exponential growth (EG) method. The Rt decreased from 4.36 on 20 July 2021 to below 1 on 1 August 2021 as estimated by the Bayesian approach. We estimated the household SAR as 27.35% (95% CI, 22.04–33.39%), and the median Ct value of open reading frame 1ab (ORF1ab) genes and nucleocapsid protein (N) genes as 25.25 [interquartile range (IQR), 20.53–29.50] and 23.85 (IQR, 18.70–28.70), respectively. Conclusions The Delta variant is more aggressive and transmissible than the original virus types, so continuous non-pharmaceutical interventions are still needed.

8.
Journal of Asian & African Studies (Sage Publications, Ltd.) ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-2112957

ABSTRACT

Facemasks have been proven an effective non-pharmaceutical measure against coronavirus disease-19. Against the backdrop of global mask shortages, Taiwan distinguished herself from other countries in that Taiwan took a whole-of-nation approach to masks and mobilized the society quickly to become self-sufficient in masks. This paper argues that successful virus securitization as a threat to national security was what enabled Taiwan to effectively mobilize the private sector to carry out the state’s will in ensuring adequate mask supply. Moreover, Taiwan securitized the virus more successfully than many other countries because the virus was connected to China, the nation’s existing security threat. [ FROM AUTHOR]

9.
Sci Adv ; 8(45): eabp9961, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119401

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the mechanisms underpinning the development of protective immunity conferred by mRNA vaccines is fragmentary. Here, we investigated responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination via high-temporal resolution blood transcriptome profiling. The first vaccine dose elicited modest interferon and adaptive immune responses, which peaked on days 2 and 5, respectively. The second vaccine dose, in contrast, elicited sharp day 1 interferon, inflammation, and erythroid cell responses, followed by a day 5 plasmablast response. Both post-first and post-second dose interferon signatures were associated with the subsequent development of antibody responses. Yet, we observed distinct interferon response patterns after each of the doses that may reflect quantitative or qualitative differences in interferon induction. Distinct interferon response phenotypes were also observed in patients with COVID-19 and were associated with severity and differences in duration of intensive care. Together, this study also highlights the benefits of adopting high-frequency sampling protocols in profiling vaccine-elicited immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , Interferons
10.
Building and Environment ; : 109787, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2104463

ABSTRACT

Chlorine-containing disinfectants are widely used in hospitals to prevent hospital-acquired severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Meanwhile, ventilation is a simple but effective means to maintain clean air. It is essential to explore the exposure level and health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 patients’ inhalation exposure to by-products of chloride-containing disinfectants under frequent surface disinfection and understand the role of ventilation in mitigating subsequent airway damage. We determined ventilation dilution performance and indoor air quality of two intensive care unit wards of the largest temporary hospital constructed in China, Leishenshan Hospital. The chloride inhalation exposure levels, and health risks indicated by interleukin-6 and D-dimer test results of 32 patients were analysed. The mean ± standard deviation values of the outdoor air change rate in the two intensive care unit wards were 8.8 ± 1.5 h−1 (Intensive care unit 1) and 4.1 ± 1.4 h−1 (Intensive care unit 2). The median carbon dioxide and fine particulate matter concentrations were 480 ppm and 19 μg/m3 for intensive care unit 1, and 567 ppm and 21 μg/m3 for intensive care unit 2, all of which were around the average levels of those in permanent hospitals (579 ppm and 21 μg/m3). Of these patients, the median (lower quartile, upper quartile) chloride exposure time and calculated dose were 26.66 (2.89, 57.21) h and 0.357 (0.008, 1.317) mg, respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between interleukin-6 and D-dimer concentrations. To conclude, ventilation helped maintain ward air cleanliness and health risks were not observed.

11.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102665

ABSTRACT

Background The aim of this study was to explore the short-term safety and immunogenicity of inactivated and peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with endocrine-related cancer (ER). Methods Eighty-eight patients with ER cancer and 82 healthy controls who had completed a full course of inactivated or peptide-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines were recruited. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Responses to receptor-binding domain IgG antibody (anti-RBD-IgG), neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and RBD+ memory B cells (MBCs) were evaluated. Results Approximately 26.14% (23/88) of patients with ER cancer reported AEs within 7 days, which was comparable to that reported by healthy controls (24.39%, 20/82). Both the overall seroprevalence of anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs was obviously lower in the cancer group (70.45% vs. 86.59%, P < 0.05;69.32% vs. 82.93%, P < 0.05, respectively). Anti-RBD-IgG and NAbs titers exhibited similar results, and dropped gradually over time. Patients with ongoing treatment had an attenuated immune response, especially in patients receiving active chemotherapy. The frequency of overall RBD+ MBCs was similar between the two groups, but the percentage of active MBCs was remarkably reduced in patients with ER cancer. Unlike antibody titers, MBCs responses were relatively constant over time. Conclusion Inactivated and peptide-based COVID-19 vaccines were well tolerated, but with lower immunogenicity for ER cancer patients. More intensive antibody monitoring and timely booster immunization is recommended for patients with ER cancer presenting disordered subpopulations of RBD+ MBCs.

12.
Am J Infect Control ; 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential viral contamination on the surfaces of personal protective equipment (PPE) in COVID-19 wards. METHODS: Face shields, gloves, the chest area of the PPE and shoe soles were sampled at different time points. The samples were tested for the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by PCR, and the cycle threshold (CT) values were recorded for quantification. The positive rates of different types of PPE samples and their CT values and the CT values of specimens from different spots were compared. RESULTS: The positive rate was 74.7% (239/320) for all PPE specimens and was highest for gloves (96.25%, 77/80) and shoe soles (92.5%, 74/80). The CT values of the samples were ranked in the following order: face shields > chests > gloves > shoe soles (37.08±1.38, 35.48±2.02, 34.17±1.91 and 33.52±3.16, respectively; P for trend <0.001). After disinfection, the CT values of shoe soles decreased significantly compared with before disinfection (32.78±3.47 vs. 34.3±2.61, P=0.037), whereas no significant effect of disinfection on the CT values of face shields, chests and gloves was observed. After disinfection (disinfection period), the CT values of specimens collected from shoe soles gradually increased; before disinfection (nondisinfection period), the CT values of shoe sole specimens were all less than 35. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 can attach to the surfaces of the PPE of healthcare professionals working in a designated hospital, especially the soles of shoes and undisinfected gloves. Shoe soles had the highest SARS-CoV-2 loads among all tested PPE items.

13.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, NJ) ; : 1-13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102217

ABSTRACT

Since the beginning of 2020, coronavirus disease has broken out globally, large-scale work and production have stopped, causing employees to experience emotional exhaustion, and home offices have greatly exacerbated employees’ deviant behavior. Leadership practices can actively influence employees’ workplace behaviors and can prevent employees’ passiveness and drain on their mental health. Based on the perspective of attribution theory, this article explores the influence of differential leadership on emotional exhaustion and deviant behavior in internal/external control employees. This survey’s subjects were employees working in Tianjin, Beijing, Shanghai. Using the Questionnaire Star, the online platform of the Marketing Research Office of Peking University, and “snowball” methods, 357 questionnaires were collected. This study found that care and communication have no significant effect on deviance. Promotion & rewards significantly reduced interpersonal deviance but had no significant effect on organizational deviance. Tolerance & trust significantly improved interpersonal deviance but had no significant effect on organizational deviance. Employees with a high locus of control (internal control) could more easily control their emotions and reduce interpersonal deviance than employees with a low locus of control (external control) but this had no moderating effect on organizational deviance. The research shows that leaders should regularly care for and encourage each employee within their department, guide employees to recognize the organizational environment, establish an “insider” team, improve work efficiency, and incentivize “outsider” efforts. Subsequent studies can observe and capture employees’ emotions and subconscious behaviors through interviews and experiments to ensure the accuracy of the data. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-03845-x.

14.
World J Mens Health ; 2022 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100245

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Whether COVID-19 reduces male fertility remains requires further investigation. This meta-analysis and systematic review evaluated the impact of COVID-19 on male fertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The literature in PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library up to January 01, 2022 was systematically searched, and a meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effect of COVID-19 on male fertility. Totally 17 studies with a total of 1,627 patients and 1,535 control subjects were included in our meta-analysis. RESULTS: Regarding sperm quality, COVID-19 decreased the total sperm count (p=0.012), sperm concentration (p=0.001), total motility (p=0.001), progressive sperm motility (p=0.048), and viability (p=0.031). Subgroup analyses showed that different control group populations did not change the results. It was found that during the illness stage of COVID-19, semen volume decreased, and during the recovery stage of COVID-19, sperm concentration and total motility decreased <90 days. We found that sperm concentration and total motility decreased during recovery for ≥90 days. Fever because of COVID-19 significantly reduced sperm concentration and progressive sperm motility, and COVID-19 without fever ≥90 days, the sperm total motility and progressive sperm motility decreased. Regarding disease severity, the moderate type of COVID-19 significantly reduced sperm total motility, but not the mild type. Regarding sex hormones, COVID-19 increased prolactin and estradiol. Subgroup analyses showed that during the illness stage, COVID-19 decreased testosterone (T) levels and increased luteinizing hormone levels. A potential publication bias may have existed in our meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 in men significantly reduced sperm quality and caused sex hormone disruption. COVID-19 had long-term effects on sperm quality, especially on sperm concentration and total motility. It is critical to conduct larger multicenter studies to determine the consequences of COVID-19 on male fertility.

15.
Life (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090267

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious and pathogenic disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early in this epidemic, the herbal formulas used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) were widely used for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. According to Venn diagram analysis, we found that Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is a frequent herb in TCM formulas against COVID-19. The extract of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma exhibits an anti-SARS-CoV-2 replication activity in vitro, but its pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. We here demonstrate that glycyrrhizin, the main active ingredient of Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, prevents the coronavirus from entering cells by targeting angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Glycyrrhizin inhibited the binding of the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 in our Western blot-based assay. The following bulk RNA-seq analysis showed that glycyrrhizin down-regulated ACE2 expression in vitro which was further confirmed by Western blot and quantitative PCR. Together, we believe that glycyrrhizin inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells by targeting ACE2.

16.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(11): 1302-1310, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062196

ABSTRACT

Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have enhanced transmissibility and immune evasion with respect to current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). How naturally occurring spike mutations affect the infectivity and antigenicity of VOCs remains to be investigated. The entry efficiency of individual spike mutations was determined in vitro using pseudotyped viruses. BALB/c mice were immunized with 2-dose DNA vaccines encoding B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.1.529  and their single mutations. Cellular and humoral immune responses were then compared to determine the impact of individual mutations on immunogenicity. In the B.1.1.7 lineage, Del69-70 and Del 144 in NTD, A570D and P681H in SD1 and S982A and D1118H in S2 significantly increased viral entry, whereas T716I resulted in a decrease. In the B.1.351 lineage, L18F and Del 242-244 in the NTD, K417N in the RBD and A701V in S2 also increased viral entry. S982A weakened the generation of binding antibodies. All sera showed reduced cross-neutralization activity against B.1.351, B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron BA.1). S982A, L18F, and Del 242-244 hindered the induction of cross-NAbs, whereas Del 69-70, Del144, R246I, and K417N showed the opposite effects. B.1.351 elicited adequate broad cross-NAbs against both B.1.351 and B.1.617.2. All immunogens tested, however, showed low neutralization against circulating B.1.1.529. In addition, T-cell responses were unlikely affected by mutations tested in the spike. We conclude that individual spike mutations influence viral infectivity and vaccine immunogenicity. Designing VOC-targeted vaccines is likely necessary to overcome immune evasion from current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
17.
Can J Public Health ; 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056600

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alcohol use is a known risk factor for suicidality, yet this relationship has not been explored during the pandemic in Canada. As a growing body of evidence demonstrates the negative impact of COVID-19 on alcohol consumption and associated harms in Canada, there is a need to examine this more closely. METHODS: Using the Survey on COVID-19 and Mental Health 2020, we compared the prevalence of suicide ideation among: (1) individuals who reported an increase in alcohol consumption vs those who reported a decrease/no change, and (2) individuals who reported past month heavy episodic drinking vs those who did not. We compared overall unadjusted odds ratios and across a number of sociodemographic and mental health variables. All estimates were weighted to ensure they were nationally representative. RESULTS: The prevalence and likelihood of suicide ideation were significantly higher among people who reported increased alcohol consumption during the pandemic (4.9% vs 2.0%; OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.8, 3.7) and people who reported past month heavy episodic drinking (3.4% vs 2.1%; OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.3). Males and middle-aged and older-aged individuals had the highest odds ratios for increased alcohol consumption and past month heavy episodic drinking with suicide ideation. CONCLUSION: In the Canadian general population during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were significant associations between suicide ideation and increased alcohol use as well as past month heavy episodic drinking across specific sociodemographic subgroups. Future research could explore these associations while adjusting for social determinants of health such as income security, employment, education, social support, stress, and mental health.


RéSUMé: CONTEXTE: La consommation d'alcool est un facteur de risque connu de suicidabilité, mais cette relation n'a pas été explorée pendant la pandémie au Canada. Comme un nombre croissant de preuves démontre les répercussions négatives de la COVID-19 sur la consommation d'alcool et les méfaits associés au Canada, il est nécessaire d'examiner cette question de plus près. MéTHODES: En utilisant l'enquête de 2020 sur la COVID-19 et la santé mentale, nous avons comparé la prévalence des idées suicidaires chez : (1) les individus qui ont déclaré une augmentation de leur consommation d'alcool par rapport à ceux qui ont déclaré une diminution ou aucun changement, et (2) les individus qui ont déclaré une consommation épisodique excessive d'alcool au cours du dernier mois par rapport à ceux qui n'en ont pas déclaré. Nous avons comparé les rapports des cotes globaux non ajustés et selon un certain nombre de variables sociodémographiques et de santé mentale. Toutes les estimations ont été pondérées afin de garantir leur représentativité nationale. RéSULTATS: La prévalence et la probabilité d'idées suicidaires étaient considérablement plus élevées chez les personnes ayant déclaré une consommation d'alcool accrue pendant la pandémie (4,9 % contre 2,0 %; RC=2,6, IC à 95 % : 1,8 à 3,7) et chez les personnes ayant déclaré une consommation épisodique excessive au cours du mois écoulé (3,4 % contre 2,1 %; RC=1,7, IC à 95 % : 1,2 à 2,3). Les hommes, les personnes d'âge moyen et les personnes âgées présentaient les rapports des cotes les plus élevés pour une consommation d'alcool accrue et une consommation épisodique excessive d'alcool au cours du mois précédent avec des idées suicidaires. CONCLUSION: Dans la population générale canadienne, pendant la pandémie de COVID-19, il y avait des associations significatives entre les idées suicidaires et l'augmentation de la consommation d'alcool ainsi que la consommation épisodique excessive d'alcool au cours du dernier mois dans des sous-groupes sociodémographiques précis. Les recherches futures pourraient explorer ces associations tout en ajustant les déterminants sociaux de la santé tels que la sécurité du revenu, l'emploi, l'éducation, le soutien social, le stress et la santé mentale.

19.
Zhongguo Bingdubing Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Viral Diseases ; - (4):284, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2040496

ABSTRACT

Objective To understand the genomic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 from 40 imported cases with confirmed COVID-19 in Sichuan during January and March 2022. Methods Total viral RNA was extracted from respiratory samples of 182 confirmed COVID-19 cases who entered China through Chendu International Airport from January to March 2022.Mutation nucleic acid detection kit was used to identify the mutant strains and Illumina sequencing platform was applied for whole genome sequence(WGS) of virus.SARS-CoV-2 reference sequences were downloaded from NCBI database for genetic evolution and antigen variation analysis.The Nextclade and Pangolin online virus analysis platform were used to determine the virus family and type,and to analyze the mutation loci of the virus.The phylogenetic tree was constructed,along with the epidemiological data of cases to analyze the source and correlation of viruses. Results Among 182 imported COVID-19 cases,B.1.617.2 mutations were identified in 3 cases and B.1.1.529 mutations were detected in 57 cases.A total of 40 SARS-CoV-2 whole genome sequences with coverage>95% were obtained in this study.Nextclade typing analysis showed that 3 sequences belonged to 21J(Delta),5 sequences belonged to 21K(Omicron)and the remaining 32 sequences belonged to 21L(Omicron).Pangolin typing analysis showed that the 3 sequences of 21J(Delta)belonged to AY.4,AY.109and B.1.617.2,the 5sequences of 21K(Omicron)all belonged to BA.1.1,and the remaining 32 sequences of 21L(Omicron)belonged to BA.2.Our sequence results were99.7% consistency with the Omicron variants sequences in current GISAID database.Compared with the reference sequence strain Wuhan-Hu-1(NC_045512.2),45,47and 42nucleotide variation sites and 36,25 and 36amino acid variation sites were found in the 3 sequences of 21J(Delta).There were average 59(26-64)nucleotide mutation sites and 48(10-53)amino acid mutation sites in the 5sequences of 21K(Omicron).The median number of nucleotide mutation sites of 71(66-76)and amino acid mutation sites of 53(40-56)were identified in the 32sequences of 21L(Omicron).Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that 40SARS-CoV-2WGSs were all related to the current variants of concern(VOC). Conclusions Continuous sequencing of SARS-CoV-2whole genome from imported cases with confirmed COVID-19is of great significance for the prevention and control of the outbreak and prevalence of local epidemic caused by imported viruses in Sichuan.

20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 882919, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039673

ABSTRACT

Given that vaccine-induced adverse effects were mostly based on previous laboratory research and clinical trials, real-world data on the safety of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination were lacking. This study reported the adverse events (AEs) among inactivated COVID-19 vaccine recipients. Data were collected from a total of 2,808 hospital employees and their family members in Wuhan, China, with all of them receiving the first dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccines from two pharmaceutical companies. The first dose was given between 29th April and 13th May 2021. A total of 2,732 vaccinees received the second dose between 27th May and 8th July 2021. The whole process of receiving the vaccine was monitored by clinical pharmacists, and the information on AEs including demographics, occurrence, types, and severity was recorded through an online questionnaire and telephone follow-up. Most of the common AEs were mild and tolerable, and the overall incidence of AEs was lower than the data from the safety profile in clinical trials. Moreover, the incidence of AEs in the first dose (21.30%, 598) was higher than that in the second dose (16.07%, 439). Furthermore, the first injection had more severe AEs (4, 0.14%) than the second injection (2, 0.07%). The AEs involved the skin, muscle, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, cardiovascular system, and other tissues and systems. The most common AE was pain at the injection site (first dose: 10.19%, second dose: 12.55%). All the vaccinees with AEs for both doses recovered fully in the end. It was noted that some AEs might cause blood coagulation disorder and bleeding risk. Therefore, ongoing monitoring of AEs after COVID-19 vaccination is essential in evaluating the benefits and risks of each vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Pharmacists
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