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1.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 4: 100278, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886041

ABSTRACT

Objectives: During COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, China, some public health measures of forced lockdown, closure of school and public meeting places, staying at home, transportation stop, masks wearing, hands washing, environmental disinfection were taken on to control epidemic transmission, these measures have made indirect affect on the other infectious diseases incidence. Study design: During COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, we retrospectively analyzed and compared reported cases of other infectious diseases,in order to found what impact of measures in controlling COVID-19 pandemic on the other infectious diseases in China. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed and compared reported cases of measles, pertussis, scarlet fever, seasonal influenza, mumps, HFMD each month in 2018, 2019 and 2020 from the National Health Commission, PRC. Results: Cases of measles, pertussis, scarlet fever, seasonal influenza, mumps and HFMD in January 2020 were not declined, or even increased compare to 2018 and 2019, but from February to December 2020, began to drop significantly compare with the cases of 2018 and 2019. However, seasonal influenza cases in 2020 were more than in 2018. Conclusion: It shown that how important scientific measures are taken to cut off COVID-19 pandemic transmission, However, these taken measures have led to indirect impact on the diffusion of other infectious diseases, led to measles, pertussis, scarlet fever, seasonal influenza, mumps, HFMD declined.

2.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(4): e12538, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has extracted devastating tolls. Despite its pervasiveness, robust information on disease characteristics in the emergency department (ED) and how that information predicts clinical course remain limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of the first ED visit from SARS-CoV-2-positive patients in our health system, from February 21, 2020 to April 5, 2020. We reviewed each patient's ED visit(s) and included the first visit with symptoms consistent with COVID-19. We collected demographic, clinical, and treatment variables from electronic health records and structured manual chart review. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between patient characteristics and 2 primary outcomes: a critical outcome and hospitalization from index visit. Our critical outcome was defined as death or advanced respiratory support (high flow nasal cannula or greater) within 21 days. RESULTS: Of the first 1030 encounters, 801 met our inclusion criteria: 15% were over age 75 years, 47% were female, and 24% were non-Hispanic white. We found 161 (20%) had a critical outcome and 393 (49%) were hospitalized. Independent predictors of a critical outcome included a history of hypertension, abnormal chest x-ray, elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN), measured fever, and abnormal respiratory vital signs (respiratory rate, oxygen saturation). Independent predictors of hospitalization included abnormal pulmonary auscultation, elevated BUN, measured fever, and abnormal respiratory vital signs. CONCLUSIONS: In this large, diverse study of ED patients with COVID-19, we have identified numerous clinical characteristics that have independent associations with critical illness and hospitalization.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(34): 40342-40353, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366784

ABSTRACT

Sensitive point-of-care methods for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigens in clinical specimens are urgently needed to achieve rapid screening of viral infection. We developed a magnetic quantum dot-based dual-mode lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) biosensor for the high-sensitivity simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) antigens, which is beneficial for improving the detection accuracy and efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the point-of-care testing area. A high-performance magnetic quantum dot with a triple-QD shell (MagTQD) nanotag was first fabricated and integrated into the LFIA system to provide superior fluorescence signals, enrichment ability, and detectability for S/NP antigen testing. Two detection modes were provided by the proposed MagTQD-LFIA. The direct mode was used for rapid screening or urgent detection of suspected samples within 10 min, and the enrichment mode was used for the highly sensitive and quantitative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 antigens in biological samples without the interference of the "hook effect." The simultaneous detection of SARS-CoV-2 S/NP antigens was conducted in one LFIA strip, and the detection limits for two antigens under direct and enrichment modes were 1 and 0.5 pg/mL, respectively. The MagTQD-LFIA showed high accuracy, specificity, and stability in saliva and nasal swab samples and is an efficient tool with flexibility to meet the testing requirements for SARS-CoV-2 antigens in various situations.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/analysis , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Fluorescence , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Limit of Detection , Magnetite Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/analysis , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Saliva/virology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To separately compare the long-term risk of mortality among bariatric surgical patients undergoing either RYGB or SG to large, matched, population-based cohorts of patients with severe obesity who did not undergo surgery. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been associated with reduced long-term mortality compared to usual care for severe obesity which is particularly relevant in the COVID-19 era. Most prior studies involved the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operation and there is less long-term data on the sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: In this retrospective, matched cohort study, patients with a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 who underwent bariatric surgery from January 2005 to September 2015 in three integrated health systems in the United States were matched to nonsurgical patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, insulin use, race/ethnicity, combined Charlson/Elixhauser comorbidity score, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015. Each procedure (RYGB, SG) was compared to its own control group and the two surgical procedures were not directly compared to each other. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analysis investigated time to all-cause mortality (primary outcome) comparing each of the bariatric procedures to usual care. Secondary outcomes separately examined the incidence of cardiovascular-related death, cancer related-death, and diabetes related-death. RESULTS: Among 13,900 SG, 17,258 RYGB, and 87,965 nonsurgical patients, the 5-year follow-up rate was 70.9%, 72.0%, and 64.5%, respectively. RYGB and SG were each associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to nonsurgical patients at 5-years of follow-up (RYGB: HR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.35,0.54; SG: HR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13,0.57) Similarly, RYGB was associated with a significantly lower 5-year risk of cardiovascular- (HR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.37), cancer- (HR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.76), and diabetes-related mortality (HR = 0.23; 95% CI:0.15, 0.36). There was not enough follow-up time to assess 5-year cause-specific mortality in SG patients, but at 3-years follow up, there was significantly lower risk of cardiovascular- (HR = 0.33; 95% CI:0.19, 0.58), cancer- (HR = 0.26; 95% CI:0.11, 0.59), and diabetes-related (HR = 0.15; 95% CI:0.04, 0.53) mortality for SG patients. CONCLUSION: This study confirms and extends prior findings of an association with better survival following bariatric surgery in RYGB patients compared to controls and separately demonstrates that the SG operation also appears to be associated with lower mortality compared to matched control patients with severe obesity that received usual care. These results help to inform the trade-offs between long-term benefits and risks of bariatric surgery.

5.
JAMA Dermatol ; 157(8): 947-953, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279331

ABSTRACT

Importance: Beginning in March 2020, case reports and case series linked the COVID-19 pandemic with an increased occurrence of chilblains, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiologic study. Objective: To assess whether a correlation exists between COVID-19 incidence and chilblains incidence. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California system from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2020; health plan members of all ages were included. Exposure: COVID-19 incidence in 207 location-months, representing 23 geographic locations in northern California across 9 months. Main Outcome and Measures: Chilblains incidence was the main outcome. The association of chilblains incidence with COVID-19 incidence across the 207 location-months was measured using the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results: Of 780 patients with chilblains reported during the pandemic, 464 were female (59.5%); mean (SD) age was 36.8 (21.8) years. COVID-19 incidence was correlated with chilblains incidence at 207 location-months (Spearman coefficient 0.18; P = .01). However, only 17 of 456 (3.7%) patients with chilblains tested during the pandemic were positive for SARS-CoV-2, and only 9 of 456 (2.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 6 weeks of the chilblains diagnosis. Test results of 1 of 97 (1.0%) patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. Latinx patients were disproportionately affected by COVID-19 but not by chilblains. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that in northern California, the incidence of chilblains increased during the pandemic but was correlated weakly with the incidence of COVID-19 across 207 location-months. These findings may have resulted from a causal role of COVID-19, increased care-seeking by patients with chilblains during the pandemic, or changes in behavior during shelter in place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Chilblains/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , California/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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