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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610493

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To summarize the imaging results of COVID-19 pneumonia and develop a computerized tomography (CT) screening procedure for patients at our institution with malignant tumors. Methods: Following epidemiological investigation, 1,429 patients preparing to undergo anti-tumor-treatment underwent CT scans between February 17 and April 16, 2020. When CT findings showed suspected COVID-19 pneumonia after the supervisor radiologist and the thoracic experience radiologist had double-read the initial CT images, radiologists would report the result to our hospital infection control staff. Further necessary examinations, including the RT-PCR test, in the assigned hospital was strongly recommended for patients with positive CT results. The CT examination room would perform sterilization for 30 min to 1 h. If the negative results of any suspected COVID-19 pneumonia CT findings were identified, the radiologists would upload the results to our Hospital Information Systems and inform clinicians within 2 h. Results: Fifty (0.35%, 50/1,429) suspected pneumonia cases, including 29 males and 21 females (median age: 59.5 years old;age range 27–79 years), were identified. A total of 34.0% (17/50) of the patients had a history of lung cancer and 54.0 (27/50) underwent chemotherapy or targeted therapy. Forty-six patients (92.0%) had prior CT scans, and 35 patients (76.1%) with suspected pneumonia were newly seen (median interval time: 62 days). Sub-pleura small patchy or strip-like lesions most likely due to fibrosis or hypostatic pneumonia and cluster of nodular lesions were the two main signs of suspected cases on CT images (34, 68.0%). Twenty-seven patients (54.0%) had, at least once, follow-up CT scan (median interval time: 18.0 days). Only one patient had an increase in size (interval time: 8 days), the immediately RT-PCR test result was negative. Conclusion: CT may be useful as a screening tool for COVID-19 based on imaging features. But the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and other pulmonary infection and/or non-infectious disease is very difficult due to its overlapping imaging features.The confirmed diagnosis of the COVID-19 infection should be based on the etiologic eventually. The cancer patients at a low-incidence area would continue treatment by screening carefully before admission.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583514

ABSTRACT

Growing evidence has shown that Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2) not only contributes to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, but is also closely associated with the incidence and progression of tumours. However, the correlation of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and cancers, and the prognostic value and molecular function of TMPRSS2 in various cancers have not been fully understood. In this study, the expression, genetic variations, correlated genes, immune infiltration and prognostic value of TMPRSS2 were analysed in many cancers using different bioinformatics platforms. The observed findings revealed that the expression of TMPRSS2 was considerably decreased in many tumour tissues. In the prognostic analysis, the expression of TMPRSS2 was considerably linked with the clinical consequences of the brain, blood, colorectal, breast, ovarian, lung and soft tissue cancer. In protein network analysis, we determined 27 proteins as protein partners of TMPRSS2, which can regulate the progression and prognosis of cancer mediated by TMPRSS2. Besides, a high level of TMPRSS2 was linked with immune cell infiltration in various cancers. Furthermore, according to the pathway analysis of differently expressed genes (DEGs) with TMPRSS2 in lung, breast, ovarian and colorectal cancer, 160 DEGs genes were found and were significantly enriched in respiratory system infection and tumour progression pathways. In conclusion, the findings of this study demonstrate that TMPRSS2 may be an effective biomarker and therapeutic target in various cancers in humans, and may also provide new directions for specific tumour patients to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 outbreak.

3.
Build Environ ; 211: 108751, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588178

ABSTRACT

In order to control the spread of Covid-19, authorities provide various prevention guidelines and recommendations for health workers and the public. Personal protection equipment (PPE) and physical barrier are the most widely applied prevention measures in practice due to their affordability and ease of implementation. This study aims to investigate the effect of PPE and physical barriers on mitigating the short-range airborne transmission between two people in a ventilated environment. Four types of PPE (surgical mask, two types of face shield, and mouth visor), and two different sizes of the physical barrier were tested in a controlled environment with two life-size breathing thermal manikins. The PPE was worn by the source manikin to test the efficiency of source control. The measurement results revealed that the principles of PPE on preventing short-range droplet and airborne transmission are different. Instead of filtering the fine droplet nuclei, they mainly redirect the virus-laden exhalation jet and avoid the exhaled flow entering the target's inhalation region. Physical barriers can block the spreading of droplet nuclei and create a good micro environment at short distances between persons. However, special attention should be paid to arranging the physical barrier and operating the ventilation system to avoid the stagnant zone where the contaminant accumulates.

4.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103762, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines in emergency use are efficacious against COVID-19, yet vaccine-induced prevention against nasal SARS-CoV-2 infection remains suboptimal. METHODS: Since mucosal immunity is critical for nasal prevention, we investigated the efficacy of an intramuscular PD1-based receptor-binding domain (RBD) DNA vaccine (PD1-RBD-DNA) and intranasal live attenuated influenza-based vaccines (LAIV-CA4-RBD and LAIV-HK68-RBD) against SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: Substantially higher systemic and mucosal immune responses, including bronchoalveolar lavage IgA/IgG and lung polyfunctional memory CD8 T cells, were induced by the heterologous PD1-RBD-DNA/LAIV-HK68-RBD as compared with other regimens. When vaccinated animals were challenged at the memory phase, prevention of robust SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasal turbinate was achieved primarily by the heterologous regimen besides consistent protection in lungs. The regimen-induced antibodies cross-neutralized variants of concerns. Furthermore, LAIV-CA4-RBD could boost the BioNTech vaccine for improved mucosal immunity. INTERPRETATION: Our results demonstrated that intranasal influenza-based boost vaccination induces mucosal and systemic immunity for effective SARS-CoV-2 prevention in both upper and lower respiratory systems. FUNDING: This study was supported by the Research Grants Council Collaborative Research Fund, General Research Fund and Health and Medical Research Fund in Hong Kong; Outbreak Response to Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; Shenzhen Science and Technology Program and matching fund from Shenzhen Immuno Cure BioTech Limited; the Health@InnoHK, Innovation and Technology Commission of Hong Kong; National Program on Key Research Project of China; donations from the Friends of Hope Education Fund; the Theme-Based Research Scheme.

5.
Preprint | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296942

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the factors contributing to the development of protective immunity after vaccination with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines is fragmentary. Thus we employed high-temporal-resolution transcriptome profiling and in-depth characterization of antibody production approaches to investigate responses to COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. There were marked differences in the timing and amplitude of the responses to the priming and booster doses. Notably, two distinct interferon signatures were identified, that differed based on their temporal patterns of induction. The first signature (S1), which was preferentially induced by type I interferon, peaked at day 2 post-prime and at day 1 post-boost, and in both instances was associated with subsequent development of the antibody response. In contrast, the second interferon signature (S2) peaked at day 1 both post-prime and post-boost but was found to be potently induced only post-boost, where it coincided with a robust inflammation peak. Notably, we also observed post-prime-like (S1++,S20/+) and post-boost-like (S1++,S2++) patterns of interferon response among COVID-19 patients. A post-boost-like signature was observed in most severely ill patients at admission to the intensive care unit and was associated with a shorter hospital stay. Interestingly, severely ill patients who stayed hospitalized the longest showed a peculiar pattern of interferon induction (S1-/0,S2+), that we did not observe following the administration of mRNA vaccines. In summary, high temporal resolution profiling revealed an elaborate array of immune responses elicited by priming and booster doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. Furthermore, it contributed to the identification of distinct interferon-response phenotypes underpinning vaccine immunogenicity and the course of COVID-19 disease.

6.
Global policy ; 12(4):562-567, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1565033

ABSTRACT

One year after the World Health Organization declared COVID‐19 a global pandemic, governments around the world adopt similar practices in containing the COVID‐19 spread. Nevertheless, variation exists in the level of policy compliance, which directly contribute to policy success/failure across countries. As the pandemic continues, pandemic fatigue also decreases the public’s willingness to comply. Increasing policy compliance during the remainder of pandemic has become a transnational concern. Using Taiwan’s quarantine policy as an example, this article illustrates three aspects to craft an effective compliance regime to fight public health crises like COVID‐19: (1) a comprehensive policy mix to reduce heterogeneous compliance barriers that impact different social groups;(2) constant and various policy communication with heterogeneous target audiences;and (3) leveraging and integrating street‐level bureaucrats in the policy implementation stages. Taiwan’s case provides several policy lessons for other countries: compliance regime is not driven by top‐down enforcement but through the integration of policy design and implementation that remove all barriers for compliance. Taiwan’s street level bureaucrats are the glue of the compliance regime. This article bears policy implications for policy makers around the world when aiming for increasing policy compliance. Taiwan’s compliance regime on quarantine policy provides several lessons for countries that are utilizing social behavior measures to contain the spread of COVID‐19. A successful quarantine policy consists of multiple layers of protection steps and involves collaborations among bureaucratic organizations of all levels and private businesses.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.

8.
Am J Infect Control ; 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is a cost-effective measure to reduce healthcare-associated infections. The overall characteristics and changes of hand hygiene compliance (HHC) among healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic provided evidence for targeted HH intervention measures. AIM: To systematically review the literature and conduct a meta-analysis of studies investigating the rate of HHC and the characteristics of HH during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang Data, VIP and CBM databases were searched. All the original articles with valid HHC data among healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic (from January 1, 2020 to October 1, 2021) were included. Meta-analysis was performed using a DerSimonian and Laird model to yield a point estimate and a 95% CI for the HHC rate. The heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Q test and I2 statistics and a random-effects model was used to contrast between different occupations, the WHO five-moments of HH and different observation methods. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines were followed. FINDINGS: Seven studies with 2377 healthcare providers reporting HHC were identified. The estimated overall HHC was 74%, which was higher than that reported in previous studies (5%-89%). Fever clinic has become a new key place for HHC observation. Nurses had the highest HHC (80%; 95% CI:74%-87%) while auxiliary workers (70%; 95%CI:62%-77%) had the lowest. For the WHO five-moments, the healthcare providers had the highest HHC after contact with the body fluids of the patients (91%; 95% CI:88%-94%), while before contact with patients healthcare providers had the lowest HHC (68%; 95% CI:62%-74%) which was consistent with before the pandemic. There existed great HHC differences among different monitoring methods (automatic monitoring system:53%; 95% CI:44%-63% vs openly and secretly observation: 91%; 95% CI: 90%-91%). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the compliance of healthcare providers' HH showed a great improvement. The fever clinics have become the focused departments for HH monitoring. The HHC of auxiliary workers and the HH opportunity for "before contact with patients" should be strengthened. In the future, it will be necessary to develop standardized HH monitoring tools for practical work.

9.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296434

ABSTRACT

Background: The onset of various kidney diseases have been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. However, detailed clinical and pathological examination of kidney injury in patients receiving inactivated vaccines are lacking.<br><br>Methods: We screened and analyzed patients with newly diagnosed kidney diseases after inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Peking University First Hospital from January 2021 to August 2021. We obtained samples of blood, urine, and renal biopsy tissues. Clinical and laboratory information, as well as light microscopy, immunostaining and ultrastructural observation were described. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike protein and Nucleoprotein were stained using immune-fluorescence technique in the kidney biopsy samples. SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies were tested using magnetic particle chemiluminescence immunoassay.<br><br>Findings: The study group included 17 patients, including immune complex mediated kidney diseases (IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and lupus nephritis), podocytopathy (minimal change disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis) and others (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, anti-GBM nephritis, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, and thrombotic microangiopathy). Seven patients (41.18%) developed renal disease after the first dose and 10 (58.82%) after the second dose. We found no definitive evidence of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleoprotein deposition in the kidney biopsy samples. Serological markers implicated abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. Treatment and follow-up (median = 86 days) showed that biopsy diagnosis informed treatment and prognosis in all patients.<br><br>Interpretation: We observed various kidney diseases following inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. Our findings provide an evidence against direct vaccine protein deposition as the major pathomechanism, but implicate abnormal immune responses in predisposed individuals. These findings expand our understanding of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine renal safety.<br><br>Funding: This study was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91742205, 82170711, 81800636, 82070733, 81625004), Clinical Medicine Plus X—Young Scholars Project of Peking University (PKU2021LCXQ017), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-5-046), Yunnan Provincial Science and Technology Department (202102AA100051 and 202003AC100010, China), and Beijing Young Scientist Program (BJJWZYJH01201910001006).<br><br>Declaration of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the institutional review board of Peking University First Hospital (2021-352) and the Committee on Human Subject Research and Ethics of Yunnan University (CHSRE2021020). Written Informed Consent Form was obtained from each participant.

10.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 42(5):719-722, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1502921

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate parent-child conflict among primary and secondary school students and their parents, and to promote family harmony and mental health of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Cell Res ; 31(11): 1148-1162, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493088

ABSTRACT

Increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive (SARS-CoV-2pos) subjects are detected at silent SARS-CoV-2 infection stage (SSIS). Yet, SSIS represents a poorly examined time-window wherein unknown immunity patterns may contribute to the fate determination towards persistently asymptomatic or overt disease. Here, we retrieved blood samples from 19 asymptomatic and 12 presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2pos subjects, 47 age/gender-matched patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 and 27 normal subjects, and interrogated them with combined assays of 44-plex CyTOF, RNA-seq and Olink. Notably, both asymptomatic and presymptomatic subjects exhibited numerous readily detectable immunological alterations, while certain parameters including more severely decreased frequencies of CD107alow classical monocytes, intermediate monocytes, non-classical monocytes and CD62Lhi CD8+ Tnaïve cells, reduced plasma STC1 level but an increased frequency of CD4+ NKT cells combined to distinguish the latter. Intercorrelation analyses revealed a particular presymptomatic immunotype mainly manifesting as monocytic overactivation and differentiation blockage, a likely lymphocyte exhaustion and immunosuppression, yielding mechanistic insights into SSIS fate determination, which could potentially improve SARS-CoV-2 management.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Carrier State/immunology , Adult , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Male , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
12.
Asian Journal of Gerontology and Geriatrics ; 16(1):62, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1481533

ABSTRACT

Purposes: To understand the strategies used in care home settings during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify contextual factors for developing sustainable pandemic responses. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of staff members between June and July 2020. The staff members were in different disciplines and ranks and worked for at least one month in any of the three care homes in Hong Kong and three care homes in Nanjing. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive data-driven thematic analysis was conducted. Results: 20 staff were included who were personal care workers (n=7), nurses (n=7), social workers (n=2), home administrator (n=1), and home managers (n=3). Three major challenges to provision of care home services during the pandemic were identified: how to implement measures to prevent an outbreak in the care home, how to minimise the detrimental effects of these control measures on the residents' psychosocial well-being, and how to prepare for the reopening of the care home. Three themes related to these care challenges were identified: libertarian paternalism versus paternalism, emerging versus established telecommunication, and selective versus blanket testing. Conclusions: Care home staff in both cities encountered similar challenges when providing care during the pandemic. The pandemic responses are complex interventions shaped by the social context, and thus the ways the staff addressed these challenges vary, affected by government policies on infection control measures, readiness of telecommunications infrastructure, and availability of testing facility to prevent another wave in post-peak period.

13.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(7): 958-965, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482579

ABSTRACT

The longitudinal immunologic status of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients and its association with the clinical outcome are barely known. Thus, we sought to analyze the temporal profiles of specific antibodies, as well as the associations between the antibodies, proinflammatory cytokines, and survival of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 1830 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases were recruited. The temporal profiles of the virus, antibodies, and cytokines of the patients until 12 weeks since illness onset were fitted by the locally weighted scatter plot smoothing method. The mediation effect of cytokines on the associations between antibody responses and survival were explored by mediation analysis. Of the 1830 patients, 1435 were detectable for SARS-CoV-2, while 395 were positive in specific antibodies only. Of the 1435 patients, 2.4% presented seroconversion for neither immunoglobulin G (IgG) nor immunoglobulin M (IgM) during hospitalization. The seropositive rates of IgG and IgM were 29.6% and 48.1%, respectively, in the first week, and plateaued within five weeks. For the patients discharged from the hospital, the IgM decreased slowly, while high levels of IgG were maintained at around 188 AU·mL-1 for the 12 weeks since illness onset. In contrast, in the patients who subsequently died, IgM declined rapidly and IgG dropped to 87 AU·mL-1 at the twelfth week. Elevated interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-2R, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels were observed in the deceased patients in comparison with the discharged patients, and 12.5% of the association between IgG level and mortality risk was mediated by these cytokines. Our study deciphers the temporal profiles of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within the 12 weeks since illness onset and indicates the protective effect of antibody response on survival, which may help to guide prognosis estimation.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 747450, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477852

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, a nucleotide analog prodrug, has displayed pharmacological activity against SARS-CoV-2. Recently, eicosanoids are widely involved in regulating immunity and inflammation for COVID-19 patients. Rats were intravenously administered remdesivir at a dose of 5 mg/kg, and series of blood samples were collected before and after treatment. Targeted metabolomics regarding the eicosanoid profile were investigated and quantitated simultaneously using the previously reported reliable HPLC-MS/MS method. Additionally, interplay relationship between metabolomics and pharmacokinetic parameters was performed using the Pearson correlation analysis and PLS model. For the longitudinal metabolomics of remdesivir, metabolic profiles of the same rat were comparatively substantial at discrete sampling points. The metabolic fingerprints generated by individual discrepancy of rats were larger than metabolic disturbance caused by remdesivir. As for the transversal metabolomics, the prominent metabolic profile variation was observed between the baseline and treatment status. Except for TXB2, the inflammatory- and immunology-related eicosanoids of resolvin D2, 5-HEPE, 5-HETE, and DHA were significantly disturbed and reduced after single administration of remdesivir (p < 0.05, p < 0.001). Moreover, the metabolite of PGE2 correlated with GS-441524 (active metabolite of remdesivir) concentration and pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t, AUC0-infinity, and CL significantly. Eicosanoid metabolic profiles of remdesivir at both longitudinal and transversal levels were first revealed using the robust HPLC-MS/MS method. This initial observational eicosanoid metabolomics may lighten the therapy for fighting COVID-19 and further provide mechanistic insights of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection.

15.
Heliyon ; 7(10): e08230, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474596

ABSTRACT

The Pandemic covid-19 spread globally has been given impact in the tourism industry, especially in the tourism destination. This study investigated to build the concept and theoretical framework that explains the decision of local tourist intention to visit a local destination in Indonesia post-pandemic covid-19. This study was considered the perception of Covid-19, non-pharmaceutical intervention and health consciousness by implying of Theory of Planned Behavior constructs. This study, health consciousness is the moderator variable to predict the decision of tourist to visit a destination. Structural Equation Model-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) was used to analyze the construct of study. The model found that the Theory of Planned Behavior was successfully broadened in making the decision of tourist to visit a destination post-covid-19 with considering non-pharmaceutical intervention and health consciousness. The results showed that generally the constructs of Theory Planned Behavior are significantly impacted in intention to visit a local destination in Indonesia, except Hypothesis of subjective norm and intention to visit was rejected. The variable health consciousness through intention to visit also was rejected. The framework also used moderating variable health consciousness between subjective norm and intention to visit was rejected. This study was given insight an issue of covid-19 in the tourism sector, and the implication was providing government, stakeholders, tourism marketers and policy-making with considering non-pharmaceutical and health consciousness during and post-pandemic covid-19.

16.
Journal of Risk and Financial Management ; 14(10):474, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1463736

ABSTRACT

Risk management has been a topic of great interest to Michael McAleer. Even as recent as 2020, his paper on risk management for COVID-19 was published. In his memory, this article is focused on bankruptcy risk in financial firms. For financial institutions in particular, banks are considered special, given that they perform risk management functions that are unique. Risks in banking arise from both internal and external factors. The GFC underlined the need for comprehensive risk management, and researchers since then have been working towards fulfilling that need. Similarly, the central banks across the world have begun periodic stress-testing of banks’ ability to withstand shocks. This paper investigates the machine-learning and statistical techniques used in the literature on bank failure prediction. The study finds that though considerable progress has been made using advanced statistical and computational techniques, given the complex nature of banking risk, the ability of statistical techniques to predict bank failures is limited. Machine-learning-based models are increasingly becoming popular due to their significant predictive ability. The paper also suggests the directions for future research.

17.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211049739, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463196

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive role of lymphocyte subsets and other laboratory measurements in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Electronic medical records of adult patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 from the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were reviewed retrospectively to obtain relevant data. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 40.98 ± 15.95 years, with 58% of the patients being males. The cutoff values at the intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality were CD4+ cells (267, 198, and 405), CD8+ cells (263, 203, and 182), and CD4+ /CD8+ cells (1.4, 1.8, and 1.4). The cutoffs below these values indicate the higher chances of disease progression. Higher CD4+ cell count led to lesser chances for ICU admission [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.994 (0.991, 0.997); p = 0.0002] and mortality [OR (95% CI): 0.988 (0.979, 0.99); p = 0.001], higher CD8+ count was an independent risk factor for ICU admission. T-cell count positively correlated with total lymphocyte count and platelets, while negatively correlated with D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Among patients with non-severe COVID-19, median CD8+ T cell, CD4+ T cell, total lymphocyte count, and platelets were 570, 362, 1.45, and 211, respectively, while median values decreased to 149, 106, 0.64, and 172, respectively, in patients with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Lower T lymphocyte subsets were significantly associated with higher admission to ICU, mechanical ventilation, and mortality among patients with COVID-19. A cutoff value of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality below CD4+ cells (267, 198, and 405), CD8+ cells (263, 203, 182), and CD4+/CD8+ cells (1.4, 1.8, 1.4) may help identify patients at high risk of disease progression. The continuous evaluation of laboratory indices may help with dismal prognosis and prompt intervention to improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , China , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(19)2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463560

ABSTRACT

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted attention in cancer therapy and might support the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Silver is in clinical use in wound dressings, catheters, stents and implants. However, the side effects of systemic AgNP treatment due to silver accumulation limit its therapeutic application. We evaluated whether the antioxidant and natural agent α-lipoic acid might prevent these side effects. We synthesized AgNPs using an Ionic-Pulser® Pro silver generator and determined the concentration by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The effect of α-lipoic acid was examined in four PDAC and two nonmalignant cell lines by MTT, FACS analysis, TEM, xenotransplantation and immunohistochemistry. The viability of PDAC cells was nearly totally abolished by AgNP treatment, whereas nonmalignant cells largely resisted. α-Lipoic acid prevented AgNP-induced cytotoxicity in nonmalignant cells but not in PDAC cells, which might be due to the higher sensitivity of malignant cells to silver-induced cytotoxicity. α-Lipoic acid protected mitochondria from AgNP-induced damage and led to precipitation of AgNPs. AgNPs reduced the growth of tumor xenografts, and cotreatment with α-lipoic acid protected chick embryos from AgNP-induced liver damage. Together, α-lipoic acid strongly reduced AgNP-induced side effects without weakening the therapeutic efficacy.

19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 711435, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458494

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the evolution of radiological findings in the patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia with different severities from onset to 1-year follow-up and identify the predictive factors for different pulmonary lesion absorption status in the patients infected with COVID-19. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on the clinical and radiological features of 175 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia hospitalized at three institutions from January 21 to March 20, 2020. All the chest CT scans during hospitalization and follow-ups after discharge were collected. The clinical and radiological features from the chest CT scans both at the peak stage and before discharge from the hospital were used to predict whether the pulmonary lesions would be fully absorbed after discharge by Cox regression. Then, these patients were stratified into two groups with different risks of pulmonary lesion absorption, and an optimal timepoint for the first CT follow-up was selected accordingly. Results: A total of 132 (75.4%) patients were classified into the non-severe group, and 43 (24.6%) patients were classified into the severe group, according to the WHO guidelines. The opacification in both the groups changed from ground-glass opacity (GGO) to consolidation and then from consolidation to GGO. Among the 175 participants, 135 (112 non-severe and 23 severe patients with COVID-19) underwent follow-up CT scans after discharge. Pulmonary residuals could be observed in nearly half of the patients (67/135) with the presentation of opacities and parenchymal bands. The parenchymal bands in nine discharged patients got fully absorbed during the follow-up periods. The age of patient [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.95, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99], level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00), level of procalcitonin (HR = 8.72; 95% CI, 1.04-73.03), existence of diffuse lesions (HR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.09-0.92), subpleural distribution of lesions (HR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.17-3.92), morphology of residuals (linear lesion: HR = 4.58, 95% CI, 1.22-17.11; nodular lesion: HR = 33.07, 95% CI, 3.58-305.74), and pleural traction (HR = 0.41; 95% CI, 0.22-0.78) from the last scan before discharge were independent factors to predict the absorption status of COVID-19-related pulmonary abnormalities after discharge. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, the probability of patients of the low-risk group to have pulmonary lesions fully absorbed within 90 days reached 91.7%. Conclusion: The development of COVID-19 lesions followed the trend from GGO to consolidation and then from consolidation to GGO. The CT manifestations and clinical and laboratory variables before discharge could help predict the absorption status of pulmonary lesions after discharge. The parenchymal bands could be fully absorbed in some COVID-19 cases. In this study, a Cox regression analysis indicated that a timepoint of 3 months since onset was optimal for the radiological follow-up of discharged patients.

20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 725648, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456304

ABSTRACT

Background: Lack of quantification of direct and indirect exposure of ophthalmologists during ophthalmic diagnostic process makes it hard to estimate the infectious risk of aerosol pathogen faced by ophthalmologists at working environment. Methods: Accurate numerical models of thermal manikins and computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to investigate direct (droplet inhalation and mucosal deposition) and indirect exposure (droplets on working equipment) within a half-minute procedure. Three ophthalmic examination or treatment scenarios (direct ophthalmoscopic examination, slit-lamp microscopic examination, and ophthalmic operation) were selected as typical exposure distance, two breathing modes (normal breathing and coughing), three levels of ambient RH (40, 70, and 95%) and three initial droplet sizes (50, 70, and 100 µm) were considered as common working environmental condition. Results: The exposure of an ophthalmologist to a patient's expiratory droplets during a direct ophthalmoscopic examination was found to be 95 times that of a person during normal interpersonal interaction at a distance of 1 m and 12.1, 8.8, and 9.7 times that of an ophthalmologist during a slit-lamp microscopic examination, a surgeon during an ophthalmic operation and an assistant during an ophthalmic operation, respectively. The ophthalmologist's direct exposure to droplets when the patient cough-exhaled was ~7.6 times that when the patient breath-exhaled. Compared with high indoor RH, direct droplet exposure was higher and indirect droplet exposure was lower when the indoor RH was 40%. Conclusion: During the course of performing ophthalmic examinations or treatment, ophthalmologists typically face a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by droplet transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ophthalmologists , Computer Simulation , Exhalation , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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