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1.
iScience ; : 105892, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165431

ABSTRACT

Summary Accurate prediction of protein–ligand binding affinity is crucial in structure-based drug design but remains some challenges even with recent advances in deep learning: (i) existing methods neglect the edge information in protein and ligand structure data;(ii) current attention mechanisms struggle to capture true binding interactions in the small dataset. Herein, we proposed SEGSA_DTA, a Super Edge Graph convolution-based and Supervised Attention-based Drug–Target Affinity prediction method, where the super edge graph convolution can comprehensively utilize node and edge information and the multi-supervised attention module can efficiently learn the attention distribution consistent with real protein-ligand interactions. Results on the multiple datasets show that SEGSA_DTA outperforms current state-of-the-art methods. We also applied SEGSA_DTA in repurposing FDA-approved drugs to identify potential coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatments. Besides, by using Shapley additive explanations (SHAP), we found that SEGSA_DTA is interpretable and further provides a new quantitative analytical solution for structure-based lead optimization.

2.
Journal of Practical Hepatology ; 25(3):335-338, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-2155471

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the predictive value of serum microRNAs (miR)-21 and miR-148b for liver histopathological inflammation grading and fibrosis staging in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).

3.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(11): 1279-1289, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062197

ABSTRACT

The rapid mutation and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants urge the development of effective mucosal vaccines to provide broad-spectrum protection against the initial infection and thereby curb the transmission potential. Here, we designed a chimeric triple-RBD immunogen, 3Ro-NC, harboring one Delta RBD and two Omicron RBDs within a novel protein scaffold. 3Ro-NC elicits potent and broad RBD-specific neutralizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Notably, intranasal immunization with 3Ro-NC plus the mucosal adjuvant KFD (3Ro-NC + KFDi.n) elicits coordinated mucosal IgA and higher neutralizing antibody specificity (closer antigenic distance) against the Omicron variant. In Omicron-challenged human ACE2 transgenic mice, 3Ro-NC + KFDi.n immunization significantly reduces the tissue pathology in the lung and lowers the viral RNA copy numbers in both the lung (85.7-fold) and the nasal turbinate (13.6-fold). Nasal virologic control is highly correlated with RBD-specific secretory IgA antibodies. Our data show that 3Ro-NC plus KFD is a promising mucosal vaccine candidate for protection against SARS-CoV-2 Omicron infection, pathology and transmission potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , Administration, Intranasal
4.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 104, 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062195

ABSTRACT

The highly mutated and transmissible Omicron (BA.1) and its more contagious lineage BA.2 have provoked serious concerns over their decreased sensitivity to the current COVID-19 vaccines and evasion from most anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In this study, we explored the possibility of combating the Omicron and BA.2 by constructing bispecific antibodies based on non-Omicron NAbs. We engineered 10 IgG-like bispecific antibodies with non-Omicron NAbs named GW01, 16L9, 4L12, and REGN10987 by fusing the single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) of two antibodies through a linker and then connecting them to the Fc region of IgG1. Surprisingly, 8 out of 10 bispecific antibodies showed high binding affinities to the Omicron receptor-binding domain (RBD) and exhibited extreme breadth and potency against pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) including Omicron and BA.2, with geometric mean of 50% inhibitory concentration (GM IC50) values ranging from 4.5 ng/mL to 103.94 ng/mL, as well as the authentic BA.1.1. Six bispecific antibodies containing the cross-NAb GW01 not only neutralized Omicron and BA.2, but also neutralized the sarbecoviruses including SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) RS3367 and WIV1, with GM IC50 ranging from 11.6 ng/mL to 103.9 ng/mL. Mapping analyses of 42 spike (S) variant single mutants of Omicron and BA.2 elucidated that these bispecific antibodies accommodated the S371L/F mutations, which were resistant to most of the non-Omicron NAbs. A cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure study of the representative bispecific antibody GW01-16L9 (FD01) in its native full-length IgG form in complex with the Omicron S trimer revealed 5 distinct trimers and one novel trimer dimer conformation. 16L9 scFv binds the receptor-binding motif (RBM), while GW01 scFv binds a epitope outside the RBM. Two scFvs of the bispecific antibody synergistically induced the RBD-down conformation into 3 RBD-up conformation, improved the affinity between IgG and the Omicron RBD, induced the formation of trimer dimer, and inhibited RBD binding to ACE2. The trimer dimer conformation might induce the aggregation of virions and contribute to the neutralization ability of FD01. These novel bispecific antibodies are strong candidates for the treatment and prevention of infection with the Omicron, BA.2, VOCs, and other sarbecoviruses. Engineering bispecific antibodies based on non-Omicron NAbs could turn the majority of NAbs into a powerful arsenal to aid the battle against the pandemic.

5.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0006522, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001768

ABSTRACT

Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a recently emerging bat-borne coronavirus responsible for high mortality rates in piglets. In vitro studies have indicated that SADS-CoV has a wide tissue tropism in different hosts, including humans. However, whether this virus potentially threatens other animals remains unclear. Here, we report the experimental infection of wild-type BALB/c and C57BL/6J suckling mice with SADS-CoV. We found that mice less than 7 days old are susceptible to the virus, which caused notable multitissue infections and damage. The mortality rate was the highest in 2-day-old mice and decreased in older mice. Moreover, a preliminary neuroinflammatory response was observed in 7-day-old SADS-CoV-infected mice. Thus, our results indicate that SADS-CoV has potential pathogenicity in young hosts. IMPORTANCE SADS-CoV, which likely has originated from bat coronaviruses, is highly pathogenic to piglets and poses a threat to the swine industry. Little is known about its potential to disseminate to other animals. No efficient treatment is available, and the quarantine strategy is the only preventive measure. In this study, we demonstrated that SADS-CoV can efficiently replicate in suckling mice younger than 7 days. In contrast to infected piglets, in which intestinal tropism is shown, SADS-CoV caused infection and damage in all murine tissues evaluated in this study. In addition, neuroinflammatory responses were detected in some of the infected mice. Our work provides a preliminary cost-effective model for the screening of antiviral drugs against SADS-CoV infection.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diarrhea , Mice , Swine Diseases , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Humans , Mice/virology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/complications , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/veterinary , Neuroinflammatory Diseases/virology , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/virology
6.
J Virol ; 96(15): e0095822, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949998

ABSTRACT

The spike protein on sarbecovirus virions contains two external, protruding domains: an N-terminal domain (NTD) with unclear function and a C-terminal domain (CTD) that binds the host receptor, allowing for viral entry and infection. While the CTD is well studied for therapeutic interventions, the role of the NTD is far less well understood for many coronaviruses. Here, we demonstrate that the spike NTD from SARS-CoV-2 and other sarbecoviruses binds to unidentified glycans in vitro similarly to other members of the Coronaviridae family. We also show that these spike NTD (S-NTD) proteins adhere to Calu3 cells, a human lung cell line, although the biological relevance of this is unclear. In contrast to what has been shown for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which attaches sialic acids during cell entry, sialic acids present on Calu3 cells inhibited sarbecovirus infection. Therefore, while sarbecoviruses can interact with cell surface glycans similarly to other coronaviruses, their reliance on glycans for entry is different from that of other respiratory coronaviruses, suggesting sarbecoviruses and MERS-CoV have adapted to different cell types, tissues, or hosts during their divergent evolution. Our findings provide important clues for further exploring the biological functions of sarbecovirus glycan binding and adds to our growing understanding of the complex forces that shape coronavirus spike evolution. IMPORTANCE Spike N-terminal domains (S-NTD) of sarbecoviruses are highly diverse; however, their function remains largely understudied compared with the receptor-binding domains (RBD). Here, we show that sarbecovirus S-NTD can be phylogenetically clustered into five clades and exhibit various levels of glycan binding in vitro. We also show that, unlike some coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV, sialic acids present on the surface of Calu3, a human lung cell culture, inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and other sarbecoviruses. These results suggest that while glycan binding might be an ancestral trait conserved across different coronavirus families, the functional outcome during infection can vary, reflecting divergent viral evolution. Our results expand our knowledge on the biological functions of the S-NTD across diverse sarbecoviruses and provide insight on the evolutionary history of coronavirus spike.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/classification , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/metabolism , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Domains , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sialic Acids/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878515

ABSTRACT

The long-term physical and mental sequelae of COVID-19 are a growing public health concern, yet there is considerable uncertainty about their prevalence, persistence and predictors. We conducted a comprehensive, up-to-date meta-analysis of survivors' health consequences and sequelae for COVID-19. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched through Sep 30th, 2021. Observational studies that reported the prevalence of sequelae of COVID-19 were included. Two reviewers independently undertook the data extraction and quality assessment. Of the 36,625 records identified, a total of 151 studies were included involving 1,285,407 participants from thirty-two countries. At least one sequelae symptom occurred in 50.1% (95% CI 45.4-54.8) of COVID-19 survivors for up to 12 months after infection. The most common investigation findings included abnormalities on lung CT (56.9%, 95% CI 46.2-67.3) and abnormal pulmonary function tests (45.6%, 95% CI 36.3-55.0), followed by generalized symptoms, such as fatigue (28.7%, 95% CI 21.0-37.0), psychiatric symptoms (19.7%, 95% CI 16.1-23.6) mainly depression (18.3%, 95% CI 13.3-23.8) and PTSD (17.9%, 95% CI 11.6-25.3), and neurological symptoms (18.7%, 95% CI 16.2-21.4), such as cognitive deficits (19.7%, 95% CI 8.8-33.4) and memory impairment (17.5%, 95% CI 8.1-29.6). Subgroup analysis showed that participants with a higher risk of long-term sequelae were older, mostly male, living in a high-income country, with more severe status at acute infection. Individuals with severe infection suffered more from PTSD, sleep disturbance, cognitive deficits, concentration impairment, and gustatory dysfunction. Survivors with mild infection had high burden of anxiety and memory impairment after recovery. Our findings suggest that after recovery from acute COVID-19, half of survivors still have a high burden of either physical or mental sequelae up to at least 12 months. It is important to provide urgent and appropriate prevention and intervention management to preclude persistent or emerging long-term sequelae and to promote the physical and psychiatric wellbeing of COVID-19 survivors.

8.
BioMed Research International ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857256

ABSTRACT

Objective. Short-term or long-term connections between different diseases have not been fully acknowledged. This study was aimed at exploring the network association pattern between disorders that occurred in the same individual by using the association rule mining technique. Methods. Raw data were extracted from the large-scale electronic medical record database of the affiliated hospital of Xuzhou Medical University. 1551732 pieces of diagnosis information from 144207 patients were collected from 2015 to 2020. Clinic diagnoses were categorized according to “International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision”. The Apriori algorithm was used to explore the association patterns among those diagnoses. Results. 12889 rules were generated after running the algorithm at first. After threshold filtering and manual examination, 110 disease combinations (support≥0.001, confidence≥60%, lift>1) with strong association strength were obtained eventually. Association rules about the circulatory system and metabolic diseases accounted for a significant part of the results. Conclusion. This research elucidated the network associations between disorders from different body systems in the same individual and demonstrated the usefulness of the Apriori algorithm in comorbidity or multimorbidity studies. The mined combinations will be helpful in improving prevention strategies, early identification of high-risk populations, and reducing mortality.

9.
Cell Discov ; 8(1): 36, 2022 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805604

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529) has aroused concerns over their increased infectivity and transmissibility, as well as decreased sensitivity to SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. Such exigencies call for the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines or inhibitors to combat the circulating SARS-CoV-2 NAb-escape variants and other sarbecoviruses. In this study, we isolated a broadly NAb against sarbecoviruses named GW01 from a donor who recovered from COVID-19. Cryo-EM structure and competition assay revealed that GW01 targets a highly conserved epitope in a wide spectrum of different sarbecoviruses. However, we found that GW01, the well-known sarbecovirus NAb S309, and the potent SARS-CoV-2 NAbs CC12.1 and REGN10989 only neutralize about 90% of the 56 tested currently circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 including Omicron. Therefore, to improve efficacy, we engineered an IgG-like bispecific antibody GW01-REGN10989 (G9) consisting of single-chain antibody fragments (scFv) of GW01 and REGN10989. We found that G9 could neutralize 100% of NAb-escape mutants (23 out of 23), including Omicron variant, with a geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentration of 8.8 ng/mL. G9 showed prophylactic and therapeutic effects against SARS-CoV-2 infection of both the lung and brain in hACE2-transgenic mice. Site-directed mutagenesis analyses revealed that GW01 and REGN10989 bind to the receptor-binding domain in different epitopes and from different directions. Since G9 targets the epitopes for both GW01 and REGN10989, it was effective against variants with resistance to GW01 or REGN10989 alone and other NAb-escape variants. Therefore, this novel bispecific antibody, G9, is a strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of infection by SARS-CoV-2, NAb-escape variants, and other sarbecoviruses that may cause future emerging or re-emerging coronavirus diseases.

10.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0003822, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788914

ABSTRACT

Due to the limitation of human studies with respect to individual difference or the accessibility of fresh tissue samples, how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in pathological complications in lung, the main site of infection, is still incompletely understood. Therefore, physiologically relevant animal models under realistic SARS-CoV-2 infection conditions would be helpful to our understanding of dysregulated inflammation response in lung in the context of targeted therapeutics. Here, we characterized the single-cell landscape in lung and spleen upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute severe disease mouse model that replicates human symptoms, including severe lung pathology and lymphopenia. We showed a reduction of lymphocyte populations and an increase of neutrophils in lung and then demonstrated the key role of neutrophil-mediated lung immunopathology in both mice and humans. Under severe conditions, neutrophils recruited by a chemokine-driven positive feedback produced elevated "fatal signature" proinflammatory genes and pathways related to neutrophil activation or releasing of granular content. In addition, we identified a new Cd177high cluster that is undergoing respiratory burst and Stfahigh cluster cells that may dampen antigen presentation upon infection. We also revealed the devastating effect of overactivated neutrophil by showing the highly enriched neutrophil extracellular traps in lung and a dampened B-cell function in either lung or spleen that may be attributed to arginine consumption by neutrophil. The current study helped our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia and warranted the concept of neutrophil-targeting therapeutics in COVID-19 treatment. IMPORTANCE We demonstrated the single-cell landscape in lung and spleen upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in an acute severe disease mouse model that replicated human symptoms, including severe lung pathology and lymphopenia. Our comprehensive study revealed the key role of neutrophil-mediated lung immunopathology in SARS-CoV-2-induced severe pneumonia, which not only helped our understanding of COVID-19 but also warranted the concept of neutrophil targeting therapeutics in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , Neutrophils , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphopenia/virology , Mice , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/pathology , Spleen/virology
11.
J Virol ; 96(8): e0016922, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765080

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) and SARS-CoV-2 are highly pathogenic to humans and have caused pandemics in 2003 and 2019, respectively. Genetically diverse SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs) have been detected or isolated from bats, and some of these viruses have been demonstrated to utilize human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor and to have the potential to spill over to humans. A pan-sarbecovirus vaccine that provides protection against SARSr-CoV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against recombinant SARSr-CoVs carrying two different spike proteins (named rWIV1 and rRsSHC014S, respectively). Although serum neutralizing assays showed limited cross-reactivity between the three viruses, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provided full protection against SARS-CoV-2 and rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 transgenic mice. Passive transfer of SARS-CoV-2-vaccinated mouse sera provided low protection for rWIV1 but not for rRsSHC014S infection in human ACE2 mice. A specific cellular immune response induced by WIV1 membrane protein peptides was detected in the vaccinated animals, which may explain the cross-protection of the inactivated vaccine. This study shows the possibility of developing a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine against SARSr-CoVs for future preparedness. IMPORTANCE The genetic diversity of SARSr-CoVs in wildlife and their potential risk of cross-species infection highlight the necessity of developing wide-spectrum vaccines against infection of various SARSr-CoVs. In this study, we tested the protective efficacy of the SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine (IAV) against two SARSr-CoVs with different spike proteins in human ACE2 transgenic mice. We demonstrate that the SARS-CoV-2 IAV provides full protection against rWIV1 and partial protection against rRsSHC014S. The T-cell response stimulated by the M protein may account for the cross protection against heterogeneous SARSr-CoVs. Our findings suggest the feasibility of the development of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines, which can be a strategy of preparedness for future outbreaks caused by novel SARSr-CoVs from wildlife.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronavirus Infections , Cross Protection , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Chiroptera , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Protection/immunology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/prevention & control
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1058-1071, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752040

ABSTRACT

Safe, efficacious, and deployable vaccines are urgently needed to control COVID-19 in the large-scale vaccination campaigns. We report here the preclinical studies of an approved protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19, ZF2001, which contains tandem-repeat dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein with alum-based adjuvant. We assessed vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy in both mice and non-human primates (NHPs). ZF2001 induced high levels of RBD-binding and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody in both mice and non-human primates, and elicited balanced TH1/TH2 cellular responses in NHPs. Two doses of ZF2001 protected Ad-hACE2-transduced mice against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as detected by reduced viral RNA and relieved lung injuries. In NHPs, vaccination of either 25 µg or 50 µg ZF2001 prevented infection with SARS-CoV-2 in lung, trachea, and bronchi, with milder lung lesions. No evidence of disease enhancement was observed in both animal models. ZF2001 has been approved for emergency use in China, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, and Columbia. The high safety, immunogenicity, and protection efficacy in both mice and NHPs found in this preclinical study was consistent with the results in human clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carrier Proteins , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 83, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740428

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 induced marked lymphopenia in severe patients with COVID-19. However, whether lymphocytes are targets of viral infection is yet to be determined, although SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antigen has been identified in T cells from patients. Here, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen could be detected in patient peripheral blood cells (PBCs) or postmortem lung T cells, and the infectious virus could also be detected from viral antigen-positive PBCs. We next prove that SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes, preferably activated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Upon infection, viral RNA, subgenomic RNA, viral protein or viral particle can be detected in the T cells. Furthermore, we show that the infection is spike-ACE2/TMPRSS2-independent through using ACE2 knockdown or receptor blocking experiments. Next, we demonstrate that viral antigen-positive T cells from patient undergone pronounced apoptosis. In vitro infection of T cells induced cell death that is likely in mitochondria ROS-HIF-1a-dependent pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that LFA-1, the protein exclusively expresses in multiple leukocytes, is more likely the entry molecule that mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in T cells, compared to a list of other known receptors. Collectively, this work confirmed a SARS-CoV-2 infection of T cells, in a spike-ACE2-independent manner, which shed novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Vero Cells
15.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572660

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 generally raise antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 following infection, and the antibody level is positively correlated to the severity of disease. Whether the viral antibodies exacerbate COVID-19 through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is still not fully understood. Here, we conducted in vitro assessment of whether convalescent serum enhanced SARS-CoV-2 infection or induced excessive immune responses in immune cells. Our data revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infection of primary B cells, macrophages and monocytes, which express variable levels of FcγR, could be enhanced by convalescent serum from COVID-19 patients. We also determined the factors associated with ADE, and found which showed a time-dependent but not viral-dose dependent manner. Furthermore, the ADE effect is not associated with the neutralizing titer or RBD antibody level when testing serum samples collected from different patients. However, it is higher in a medium level than low or high dilutions in a given sample that showed ADE effect, which is similar to dengue. Finally, we demonstrated more viral genes or dysregulated host immune gene expression under ADE conditions compared to the no-serum infection group. Collectively, our study provides insight into the understanding of an association of high viral antibody titer and severe lung pathology in severe patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement/immunology , Leukocytes/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Leukocytes/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , Virus Replication/immunology
16.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3962440

ABSTRACT

By largely unknown mechanisms, dysregulated gene-specific translation directly contributes to chronic inflammation-associated diseases such as sepsis and ARDS. Here, we report that G9a, a histone methyltransferase and well-regarded transcriptional repressor, non-canonically or non-epigenetically activates translation of select antimicrobial genes to promote proliferation of cytokine producing macrophages and to impair T cell function; all hallmarks of endotoxin-tolerance related complications including sepsis, ARDS and COVID19. Mechanistically, G9a interacts with translation regulators including METTL3, an N6-methyladenosine or m6A RNA methyltransferase, and methylates it to cooperatively upregulate the translation of certain m6A-modified mRNAs that encode immune checkpoint and anti-inflammatory proteins. Further, translatome proteomic analysis of ET macrophages progressively treated by a G9a inhibitor identified proteins showing G9a-dependent translation that unite the networks associated with hyperinflammation and T cell dysfunction. Overall, we identified a previously unrecognized function of G9a in gene-specific translation that can be leveraged to treat ET-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

17.
mBio ; 12(5): e0234221, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494971

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence and spread of zoonotic viruses highlights that animal-sourced viruses are the biggest threat to global public health. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is an HKU2-related bat coronavirus that was spilled over from Rhinolophus bats to swine, causing large-scale outbreaks of severe diarrhea disease in piglets in China. Unlike other porcine coronaviruses, SADS-CoV possesses broad species tissue tropism, including primary human cells, implying a significant risk of cross-species spillover. To explore host dependency factors for SADS-CoV as therapeutic targets, we employed genome-wide CRISPR knockout library screening in HeLa cells. Consistent with two independent screens, we identified the zinc finger DHHC-type palmitoyltransferase 17 (ZDHHC17 or ZD17) as an important host factor for SADS-CoV infection. Through truncation mutagenesis, we demonstrated that the DHHC domain of ZD17 that is involved in palmitoylation is important for SADS-CoV infection. Mechanistic studies revealed that ZD17 is required for SADS-CoV genomic RNA replication. Treatment of infected cells with the palmitoylation inhibitor 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP) significantly suppressed SADS-CoV infection. Our findings provide insight on SADS-CoV-host interactions and a potential therapeutic application. IMPORTANCE The recent emergence of deadly zoonotic viral diseases, including Ebola virus and SARS-CoV-2, emphasizes the importance of pandemic preparedness for the animal-sourced viruses with potential risk of animal-to-human spillover. Over the last 2 decades, three significant coronaviruses of bat origin, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have caused millions of deaths with significant economy and public health impacts. Lack of effective therapeutics against these coronaviruses was one of the contributing factors to such losses. Although SADS-CoV, another coronavirus of bat origin, was only known to cause fatal diarrhea disease in piglets, the ability to infect cells derived from multiple species, including human, highlights the potential risk of animal-to-human spillover. As part of our effort in pandemic preparedness, we explore SADS-CoV host dependency factors as targets for host-directed therapeutic development and found zinc finger DHHC-type palmitoyltransferase 17 is a promising drug target against SADS-CoV replication. We also demonstrated that a palmitoylation inhibitor, 2-bromopalmitate (2-BP), can be used as an inhibitor for SADS-CoV treatment.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Acyltransferases/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HeLa Cells , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Palmitates/pharmacology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Swine
20.
Virol Sin ; 36(5): 879-889, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174014

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused more than 96 million infections and over 2 million deaths worldwide so far. However, there is no approved vaccine available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the disease causative agent. Vaccine is the most effective approach to eradicate a pathogen. The tests of safety and efficacy in animals are pivotal for developing a vaccine and before the vaccine is applied to human populations. Here we evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an inactivated vaccine based on the whole viral particles in human ACE2 transgenic mouse and in non-human primates. Our data showed that the inactivated vaccine successfully induced SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies in mice and non-human primates, and subsequently provided partial (in low dose) or full (in high dose) protection of challenge in the tested animals. In addition, passive serum transferred from vaccine-immunized mice could also provide full protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. These results warranted positive outcomes in future clinical trials in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Primates , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology
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