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1.
Health Secur ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2028992

ABSTRACT

From April 23 to November 2021, a wave of COVID-19 infections caused by a new Alpha variant swept across Taiwan, resulting in 14,458 positive cases and 830 deaths among over 3.8 million people tested. To cope with the sudden increase in sample volume, as of December 14, 2021, a network of 249 laboratories with a total diagnostic capacity of 158,492 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests per day was established in 22 administrative regions. As of April 2022, over 9.5 million specimens were tested. Fully automated high-throughput and point-of-care nucleic acid testing, and rapid antigen testing, were simultaneously implemented to expand the country's daily diagnostic capacity. Saliva testing and sample pooling were also introduced to increase screening efficiency in certain situations. Antibody testing and genomic sequencing were also adopted for more precise epidemic investigation. Other challenges encountered and overcome include a lack of resources and interfacing of laboratory information management systems for case reporting, limited specimen allocation and delivery, and limited staff for diagnostic processing.

2.
Chinese Medicine and Culture ; 4(1):46-49, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024704

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied to the treatment of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). In the epidemic, COVID-19 patients were treated through integrated TCM and Western medicine. The effect was remarkable, especially in the treatment of mild COVID-19 cases. This paper introduces several TCM treatments to COVID-19, put forward by both domestic and foreign scholars. © 2020 Chinese Medicine and Culture. All rights reserved.

3.
Animals ; 12(17), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2023064

ABSTRACT

Simple Summary We successfully isolated and identified PEDV strain SC-YB73. The sequence analysis of the SC-YB73 genome identified a six-nucleotide insertion in the E gene, which has not previously been detected in PEDV strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that SC-YB73 was clustered in variant subgroup GII-a, which is widely prevalent in the Chinese pig population. The recombination analysis suggested that SC-YB73 originated from the recombination of GDS47, US PEDV prototype-like strains TW/Yunlin550/2018, and COL/Cundinamarca/2014. In future research, we aim to evaluate the function of E-gene insertions using in vitro cellular culture and in vivo animal experiments. Since 2010, a variant of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has re-emerged in several provinces of China, resulting in severe economic losses for the pork industry. Here, we isolated and identified a variant PEDV strain, SC-YB73, in Guangdong Province, China. The pathological observations of jejunum showed atrophy of villi and edema in the lamina propria. The sequence analysis of the viral genome identified a six-nucleotide insertion in the E gene, which has not previously been detected in PEDV strains. Furthermore, 50 nucleotide sites were unique in SC-YB73 compared with 27 other PEDV strains. The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genome showed that SC-YB73 was clustered in variant subgroup GII-a, which is widely prevalent in the Chinese pig population. The recombination analysis suggested that SC-YB73 originated from the recombination of GDS47, US PEDV prototype-like strains TW/Yunlin550/2018, and COL/Cundinamarca/2014. In the present study, we isolated and genetically characterized a variant PEDV strain, thus providing essential information for the control of PED outbreaks in China.

4.
Frontiers in Psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022911

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 outbreak has resulted in mental health issues, mainly depression and anxiety, prompted by stressors such as the need to maintain social distance, adapting to quarantine, and lockdown policies. Resilience may be vital in protecting individuals from mental disorders. However, few studies have examined the longitudinal relationships between resilience and mental disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety) among adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. ObjectiveThis study aimed to examine the association between resilience, depression, and anxiety among Chinese adolescents before and during COVID-19 using a longitudinal cross-lagged model. MethodsA total of 7,958 Chinese adolescents completed a baseline survey in the month before COVID-19 and were followed up after the COVID-19 lockdown. Structural equation modeling analyses were applied to evaluate the associations between resilience, depression, and anxiety after controlling for three covariates (i.e., gender, age, and COVID-19 effect). ResultsA higher level of resilience before COVID-19 significantly predicted decreased severity of depression and anxiety after the lockdown. Moreover, the mean level of resilience and prevalence of mental disorders (i.e., depression and anxiety) among Chinese adolescents decreased after the lockdown. These findings suggest resilience is a vital protective factor against depression and anxiety among adolescents. Furthermore, younger participants and those less affected by the pandemic could be more resilient. No significant link was found between gender and resilience in the second wave. ConclusionsResilience is an essential protective factor for reducing mental disorders among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19. Resilience-related interventions should be developed to efficiently promote mental health recovery among youth during pandemics.

6.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology ; 27:27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019141

ABSTRACT

AIM: Recent reports of potential harmful effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in treating patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have raised great concern. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and MedRxiv databases to examine the prevalence of NSAID use and associated COVID-19 risk, outcomes, and safety. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies with a total of 101,215 COVID-19 patients were included. Prevalence of NSAID use amongCOVID-19 patients was 18% [No. of studies(n)=22] and NSAIDs use prior to admission or diagnosis of COVID-19 was not associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.78-1.24;I2 =82%, n=3), hospitalization (aOR=1.06, 95%CI: 0.76-1.48;I2 =81%, n=5), mechanical ventilation (aOR=0.71, 95%CI: 0.47-1.06;I2 =38%, n=4), and length of hospital stay. Moreover, prior use of NSAIDs was associated with a decreased risk of severe COVID-19 (aOR=0.79, 95%CI: 0.71-0.89;I2 =0%, n=7) and death (aOR: 0.72, 95%CI: 0.54-0.96;I2=86%, n=9). Prior NSAID administration might also be associated with an increased risk of stroke (aOR=2.32, 95%CI: 1.04-5.2;I2 =0, n=2), but not myocardial infarction (aOR=1.49, 95%CI: 0.25-8.92;I2 =0, n=2) and composite thrombotic events (aOR= OR=1.56, 95%CI: 0.66-3.69;I2 =52%, n=2). CONCLUSION: Based on current evidence, NSAID use prior to admission or diagnosis of COVID-19 was not linked with an increased odds or exacerbation of COVID-19. NSAIDs might provide a survival benefit, although they might potentially increase the risk of stroke. Controlled trials are still required to further assess the clinical benefit and safety (e.g., stroke and acute renal failure) of NSAIDs in treating patients with COVID-19.

7.
2022 IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting, BMSB 2022 ; 2022-June, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018614

ABSTRACT

Video-telephony applications have been widely used in people's daily life, such as online conferences, online education, and socialization. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, the business volume of video-telephony services has generally increased rapidly. This leads to a growing need for video-telephony service quality assessment and monitoring. This paper presents the subjective tests conducted in 'Computational model used as a QoE/QoS monitor to assess video-telephony services' (G.CMVTQS) project, which is under study in ITU-T SG12 Q.15. Two types of subjective tests are designed. Audiovisual material subjective test focuses on the quality of multimedia streams, while conversational subjective test focuses on the quality of interaction experience. These tests simulate real-life situations in video-telephony with different types of user terminals (PCs, TVs and mobile phones), environments (office, home, restaurant and outdoor), audio/video parameters (resolution, frame rate, bit rate and codec) and network impairments (packet loss, delay, jitter, bandwidth, synchronization). The final subjective database built collaboratively by five laboratories in different countries will be analyzed in the near future and provide more insights to develop new QoE/QoS monitor models for video-telephony. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
ACS Bio and Med Chem Au ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2016536

ABSTRACT

Hyphenated mass spectrometry has been used to identify ligands binding to proteins. It involves mixing protein and compounds, separation of protein-ligand complexes from unbound compounds, dissociation of the protein-ligand complex, separation to remove protein, and injection of the supernatant into a mass spectrometer to observe the ligand. Here we report collision-induced affinity selection mass spectrometry (CIAS-MS), which allows separation and dissociation inside the instrument. The quadrupole was used to select the ligand-protein complex and allow unbound molecules to be exhausted to vacuum. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) dissociated the protein-ligand complex, and the ion guide and resonance frequency were used to selectively detect the ligand. A known SARS-CoV-2 Nsp9 ligand, oridonin, was successfully detected when it was mixed with Nsp9. We provide proof-of-concept data that the CIAS-MS method can be used to identify binding ligands for any purified protein. © 2022 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

9.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009607

ABSTRACT

Background: There has been growing concern regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care delivery and disruption of care to cancer patients. Reductions in cancer surgeries, delays in administration of life saving chemo and radiation therapies, and lower rates of cancer-related hospitalizations have been reported. While cancer patients with COVID-19 infection have poor hospitalization outcomes, less is known about the outcomes of hospitalized cancer patients without the infection. This study aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on outcomes of the most common cancer-related hospital admissions for patients without COVID-19 infection at a national level using insurance claims. Given the concern for disruptions in their care, we hypothesized that hospitalized cancer patients may have worse outcomes. Methods: We used the Optum Clinformatics Data Mart, consisting of claims records linked to electronic health records, including an average of 8 million adult Americans per year enrolled for at least 6 months. We identified cancer-related hospitalizations from 02/2018-05/2021 and included patients with at least of one of these cancer types: breast, prostate, bladder, ovarian, cervical, lung, colorectal, esophageal, liver, small intestine, gastric, or gallbladder cancer. Patients with cancer-related hospitalization who had COVID-19 infection were excluded. The main outcome was “severe adverse outcome” and included at least one of the following: mortality during or within 30 days of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation during hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, or discharge to hospice. We used Poisson regression to compare the number of hospitalizations before (2/1/2018-1/30/2020) and during (2/1/2020-5/30/2021) the pandemic and a Chisquared test to compare the proportion of cancer-related hospitalizations with severe adverse outcomes over that time period in 4-month intervals and across cancer types, gender, (male vs female) and geography (the 9 Census Bureau regions). Results: There were 82,796 cancer-related hospitalizations in the period 2/2018-05/2021. A slightly higher proportion of cancer-related hospitalizations resulted in a severe adverse outcome during the pandemic as compared to prior to the pandemic (41.8% vs 40.9%;p = 0.012). There were no differences by cancer site, gender, or geography. The number of hospitalizations was lower during vs prior to the pandemic (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The number of cancer-related hospitalizations during the pandemic was lower compared to before the, and a slightly higher proportion of those hospitalized experienced severe adverse outcomes among insured U.S. cancer patients without COVID-19 infection. The lower number of cancer-related hospitalizations during the pandemic warrants further investigation.

10.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-9, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007266

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to investigate the association and the underlying mechanism between parental conflict and adolescent depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. In a longitudinal study, a total of 655 Chinese adolescents ranging from 13 to 16 years old completed a three-wave survey (W1, W2, W3) via a survey website. The data was collected three times: March 15-20, 2020 (W1, the outbreak period of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mainland China), June 20-25, 2020 (W2, the trough stage), and December 15-20, 2020 (W3, six months after the trough stage). The SPSS 16.0 software was used to investigate the relationships among study variables. The findings showed that a double-hump effect was found for depression detection among adolescents during the pandemic, with depression rates in W1 (26.9%) and W3 (29%) were higher than that in W2 (21.9%). The parental conflict subscales of content and resolution had a greater impact on adolescent adjustment than other subscales. The parental conflict had direct and indirect impacts (through reducing family support and increasing burdensomeness) on adolescent depression symptoms in W3. It was concluded that when the COVID-19 pandemic was in a trough curve for more than six months, adolescent adjustment was significantly impacted by the pandemic, and parental conflict was an important risk factor in predicting individual adjustment. Therefore, family intervention is recommended when improving adolescent adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005694

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer have high rates of healthcare utilization due to complications of disease and treatment. Early identification of patient illness may help reduce acute care use and improve quality of care. Remote patient monitoring (RPM), a type of telemedicine involving collection and transmission of health data from a patient's home to clinicians, has promise to alleviate disparities by providing timely access and early intervention, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies of digital interventions in oncology have demonstrated reduction in symptom distress and unplanned hospitalizations but lack focus on minority patients whereas studies of telehealth aiming to address disparities have not focused on patients with cancer. In this pilot study, we aimed to evaluate the feasibility of RPM among patients with cancer at a large urban medical center serving a racially and socioeconomically diverse population. Methods: We partnered with a secure HIPAA-compliant platform and FDA-approved RPM device, Current Health, which monitored heart rate, temperature, respiration, oxygen saturation, and blood pressure. The kit included broadband access and a tablet to provide telehealth services. Oncology Clinicians determined clinical inclusion and exclusion criteria of RPM initiation for patients on the bone marrow transplant service and patients with myeloma and lung cancer. A centralized team of Nurse Practitioners (NPs) monitored alarms. Clinical alarms indicated abnormal vital signs;technical alarms indicated no data transmission for a 12-hour period. We measured feasibility by recruitment and retention, and used descriptive statistics to describe the study population, time enrolled on RPM, and alarms. Results: To date, we enrolled 30 patients on the RPM platform over a 10-month period with a weekly census of 9-10 patients undergoing RPM monitoring. Of the 30 patients, 17 (57%) were white, 7 (23%) Black, and 2 (7%) Asian;2 patients (7%) identified as Hispanic. The average age was 57.4 years. The majority of patients (93%) had hematologic malignancies, all of whom were enrolled on hospital discharge. Of the 2 patients with lung cancer, 1 patient was enrolled from the outpatient setting and 1 following hospital discharge. The mean length of time per patient enrolled with the device was 21.7 days. Over 10 months, there were 393 technical and 62 clinical alarms with an average of 3 clinical alarms per week addressed by NPs by phone, indicating low clinician burden. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of RPM monitoring in patients with cancer. Future studies should evaluate patient-reported and healthcare utilization outcomes, as well as barriers to reimbursement. The identification of best practices in telemedicine implementation can accelerate adoption and increase high quality, timely, and equitable cancer care.

12.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1):115, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2002183

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare the differences in COVID-19 prevention and control policies adopted by the United Kingdom (UK) during the first wave (31 January 2020 to 6 September 2020) and the second wave (7 September 2020 to 12 April 2021), and analyze the effectiveness of the policies, so as to provide empirical experience for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods We systematically summarized the pandemic prevention and control policies of the UK from official websites and government documents, collated the epidemiological data from 31 January 2020 to 12 April 2021, and analyzed the effectiveness of the two waves of pandemic prevention and control policies. RESULTS: The main pandemic prevention and control policies adopted by the UK include surveillance and testing measures, border control measures, community and social measures, blockade measures, health care measures, COVID-19 vaccination measure, and relaxed pandemic prevention measures. The new cases per day curve showed only one peak in the first wave and two peaks in the second wave. The number of new cases per million in the second wave was much higher than that in the first wave, and the curve fluctuated less. The difference between mortality per million was small, and the curve fluctuated widely. CONCLUSION: During the first and second waves of COVID-19, the UK implemented three lockdowns and managed to slow the spread of the pandemic. The UK's experience in mitigating the second wave proves that advancing COVID-19 vaccination needs to be accompanied by ongoing implementation of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce the transmission rate of infection. And a stricter lockdown ensures that the containment effect is maximized during the lockdown period. In addition, these three lockdowns featured distinct mitigation strategies and the UK's response to COVID-19 is mitigation strategy that reduce new cases in the short term, but with the risk of the pandemic rebound.

13.
Journal of Virology ; : e0006522, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001768

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a recently emerging bat-borne coronavirus responsible for high mortality rates in piglets. In vitro studies have indicated that SADS-CoV has a wide tissue tropism in different hosts, including humans. However, whether this virus potentially threatens other animals remains unclear. Here, we report the experimental infection of wild-type BALB/c and C57BL/6J suckling mice with SADS-CoV. We found that mice less than 7 days old are susceptible to the virus, which caused notable multitissue infections and damage. The mortality rate was the highest in 2-day-old mice and decreased in older mice. Moreover, a preliminary neuroinflammatory response was observed in 7-day-old SADS-CoV-infected mice. Thus, our results indicate that SADS-CoV has potential pathogenicity in young hosts. IMPORTANCE SADS-CoV, which likely has originated from bat coronaviruses, is highly pathogenic to piglets and poses a threat to the swine industry. Little is known about its potential to disseminate to other animals. No efficient treatment is available, and the quarantine strategy is the only preventive measure. In this study, we demonstrated that SADS-CoV can efficiently replicate in suckling mice younger than 7 days. In contrast to infected piglets, in which intestinal tropism is shown, SADS-CoV caused infection and damage in all murine tissues evaluated in this study. In addition, neuroinflammatory responses were detected in some of the infected mice. Our work provides a preliminary cost-effective model for the screening of antiviral drugs against SADS-CoV infection.

14.
JAMA Network Open ; 5(8):e2228008, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1999802

ABSTRACT

Importance: Several studies were conducted to estimate the average incubation period of COVID-19;however, the incubation period of COVID-19 caused by different SARS-CoV-2 variants is not well described. Objective: To systematically assess the incubation period of COVID-19 and the incubation periods of COVID-19 caused by different SARS-CoV-2 variants in published studies. Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched between December 1, 2019, and February 10, 2022. Study Selection: Original studies of the incubation period of COVID-19, defined as the time from infection to the onset of signs and symptoms. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline, 3 reviewers independently extracted the data from the eligible studies in March 2022. The parameters, or sufficient information to facilitate calculation of those values, were derived from random-effects meta-analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: The mean estimate of the incubation period and different SARS-CoV-2 strains. Results: A total of 142 studies with 8112 patients were included. The pooled incubation period was 6.57 days (95% CI, 6.26-6.88) and ranged from 1.80 to 18.87 days. The incubation period of COVID-19 caused by the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants were reported in 1 study (with 6374 patients), 1 study (10 patients), 6 studies (2368 patients) and 5 studies (829 patients), respectively. The mean incubation period of COVID-19 was 5.00 days (95% CI, 4.94-5.06 days) for cases caused by the Alpha variant, 4.50 days (95% CI, 1.83-7.17 days) for the Beta variant, 4.41 days (95% CI, 3.76-5.05 days) for the Delta variant, and 3.42 days (95% CI, 2.88-3.96 days) for the Omicron variant. The mean incubation was 7.43 days (95% CI, 5.75-9.11 days) among older patients (ie, aged over 60 years old), 8.82 days (95% CI, 8.19-9.45 days) among infected children (ages 18 years or younger), 6.99 days (95% CI, 6.07-7.92 days) among patients with nonsevere illness, and 6.69 days (95% CI, 4.53-8.85 days) among patients with severe illness. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that SARS-CoV-2 has evolved and mutated continuously throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, producing variants with different enhanced transmission and virulence. Identifying the incubation period of different variants is a key factor in determining the isolation period.

15.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S246, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic introduced myriad financial challenges for hospitals nationally. These challenges may have been particularly for midable for safety-net hospitals that disproportionately serve lowincome patients, given the baseline financial constraints of these hospitals and the burden of Covid-19-related illness among low-income patients. Understanding how safety-net hospitals have financially fared during the pandemic is critical to informing how policymakers can bolster these hospitals. METHODS: We conducted a national retrospective cohort study of safety-net hospitals, defined as hospitals with the largest shares of Medicaid patients, and non-safety-net hospitals. Using data from Medicare Cost Reports, 2015-2020, we examined differential changes across three measures of hospital finances (operating margins, total margins, share of uncompensated care), between safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals, before (pre-2020) and after the onset of the pandemic (post-2020). In main analyses, the sample was limited to hospitals with the most complete reporting of 2020 Cost Reports;in sensitivity analyses, all hospitals were included regardless of the completeness of 2020 reporting. We performed additional sensitivity analyses using an alternate definition for “safety-net hospitals” based on the disproportionate share hospital index. RESULTS: The sample included 230 safety-net hospitals and 1,858 nonsafety-net hospitals. Operating margins at safety-net hospitals differentially declined since the beginning of 2020 compared to non-safety-net hospitals (3.3% pre-2020 vs. 3.8% post-2020 among safety-net hospitals;3.2% pre2020 vs. 5.3% post-2020 among non-safety-net hospitals;-1.2 percentage point change, p=0.02). Similar patterns were evident for total margins (5.0% pre-2020 vs. 6.2% post-2020 among safety-net hospitals;4.7% pre-2020 vs. 7.0% post-2020 among non-safety-net hospitals;-0.9 percentage point change, p=0.07). There were also non-significant differential increases in uncompensated care at safety-net hospitals compared to non-safety-net hospitals since 2020 (6.8% pre-2020 vs. 7.4% post-2020 among safety-net hospitals;6.9% pre-2020 vs. 7.1% post-2020 among non-safety-net hospitals;0.4 percentage point change, p=0.08). Results were consistent when using a different definition for “safety-net hospitals”, as well as when the sample included hospitals with less complete financial reporting in 2020 (707 safety-net hospitals vs. 4,205 non-safety-net hospitals). CONCLUSIONS: Safety-net hospitals experienced differential declines in operating margins compared to non-safety-net hospitals since the onset of the pandemic in 2020. These hospitals provide essential care for low-income patients but have faced longstanding financial challenges that were only exacerbated by the pandemic. Understanding drivers of these declines will be critical for the viability of these hospitals as well for policymakers seeking to bolster safety-net health care delivery in the pandemic era.

16.
Cancer Research ; 82(12), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1986481

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The estrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in over 80% of breast tumors and has been shown to be a significant driver of breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis and therefore a target of effective first-line therapies. While both ionizing radiation (RT) and endocrine therapies (ET) are used for the treatment of ER+ BC, the effect of ET on tumor radiosensitization remains unclear, with concerns it may be radioprotective based on G1 cell arrest with ET treatment. Here we assessed the efficacy and mechanism of ER-mediated radiosensitization using various pharmacologic approaches in ER+ BC. Methods: Radiosensitization with ER inhibitors (tamoxifen [TAM], fulvestrant [FULV], AZD9496) was assessed using clonogenic survival assays. DNA damage was assessed by the neutral comet assay. Efficiency of homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) as well as changes in cell cycle, apoptosis, and senescence were assessed. The efficacy of TAM with RT in vivo was assessed with an MCF-7 xenograft model. Results: The selective estrogen receptor modulator TAM radiosensitized ER+ MCF-7 (enhancement ratio [enhR]: 1.14-1.50) and T47D (enhR: 1.33-1.60) cells but not ER-negative SUM-159 cells (enhR: 0.99-1.02). The selective estrogen receptor degrader (SERD) FULV had similar radiosensitization effects in MCF-7 (enhR: 1.33-1.76) and T47D cells (enhR: 0.97-2.81) with no radiosensitization observed in SUM-159 cells (enhR: 1.01-1.03). The novel oral SERD AZD9496 radiosensitized MCF-7 cells (enhR: 1.36-1.56). MCF-7 cells treated with TAM and RT had an increase in dsDNA breaks compared to RT alone as measured by the comet assay (p<0.05) and a decrease in NHEJ-mediated repair with TAM (p<0.05). No changes were observed in HR-mediated repair by Rad51 foci or a reporter (p=NS). RT alone and in combination with TAM or FULV induced similar levels of cell cycle arrest, suggesting that radiosensitization with the combination therapy is cell-cycle independent. There were no significant changes in apoptosis with TAM, FULV, RT, or the combination (p=NS). Although TAM or FULV did induce senescence, ET with RT increased senescence induction (p<0.05). In vivo, combination RT and TAM led to a significant delay in days to tumor doubling (control: 17, TAM: 40, RT: 32, TAM+RT: undefined;p<0.0001), and a significant difference in tumor growth between mice treated with TAM or RT alone compared combination treatment, with no increased toxicities or skin lesions from the combination treatment. Conclusion: Our data suggest that TAM, FULV, or AZD9496 can radiosensitize ER+ breast tumors, and these agents with RT may be more effective for radiosensitization. This work also supports further clinical investigation of the timing of RT for patients receiving ET, including using ET during RT, especially as initiating ET prior to RT has been increasingly utilized as a bridging therapy followed by concurrent ET+RT during the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
RESEARCH ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1970044

ABSTRACT

Objective. Several studies examined the putative effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on sperm parameters. However, the results remain controversial. In this study, we conducted the most up-to-date systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on sperm quality in COVID-19-positive and COVID-19-negative male participants. Method. Seven databases were searched for literature released through June 10, 2022, containing estimates for the outcomes of interest. Using a random-effects model (REM) or a fixed-effects model (FEM), we analyzed the pooled results. The quality of all included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. In addition, we performed a quantitative and subgroup analysis of semen data across all included studies. Results. Fourteen studies were extracted from 10 publications, involving a total of 1174 participates for meta-analysis. Sperm parameters of 521 COVID-19 male patients and 653 controls were analyzed. In 8 case-control studies, the pooled mean difference (MD) of total sperm motility was -5.37% (95% confidence interval (CI): -8.47 to -2.28;p< 0.05), suggesting that total motility was significantly impaired in male COVID-19 cases. Subgroup analysis showed a significant decrease in semen volume, sperm concentration, and total motility in 238 patients with a recovery time of less than 90 days. Moreover, in the other 6 included pre- to post-COVID-19 studies, the pooled MDs of sperm concentration, total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, and normal morphology were -6.54 x 106/ml (95% CI: -10.27 to -2.81;p< 0.05), -38.89 x 106 (95% CI: -59.20 to -18.58;p< 0.05), -7.21% (95% CI: -14.36 to -0.07;p< 0.05), -5.12% (95% CI: -8.71 to -1.53;p< 0.05), and -1.52% (95% CI: -2.88 to -0.16;p< 0.05), respectively, which indicate SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly affected these five sperm parameters. Conclusion. Our results revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection was significantly correlated with decreased sperm quality. Of six sperm parameters, total motility and sperm concentration were the most significantly decreased parameters. These results suggest a possible negative influence of SARS-CoV-2 infection on testicular function and male fertility. Given the potential detrimental effect of SARS-CoV-2 on semen quality, male reproductive health should be monitored closely in patients with COVID-19. This trial is registered with CRD42021275823.

18.
FRONTIERS IN EDUCATION ; 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1938611

ABSTRACT

Since the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, human parasitology education has been exceedingly disrupted. To deliver human parasitology knowledge, medical universities in China have employed multiple measures, some of which have had positive outcomes that have not yet been summarized. The objective of this review is to share the Chinese experience as the human parasitology teaching methods were transformed. In general, we adopted a fully online teaching model under urgent pandemic control measures based on a well-structured teaching model that integrated the course preview, live lecture, review, and assessment. Combinations were attempted of COVID-19 and parasitology teaching contents. Some active learning models, such as case-based e-learning and flipped classrooms, were proposed for offline and online blended teaching during the normalization stage of the pandemic. Meanwhile, we discuss both the strengths and flaws of online and blended teaching. Some useful assessment tools are presented for reference purposes. In conclusion, this transition to online and online-offline blended human parasitology teaching in China has boosted innovative teaching activities and may continue to catalyze the transformation of medical education.

19.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:120A, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937899

ABSTRACT

Individuals in recovery from substance use disorders (SUD) faced increased barriers to integral supports during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The goal of this project is to determine if reported barriers and coping strategies moderated the relationship between substance cravings during early stages of the pandemic and subsequent alcohol use frequency. Participants were 48 adults (40.5% female;90.2% White) between 26 and 60 years old (M = 42.66, SD = 8.44) who were part of a larger, multi-year longitudinal study of individuals in recovery from SUD. Individuals completed two interviews: one during the first six weeks of stay-at-home orders, where participants reported pandemic- related barriers, coping mechanisms, and cravings, and the second within twelve months of the initial interview, where they reported their alcohol use frequency and quantity. At baseline, substance cravings were reported as a mean of 2.28/5 (SD = 1.41) and participants averaged 2.84 (SD = 5.93) drinks per drinking day. Reported barriers included cancelled support meetings, changes in job format (i.e., being fired or furloughed), and lack of social support. Reported coping strategies included self-care (e.g., mindfulness), leisure activities/hobbies, taking caution against exposure (e.g., social distancing), and strengthening personal relationships. At follow-up, substance cravings were reported as a mean of 1.56/5 (SD = 0.75) and participants averaged 0.23 (SD = 0.64) drinks per drinking day. There was a significant interaction between baseline cravings and being cautious against exposure (B = 0.49, p = 0.008), such that the relationship between baseline cravings and drinks/drinking day at follow-up was stronger among those who endorsed caution (B = 0.51, p = 0.001) than those who did not (B = 0.18, p = 0.85). There was also a significant interaction between baseline cravings and self-care (B = 0.49, p = 0.008), such that there was a positive relationship between baseline cravings and alcohol use at follow-up for those who did not endorse self care (B = 0.35, p = 0.004) and no relationship for those who did (B = 0.00, p = 1.00). Though caution against exposure kept individuals physically safe, inadvertent effects of social isolation on mental health may have strengthened the relationship between craving and subsequent alcohol use. Additionally, the effectiveness of self-care as a coping mechanism stresses the importance of such forms of coping for those with SUD as a protective factor against the influence of substance cravings.

20.
Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly ; 30(1):119-147, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1912066

ABSTRACT

During the outbreak of the new coronavirus disease COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) epidemic, online learning has changed the traditional learning model. The purpose of this research was to explore how the antecedent of self-directed learning approach and attitudes of online learning can affect participants’ perceptions of cognitive fatigue and immersion during online learning that reflect their perceptions of the learning ineffectiveness of online learning. Design/methodology/approach This research adopted convenience sampling to collect data. During the period of the COVID-19 epidemic, the target participants were higher education students who adopted distance learning in the lockdown area of China. A questionnaire was posted on the Tencent questionnaire system for participants to fill out. The sample data of 155 college students were validly collected and subjected to test reliability and structural equation modeling using the SmartPLS 3.0 software to verify the research model proposed in this study. Findings/results The study found that self-directed learning attitudes were negatively related to online learning cognitive fatigue, but were positively related to cognitive presence;the self-directed learning approach was negatively related to online learning cognitive fatigue, but was positively related to cognitive presence. Moreover, online learning cognitive fatigue was positively related to perceived learning ineffectiveness, whereas cognitive presence was negatively related to perceived learning ineffectiveness. Originality/value In the new learning mode under the threat of the COVID-19 epidemic, this study explored the interaction between students' selfdirected learning, focused learning, and cognitive fatigue during the online learning process. Although there is no in-depth discussion on related research that affects learners’ perception of their learning outcomes, based on TAT (Trait activation theory), this study first divided self-directed learning into two categories: approach and attitude, and found how self-directed learning traits can predict online learning mental state, such as deactivator-cognitive fatigue and activator–immersion that affected the perceived effectiveness of online learning during the COVID-19 epidemic. Suggestions/implications The results of this study divided self-directed learning into approach and attitudes and indicated that both approach and attitudes of self-directed learning should be promoted by school teachers. Moreover, to design good distance learning programs, it is necessary to stimulate students’ mental state to learn and explore actively. Teachers can design interactive prompts or a reminding service in the teaching process to promote students’ cognitive presence and reduce their Internet cognitive fatigue, and to strengthen the overall learning effect. © 2022. Contemporary Educational Research Quarterly.All Rights Reserved

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