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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337808

ABSTRACT

Backgroud To evaluate the feasibility of deep learning (DL) models in identifying asymptomatic COVID-19 patients, based on chest CT images. Methods In this retrospective study, six DL models (Xception, NASNet, ResNet, EfficientNet, ViT, and Swin), based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-or Transformer-architectures, were trained to identify asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 on chest CT images. Data from Yangzhou was randomly split into the training set (n = 2,140) and the internal-validation set (n = 360). Data from Suzhou was the external-test set (n = 200). Models’ performance was assessed by accuracy, recall and specificity and was compared with that of two radiologists. Results A total of 2,700 chest CT images were collected in this study. In the validation dataset, the Swin model achieved the highest accuracy of 0.994, followed by EfficientNet model (0.954). The recall and precision of the Swin model were 0.989 and 1.000. In the test dataset, the Swin model still was the best that achieved the highest accuracy (0.980). All the DL models performed remarkable than two experts. Lastly, the time on the test set diagnosis spent by two experts 42min17s (Junior) and 29min43s (Senior), was significantly higher than that of those DL models (all below 2min). Conclusions This study evaluated the feasibility of multiple DL models in distinguishing asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 from healthy subjects on chest CT images. It found a Transformer model, the Swin model, performed best.

2.
Cities ; : 103752, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1850845

ABSTRACT

This study explores the fundamental question of how and how much human activity affects air quality. It focuses in particular on whether this relationship is linear or nonlinear and provides suggestive results to the intriguing mechanism. To determine that answer, we make two important assumptions about the impact of human activity on air quality that we then test using a new analytical framework. In early 2020, the period of lockdown in Wuhan, China, due to the COVID-19 pandemic offers “extreme” observations with which we can test our assumptions from the perspective of either differences or ratios. In addition to offering a theory with a novel design, we also introduce statistical methods that are suitable for empirically estimating and testing our assumptions and obtaining suggestive results. Moreover, we construct a precise equation in quadratic form for examining the marginal effects of several types of air quality indicators/metrics concerning human activity as well as some important control variables for both natural and social factors. The level of human activity, measured as the index of travel intensity, that has the largest effect on air quality is around 1.657 for the most common urban air pollutants. This study implies that urban air quality can be improved more effectively by avoiding regions where human activity has the maximum marginal effect on increases in urban air pollution. This implication for urban policy and planning is valuable both domestically and globally.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842709

ABSTRACT

IntroductionRegardless of having effective vaccines against COVID-19, containment measures such as enhanced physical distancing and good practice of personal hygiene remain the mainstay of controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries across Asia have imposed these containment measures to varying extents. However, residents in different countries would have a differing degree of compliance to these containment measures potentially due to differences in the level of awareness and motivation in the early phase of pandemic.ObjectivesIn our study, we aimed to describe and correlate the level of knowledge and attitude with the level of compliance with personal hygiene and physical distancing practices among Asian countries in the early phase of pandemic.MethodsA multinational cross-sectional study was carried out using electronic surveys between May and June 2020 across 14 geographical areas. Subjects aged 21 years and above were invited to participate through social media, word of mouth and electronic mail.ResultsAmong the 2574 responses obtained, 762 (29.6%) participants were from East Asia and 1812 (70.4%) were from Southeast Asia (SEA). A greater proportion of participants from SEA will practise physical distancing as long as it takes (72.8% vs 60.6%). Having safe distancing practices such as standing more than 1 or 2 m apart (AdjOR 5.09 95% CI (1.08 to 24.01)) or more than 3 or 4 m apart (AdjOR 7.05 95% CI (1.32 to 37.67)), wearing a mask when they had influenza-like symptoms before the COVID-19 pandemic, preferring online news channels such as online news websites/applications (AdjOR 1.73 95% CI (1.21 to 2.49)) and social media (AdjOR 1.68 95% CI (1.13 to 2.50) as sources of obtaining information about COVID-19 and high psychological well-being (AdjOR 1.39 95% CI (1.04 to 1.87)) were independent factors associated with high compliance.ConclusionsWe found factors associated with high compliance behaviour against COVID-19 in the early phase of pandemic and it will be useful to consider them in risk assessment, communication and pandemic preparedness.

4.
Energy ; : 124107, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1804050

ABSTRACT

This paper investigates the dynamic relationships between the crude oil price (COP) and the unemployment rate (UR) in Russia and Canada with a bootstrap subsample rolling-window causality test. This approach relaxes linear assumptions, fully considers structural breaks, and captures time-varying causalities between variables;thus, it performs better than traditional long-run causality tests. The empirical results indicate that there are dynamic causal links between the COP and the UR in certain subsample intervals, which does not fully support Carruth's model. Furthermore, the causality between the COP and the UR in Russia can be described based on Western sanctions, China-Russia energy cooperation and the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, a decrease in major oil companies' production and the development of U.S. shale oil are employed to explain the fluctuating relationship between the COP and the UR in Canada. Our study identifies potential heterogeneous reasons for the dynamic causalities of major exporting countries, and it reveals novel influencing mechanisms between these two variables. Thus, some policies are suggested to alleviate shocks from oil prices, including oil risk management and oil cooperation for Russia and oil export structural adjustments and monitoring mechanism establishment for Canada.

5.
Bioorg Chem ; 124: 105799, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797131

ABSTRACT

The emerging COVID-19 pandemic generated by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has severely threatened human health. The main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2 is promising target for antiviral drugs, which plays a vital role for viral duplication. Development of the inhibitor against Mpro is an ideal strategy to combat COVID-19. In this work, twenty-three hydroxamates 1a-i and thiosemicarbazones 2a-n were identified by FRET screening to be the potent inhibitors of Mpro, which exhibited more than 94% (except 1c) and more than 69% inhibition, and an IC50 value in the range of 0.12-31.51 and 2.43-34.22 µM, respectively. 1a and 2b were found to be the most effective inhibitors in the hydroxamates and thiosemicarbazones, with an IC50 of 0.12 and 2.43 µM, respectively. Enzyme kinetics, jump dilution and thermal shift assays revealed that 2b is a competitive inhibitor of Mpro, while 1a is a time-dependently inhibitor; 2b reversibly but 1a irreversibly bound to the target; the binding of 2b increased but 1a decreased stability of the target, and DTT assays indicate that 1a is the promiscuous cysteine protease inhibitor. Cytotoxicity assays showed that 1a has low, but 2b has certain cytotoxicity on the mouse fibroblast cells (L929). Docking studies revealed that the benzyloxycarbonyl carbon of 1a formed thioester with Cys145, while the phenolic hydroxyl oxygen of 2b formed H-bonds with Cys145 and Asn142. This work provided two promising scaffolds for the development of Mpro inhibitors to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thiosemicarbazones , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Humans , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology
6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332830

ABSTRACT

The low COVID-19 vaccination rate and intention among parents with children ages 5-11 is a seriousissue as the U.S. attempts to control the pandemic. According to current research, safety and side effectconcerns are the primary reason for such vaccine hesitancy. To mitigate it and boost vaccinationintention, we used two “safety” messages (a short, concise one vs. a long, detailed one) that carefullyexplained the vaccine’s lower dosage, the low rate of side effects, and the rigorous approval process.We also compared these safety messages with two “protect” messages which respectively emphasizedthe protection of the child and the entire family. Among the four treatment arms, we found that the shortversion of the safety message increased the average vaccination intention by over 1 point on a 0-6 scale,compared to the control arm, while the other three treatments failed to show significance. Specifically,these effects are particularly pronounced (~2 points) for Republican parents who had a much lowerinitial intention. Our study highlights the importance of to-the-point and concise information renderingin promoting public health activities and therefore has important policy implications for raisingvaccination intentions among parents, especially those leaning towards more conservative politicalaffiliation.

7.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 81: 103811, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773767

ABSTRACT

This study focuses on public attention to major events, which has become an important topic in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the background of the global transmission of COVID-19, this study discusses the relationship between information shock and sustainable development, which is rarely mentioned before. By developing an appropriate theoretical model, we discuss how the level of public attention changes over time and with the severity of events. Then we use data on the daily clicks on a popular Chinese medical website to indicate public attention to the pandemic. Our analysis shows that, in the first half of 2020, the level of public attention is closely related to the scale of domestic transmission. The marginal effect of the domestic cases in the first wave is 1% to 0.217%. After the pandemic was largely under control in China, people still followed the latest news, but the scale of public attention to regional transmission diminished. And when the pandemic quickly and severely worsened in other countries, people in China were very attentive, that is, public attention increased. The time interval of social reaction we calculate is fairly stable, with a value of between 0 and 5 most of the time. The average time interval from January 2020 to May 2021 ranges from 1.76 days to 1.94 days, depending on the choice of models and parameters. This study suggests that raising public participation in dealing with the crisis over the long term would be enhanced in China by media encouragement to pay more attention to small-scale regional transmission and the course of the pandemic in other countries. The goal of sustainable development requires dealing with health and economic crises much better in the long term. Thus, the model and method used in the paper serve to enhance general interest.

8.
Pharmacological Research - Modern Chinese Medicine ; : 100085, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1763936

ABSTRACT

The vascular niche is a microenvironment located around capillaries and is mainly composed of endothelial cells, pericytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, and hematopoietic stem cells. Studies have found that the vascular niche not only functions to regulate cell growth and differentiation in normal tissues, but also has an important role in regulating fibrosis in various organs and tissues in disease states. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease that broke out in 2019, caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, which results in pulmonary inflammation, systemic multi-organ damage, and an inflammatory cytokine storm. Recently, the vascular niche has been found to play a role in COVID-19-related multi-organ damage. In this review, we introduce the important role of the vascular niche in organ fibrosis and COVID-19-related organ damage, summarize some of the cellular signaling pathways in the vascular niche that promote fibrosis, and discuss the treatment of organ fibrosis in Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

9.
Children (Basel) ; 9(2)2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715142

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systematic inflammatory disease with multiple organ involvement. Timely diagnosis and prompt management are essential for successful treatment. KD, with an atypical presentation, remains a diagnostic challenge for physicians. We report a five-year-old boy who presented with appendicitis. An appendectomy was performed; however, his fever persisted. The boy was diagnosed with KD and intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. His symptoms resolved, and he had an uneventful recovery. Furthermore, we performed a literature review with 13 cases identified in the literature. Most cases were male, and the average age was older than typical for KD. In conclusion, KD may present with abdominal complaints and appendicitis may be a rare initial presentation of KD. Multidisciplinary cooperation and high awareness are warranted for timely diagnosis, especially in older children experiencing persistent fever after an appendectomy.

10.
Financ Innov ; 8(1): 36, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714666

ABSTRACT

This study presents a thorough investigation of the relationship between the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and daily stock price changes. We use several types of COVID-19 patients as indicators for exploring whether stock prices are significantly affected by COVID-19's impact. In addition, using the Chinese stock market as an example, we are particularly interested in the psychological and industrial impacts of COVID-19 on the financial market. This study makes two contributions to the literature. First, from a theoretical perspective, it shows a novel quantitative relationship between the psychological response to the pandemic and stock prices. In addition, it depicts the mechanism of the shock to the stock market by pointing out the specific functional expression of the impulse reaction. To our knowledge, this is the first theoretical calculation of the impulse of a shock to the financial market. Second, this study empirically estimates the marginal effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on fluctuations in stock market returns. By controlling for stock fundamentals, this study also estimates diverse industrial responses to pandemic stock volatility. We confirm that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused panic in the stock market, which not only depresses stock prices but also inflates volatility in daily returns. Regarding the impulse of the shock, we identify the cumulative level of the pandemic variables as well as their incremental differences. As shown by our empirical results, the terms for these differences will eventually dominate the marginal effect, which confirms the fading impulse of the shock. Finally, this study highlights some important policy implications of stock market volatility and returns to work in the industry.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 132(4)2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705312

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) lose potency against variants of concern. In this study, we developed 2 strategies to produce mutation-resistant antibodies. First, a yeast library expressing mutant receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike protein was utilized to screen for potent nAbs that are least susceptible to viral escape. Among the candidate antibodies, P5-22 displayed ultrahigh potency for virus neutralization as well as an outstanding mutation resistance profile. Additionally, P14-44 and P15-16 were recognized as mutation-resistant antibodies with broad betacoronavirus neutralization properties. P15-16 has only 1 binding hotspot, which is K378 in the RBD of SARS-CoV-2. The crystal structure of the P5-22, P14-44, and RBD ternary complex clarified the unique mechanisms that underlie the excellent mutation resistance profiles of these antibodies. Secondly, polymeric IgG enhanced antibody avidity by eliminating P5-22's only hotspot, residue F486 in the RBD, thereby potently blocking cell entry by mutant viruses. Structural and functional analyses of antibodies screened using both potency assays and the yeast RBD library revealed rare, ultrapotent, mutation-resistant nAbs against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites/genetics , Binding Sites/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/blood , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , In Vitro Techniques , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Receptors, Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308929

ABSTRACT

The US is amongst the worst-performing countries at combating COVID-19. And within the US, red (Republican) states have significantly higher cases per capita than blue (Democratic) states. We use cross-country, state, and county-level data to provide a comprehensive analysis of economic, political, and psychological factors contributing to these differences. An inferior social safety net and American conservatism systematically correlate with the realization and effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as social distancing and mask wearing from April to September. Economic inequality and weak social safety nets drive the economically vulnerable to work outside their homes, increasing mobility and reducing social distancing during early stages of the pandemic. Conservative ideology, anti-intellectualism, and evangelicalism drive people to politicize social distancing and mask wearing. Both factors predict a premature reopening in many states, and have a strong correlation with the drifting of COVID-19 epicenters to red states over the course of 2020. These factors have more explanatory power than partisanship in the first half year of the COVID-19 outbreak in the United States. However, from October on, closer to the presidential elections, partisanship is a better predictor of anti-COVID measures and explains well the regional variances of confirmed cases across states and counties. This indicates that partisanship is not the solely important factor in determining COVID-19 response and outcome, but its impact is likely to have been magnified as time goes by.

14.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; : e13528, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685180

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new type of coronavirus that has caused fatal infectious diseases and global spread. This novel coronavirus attacks target cells through the interaction of spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2), leading to different clinical symptoms. However, for a successful pregnancy, a well-established in-uterine environment includes a specific immune environment, and multi-interactions between specific cell types are prerequisites. The immune-related changes in patients infected with novel coronavirus could interfere with the immune microenvironment in the uterus, leading to fetal loss. We first reviewed the intrauterine environment in the normal development process and the possible pregnancy outcome in the infection state. Then, we summarized the immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 in patients and analyzed the changes in ACE2 expression in the female reproductive system. Finally, the present observational evidence of infection in pregnant women was also reviewed.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 806902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674357

ABSTRACT

Sex differences in immune responses had been reported to correlate with different symptoms and mortality in the disease course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection interferes with females' fertility and causes different symptoms among pregnant and non-pregnant females remains unknown. Here, we examined the differences in viral loads, SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody titers, proinflammatory cytokines, and levels of T cell activation after SARS-CoV-2 sub-lethal infection between pregnant and non-pregnant human Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme II (ACE2) transgenic mouse models. Both mice showed elevated levels of viral loads in the lung at 4 days post-infection (dpi). However, viral loads in the pregnant group remained elevated at 7 dpi while decreased in the non-pregnant group. Consistent with viral loads, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines was detected from the pregnant group, and the IgM or SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibody in serum of pregnant mice featured delayed elevation compared with non-pregnant mice. Moreover, by accessing kinetics of activation marker expression of peripheral T cells after infection, a lower level of CD8+ T cell activation was observed in pregnant mice, further demonstrating the difference of immune-response between pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Although vertical transmission did not occur as SARS-CoV-2 RNA was absent in the uterus and fetus from the infected pregnant mice, a lower pregnancy rate was observed when the mice were infected before embryo implantation after mating, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 infection may interfere with mice's fertility at a specific time window. In summary, pregnant mice bear a weaker ability to eliminate the SARS-CoV-2 virus than non-pregnant mice, which was correlated with lower levels of antibody production and T cell activation.

16.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e058214, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642873

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This scoping review aimed to describe available interventions for decreasing (post-traumatic stress disorder) PTSD symptoms among healthcare professionals in hospital care. METHOD: A scoping review was conducted following Arksey and O'Malley's framework. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest were searched for original research published in English from 2011 to 2021, on 8 July 2021. We included studies that described interventions that focused on reducing the PTSD symptoms of healthcare professionals. A narrative synthesis was adopted to synthesise the data. RESULTS: A total of eight studies out of 2558 articles were identified. Six used a quantitative study design and two adopted qualitative methods. cognitive behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based interventions were the most commonly adopted. Most studies used a combination of different intervention strategies. Trauma-related knowledge, emotion regulation and relaxation skill training, and psychological support from peers and psychologists were three core intervention components. The duration ranged from 2 weeks to 6 months. Healthcare professionals who participated in training programmes reported both positive experiences and suggestions for the improvement of PTSD-reducing interventions in their qualitative feedback. CONCLUSIONS: The scoping review provides a practical summary of the intervention characteristics for reducing the PTSD symptoms of healthcare professionals. Hospitals and managers could use the overview of interventions to assist healthcare professionals with PTSD symptoms. More research investigating the effects of PTSD symptom-reducing interventions for healthcare professionals with appropriate follow-up assessments is needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Health Personnel , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology
17.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 66(8): 821-826, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639265

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the sleep and mental health of chronic insomnia patients in China during coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: A total of 764 patients with chronic insomnia were included in this study. From 17 January 2020 to 24 January 2020, insomnia, anxiety and physical symptoms were evaluated online, and they were followed up for 4 and 8 weeks. Main outcomes and indicators were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and each factor score, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), respectively. In addition, insomnia, anxiety and physical symptoms were assessed at baseline and at the end of fourth and eighth weeks. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the changes in patients' scale scores at different time points. RESULTS: Among the 764 participants, there were 755 and 738 evaluators who completed the fourth and eighth weeks, respectively, and the questionnaire completion rates were 98.82% and 96.60%, respectively. Among them, there are 459 (60.0%) aged 41-60 years old, 546 (71.5%) women, 218 (28.5%) men and 313 (41%) college degrees. After 8 weeks of follow-up, the differences in sleep status, anxiety symptoms and physical symptoms were statistically significant. Among the factors of PSQI, there were differences in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, sleep disturbance (disorder), sleep efficiency and daytime function. At 4 weeks of follow-up, there was a statistically significant difference in the use of hypnotic drugs; at 8 weeks of follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in the use of hypnotic drugs. CONCLUSION: Under the influence of the COVID-19, the sleep status and anxiety of patients with chronic insomnia are affected by the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Sleep , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Gondwana Res ; 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616501

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of COVID-19 has emerged as one of the most devastating and challenging threats to humanity. As many frontline workers are fighting against this disease, researchers are struggling to obtain a better understanding of the pathways and challenges of this pandemic. This paper evaluates the concept that the transmission of COVID-19 is intrinsically linked to temperature. Some complex nonlinear functional forms, such as the cubic function, are introduced to the empirical models to understand the interaction between temperature and the "growth" in the number of infected cases. An accurate quantitative interaction between temperature and the confirmed COVID-19 cases is obtained as: log(Y) = -0.000146(temp_H)3 + 0.007410(temp_H)2 - 0.063332 temp_H + 7.793842, where Y is the periodic growth in confirmed COVID-19 cases, and temp_H is the maximum daily temperature. This equation alone may be the first confirmed way to measure the quantitative interaction between temperature and human transmission of COVID-19. In addition, four important regions are identified in terms of maximum daily temperature (in Celsius) to understand the dynamics in the transmission of COVID-19 related to temperature. First, transmission decreases within the range of -50°C to 5.02°C. Second, the transmission accelerates in the range of 5.02°C to 16.92°C. Essentially, this is the temperature range for an outbreak. Third, transmission increases more slowly in the range of 16.92°C to 28.82°C. Within this range, the number of infections continue to grow, but at a slower pace. Finally, transmission decreases in the range of 28.82°C to 50°C. Thus, according to this hypothesis, the threshold of 16.92°C is the most critical, as the point at which infection rate is the greatest. This result sheds light on the mechanism in the cyclicity of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide. The implications of these results on policy issues are also discussed in relation to a possible cyclical fluctuation pattern between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294915

ABSTRACT

Background: Consequences of reduced acute coronary syndrome (ACS) admissions during COVID-19 pandemic periods were reported by different countries. However, admissions, treatments, and prognosis of ACS during and after COVID-19 pandemic in Beijing, China was unknown.Methods: Information on ACS admissions and heart failure (HF) admission were identified from database of Beijing Municipal Health Commission Information Center. Study period was defined as December 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020, and control period was defined as December 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019. Numbers of admission for HF during the control period, the study period, and 5 months after study period were compared to evaluate the consequence of changed ACS care during the COVID-19 pandemic.Findings: Admissions for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (Non-STEMI), and unstable angina (UAP) reduced by 38·0%, 41·0%, and 63·3% in study period. Percutaneous coronary intervention performed within 24 hours were significantly more frequent during study period in patients with STEMI ( 37·9% vs. 31·7%, P<0·0001), but significantly less frequent in patients with Non-STEMI (7·9% vs. 9·5%, P=0·049), and in patients with UAP ( 1·7% vs. 3·5%, P<0·0001). In-hospital mortality rates in patients with ACS were similar during the study period and the control period (3·1% vs 2·5%, P=0·174 for STEMI;2·7% vs 2·3%, P=0·429 for Non-STEMI;0·2% vs 0·1%, P=0·222 for UAP). A fall by 26·3% for HF admissions was also observed during the five months following the study period than equivalent period in 2019.Interpretation: During COVID-19 pandemic, ACS admissions reduced significantly in Beijing;however, increase of HF admissions was not observed within five months post-pandemic period, implying the pandemic didn’t deteriorate the prognosis for ACS.Funding Information: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82103904) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant number: 2020YFC2004803). Declaration of Interests: Chang-Sheng Ma has received honoraria from Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Boehringer-Ingelheim (BI) and Bayer for giving lectures. Jian-Zeng Dong has received honoraria from Johnson & Johnson for giving lectures. The remaining authors have no disclosures to report.Ethics Approval Statement: Our research protocol was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University. Informed consent was waived in this study.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 746276, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506319

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Although it has long been suspected that COVID-19 could contribute to the development of mental illness, and individuals with a pre-existing mental illness may have a higher risk of and poorer outcomes from COVID-19 infection, no evidence has established a causal association between them thus far. Methods: To investigate associations in support of a causal association between the severity of COVID-19 and mental illnesses, we leveraged large-scale genetic summary data from genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary datasets, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 55,374), schizophrenia (n = 77,096), bipolar disorder (n = 51,710), and depression (n = 173,005), based on a previous observational study. The random-effects inverse-variance weighted method was conducted for the main analyses, with a complementary analysis of the weighted median and MR-Egger approaches and multiple sensitivity analyses assessing horizontal pleiotropy and removing outliers in two different COVID-19 databases. Results: The Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis indicated that ADHD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.297; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.029-1.634; p = 0.028] increased the risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19. A similar association was obtained in MR sensitivity analyses of the weighted median. In addition, genetically predicted COVID-19 was significantly associated with schizophrenia (OR = 1.043; 95% CI, 1.005-1.082; p = 0.027). Conclusions: Although many studies have reported a causal relationship between COVID-19 and mental illness, our study shows that this increased risk is modest. However, considering the characteristics of ADHD that might further increase the individuals' vulnerability to being infected by COVID-19, the ongoing massive worldwide exposure to COVID-19, and the high burden of schizophrenia, we believe that it is necessary to offer preventative measures to these populations and to provide more evidence in understanding the neurological impact of COVID-19.

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