Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 16 de 16
Filter
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 575315, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448817

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the latent class of basic reproduction number (R 0) trends of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the major endemic areas of China. Methods: The provinces that reported more than 500 cases of COVID-19 till February 18, 2020 were selected as the major endemic areas. The Verhulst model was used to fit the growth rate of cumulative confirmed cases. The R 0 of COVID-19 was calculated using the parameters of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and COVID-19. The latent class of R 0 was analyzed using the latent profile analysis (LPA) model. Results: The median R 0 calculated from the SARS and COVID-19 parameters were 1.84-3.18 and 1.74-2.91, respectively. The R 0 calculated from the SARS parameters was greater than that calculated from the COVID-19 parameters (Z = -4.782 to -4.623, p < 0.01). Both R 0 can be divided into three latent classes. The initial value of R 0 in class 1 (Shandong Province, Sichuan Province, and Chongqing Municipality) was relatively low and decreased slowly. The initial value of R 0 in class 2 (Anhui Province, Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province, Henan Province, Zhejiang Province, Guangdong Province, and Jiangsu Province) was relatively high and decreased rapidly. Moreover, the initial R 0 value of class 3 (Hubei Province) was in the range between that of classes 1 and 2, but the higher R 0 level lasted longer and decreased slowly. Conclusion: The results indicated that the overall R 0 trend is decreased with the strengthening of comprehensive prevention and control measures of China for COVID-19, however, there are regional differences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Basic Reproduction Number , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5026, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363491

ABSTRACT

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Young Adult
4.
Am J Emerg Med ; 50: 661-669, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, emerging evidence has suggested that atrial fibrillation (AF) has an epidemiological correlation with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical outcomes of AF in COVID-19 remain inconsistent and inconclusive. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the impact of AF on the prognosis of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science) were searched for eligible studies as of March 1, 2021. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the associations between AF (preexisting and new-onset) and in-hospital mortality, post-discharge mortality, and ventilator use. RESULTS: A total of 36 individual studies were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The combined results revealed that preexisting AF was associated with increased in-hospital mortality (pooled OR: 2.07; 95% CI: 1.60-2.67; p < 0.001), post-discharge mortality (pooled OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.24-5.83; p < 0.05), and ventilator utilization (pooled OR: 4.53; 95% CI: 1.33-15.38; p < 0.05) in patients with COVID-19. In addition, our data demonstrated that new-onset AF during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was significantly correlated with increased mortality (pooled OR: 2.38; 95% CI: 2.04-2.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of AF is correlated with adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, which deserves increased attention and should be managed appropriately to prevent adverse outcomes.

5.
J Med Biol Eng ; : 1-10, 2021 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392061

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Sleep is an important human activity. Comfortable sensing and accurate analysis in sleep monitoring is beneficial to many healthcare and medical applications. From 2020, owing to the COVID­19 pandemic that spreads between people when they come into close physical contact with one another, the willingness to go to hospital for receiving care has reduced; care-at-home is the trend in modern healthcare. Therefore, a home-use and real-time sleep-staging system is developed in this paper. Methods: We developed and implemented a real-time sleep staging system that integrates a wearable eye mask for high-quality electroencephalogram/electrooculogram measurement and a mobile device with MobileNETV2 deep learning model for sleep-stage identification. In the experiments, 25 all-night recordings were acquired, 17 of which were used for training, and the remaining eight were used for testing. Results: The averaged scoring agreements for the wake, light sleep, deep sleep, and rapid eye movement stages were 85.20%, 87.17%, 82.87%, and 89.30%, respectively, for our system compared with the manual scoring of PSG recordings. In addition, the mean absolute errors of four objective sleep measurements, including sleep efficiency, total sleep time, sleep onset time, and wake after sleep onset time were 1.68%, 7.56 min, 5.50 min, and 3.94 min, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the proposed system and manual PSG scoring in terms of the percentage of each stage and the objective sleep measurements. Conclusion: These experimental results demonstrate that our system provides high scoring agreements in sleep staging and unbiased sleep measurements owing to the use of EEG and EOG signals and powerful mobile computing based on deep learning networks. These results also suggest that our system is applicable for home-use real-time sleep monitoring.

6.
J Biol Chem ; 295(36): 12686-12696, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387615

ABSTRACT

Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) are a group of enzymes participating in diverse biological processes. Some members of the TTSP family are implicated in viral infection. TMPRSS11A is a TTSP expressed on the surface of airway epithelial cells, which has been shown to cleave and activate spike proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (CoVs). In this study, we examined the mechanism underlying the activation cleavage of TMPRSS11A that converts the one-chain zymogen to a two-chain enzyme. By expression in human embryonic kidney 293, esophageal EC9706, and lung epithelial A549 and 16HBE cells, Western blotting, and site-directed mutagenesis, we found that the activation cleavage of human TMPRSS11A was mediated by autocatalysis. Moreover, we found that TMPRSS11A activation cleavage occurred before the protein reached the cell surface, as indicated by studies with trypsin digestion to remove cell surface proteins, treatment with cell organelle-disturbing agents to block intracellular protein trafficking, and analysis of a soluble form of TMPRSS11A without the transmembrane domain. We also showed that TMPRSS11A was able to cleave the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. These results reveal an intracellular autocleavage mechanism in TMPRSS11A zymogen activation, which differs from the extracellular zymogen activation reported in other TTSPs. These findings provide new insights into the diverse mechanisms in regulating TTSP activation.


Subject(s)
Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Proteolysis , Serine Proteases/metabolism , A549 Cells , Cells, Cultured , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Mutation , Protein Domains , Protein Transport , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Serine Proteases/chemistry , Serine Proteases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Trypsin/metabolism
7.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 32(2): 148-154, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), have fever, dry cough, dyspnea, and fatigue. The disease has now become a global pandemic. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between COVID-19 and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. METHODS: We collected and analyzed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 by high-throughput sequencing or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We reviewed electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: Among the 405 confirmed patients, 210 had no GI symptoms, 195 had GI symptoms, and the first symptom of 155 patients was GI. The prevalence of vascular and digestive diseases in the group with GI symptoms was significantly higher than in the group without GI symptoms. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with fever, cough, dysphoria, chest tightness, poor appetite, chest pain, and pharyngeal pain was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. There was no significant difference in imaging between the 2 groups. In patients with GI symptoms, the proportion with increased procalcitonin (PCT) level and decreased lymphocyte count was significantly higher than in those without GI symptoms. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with GI symptoms had significantly more vascular and digestive system diseases and were more likely to have clinical manifestations of fever, cough, poor appetite, chest tightness, chest pain, insomnia, and pharyngeal pain. There were more patients with diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. Patients with GI symptoms were more likely to have increased PCT and decreased lymphocyte count.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/blood , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Vomiting/blood , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology
8.
Build Environ ; 195: 107731, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095896

ABSTRACT

Wuhan is located in China's hot summer and cold winter (HSCW) zone, where the average temperature of the city from January to February 2020 is only 6.6 °C. This study aimed to explore and compare the air conditioner (AC) heating behavior of Wuhan residents before and after the COVID-19 lockdown. The date of commencement of the Wuhan lockdown (January 23, 2020) was considered the demarcation point to divide the AC monitoring data from the Internet of Things cloud platform into two groups; before and after Wuhan lockdown. Statistical methods were applied to analyze AC heating behavior of Wuhan residents from a total of 378 air conditioners during these two periods. The daily AC usage rate and average daily AC usage duration following the lockdown had a stronger correlation with daily outdoor temperature than that before the lockdown. AC heating behavior continued to demonstrate a part-time intermittent operation during the lockdown period, despite residents staying at home for a longer period. Trigger temperatures for occupants to turn on or adjust their AC during the lockdown period were overall 1-2 °C higher than before the lockdown. The AC heating demand in the HSCW zone has been increasing in recent years. These research results inform research on household energy demand and thermal comfort in China's HSCW zone, and provide a reference on the household behavioral changes in the occupants in the context of a lockdown as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 133: 111064, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059802

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early reported symptoms include fever, cough, and respiratory symptoms. There were few reports of digestive symptoms. However, with COVID-19 spreading worldwide, symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain have gained increasing attention. Research has found that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, is strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Whether theoretically or clinically, many studies have suggested a close connection between COVID-19 and the digestive system. In this review, we summarize the digestive symptoms reported in existing research, discuss the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract and liver, and determine the possible mechanisms and aetiology, such as cytokine storm. In-depth exploration of the relationship between COVID-19 and the digestive system is urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anorexia/etiology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Bile Ducts/metabolism , Bile Ducts/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Gastrointestinal Tract/virology , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/etiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Postoperative Complications , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20367, 2020 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940865

ABSTRACT

We combine COVID-19 case data with mobility data to estimate a modified susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model in the United States. In contrast to a standard SIR model, we find that the incidence of COVID-19 spread is concave in the number of infectious individuals, as would be expected if people have inter-related social networks. This concave shape has a significant impact on forecasted COVID-19 cases. In particular, our model forecasts that the number of COVID-19 cases would only have an exponential growth for a brief period at the beginning of the contagion event or right after a reopening, but would quickly settle into a prolonged period of time with stable, slightly declining levels of disease spread. This pattern is consistent with observed levels of COVID-19 cases in the US, but inconsistent with standard SIR modeling. We forecast rates of new cases for COVID-19 under different social distancing norms and find that if social distancing is eliminated there will be a massive increase in the cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Disease Susceptibility/virology , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Humidity , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Quarantine/methods , Temperature , United States/epidemiology
11.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 654-656, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM (Western Pacific) | ID: covidwho-861208

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To describe the epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in pediatric patients, and to provide data support and decision-making basis for the prevention and control of COVID-19.@*Methods@#Cases of children aged 0-17 years reported by provincial health commissions in Anhui, Shandong, Zhejiang and Henan provinces were collected to analyze their spatial, temporal, and demographic distribution.@*Results@#By 24:00 on February 6, 2020, a total of 107 pediatric patients had been reported in the four provinces, accounting for 3.8% (107/2 808) of the total cases reported in the four provinces during the same period. Anhui, Shandong, Zhejiang and Henan provinces had 25, 25, 28 and 29 cases, respectively. Cases ranged in age from 5 days after birth to 17 years, with a median age of 8 years. Boys accounted for 58.9%. Totally 38 cases had a history of sojourn in Wuhan or Hubei, 63 cases had a history of exposure to confirmed cases, and 6 cases with unknown exposure history. A group of 52 family clustering were found in 107 cases. All cases presented mild symptoms, no serious and no death.@*Conclusion@#Children were also susceptible to the COVID-19. Before February 2, the index pediatric cases were mainly the first generation cases, and after February 3, these pediatric cases were mainly the secondary-generation cases and those who had close contact with confirmed cases. The monitoring of children with secondgeneration cases and close contact with COVID-19 cases were valued.

12.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-504

ABSTRACT

Background: 2019 novel coronavirus infection is high epidemical in China from January 2020. It is very important to detect it rapidly because of its high infect

13.
J Int Med Res ; 48(8): 300060520949039, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739220

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: We analyzed the electronic medical records of 405 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the Third Hospital of Wuhan. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 56 years, 54.1% were female, 11.4% had a history of smoking, and 10.6% had a history of drinking. All cases of COVID-19 were community-acquired. Fever (76.8%) and cough (53.3%) were the most common clinical manifestations, and circulatory system diseases were the most common comorbidities. Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 61.2% of the patients, and 2.9% of the patients were asymptomatic. Computed tomography showed ground-glass opacities in most patients (72.6%) and consolidation in 30.9%. Lymphopenia (72.3%) and hypoproteinemia (71.6%) were observed in most patients. About 20% of patients had abnormal liver function. Patients with severe disease had significantly more prominent laboratory abnormalities, including an abnormal lymphocyte count and abnormal C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, D-dimer, and albumin levels. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 causes a variety of severe respiratory illnesses similar to those caused by SARS-CoV-1. Older age, chronic comorbidities, and laboratory abnormalities are associated with disease severity.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , China , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/pathology , Community-Acquired Infections/virology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238416, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732991

ABSTRACT

Fangcang shelter hospitals were established in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as a countermeasure to stop the spread of the disease. To our knowledge, no research has been conducted on mental health problems among patients in Fangcang shelter hospitals. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and major influencing factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among COVID-19 patients admitted to Fangcang shelter hospitals. From February 23, 2020, to February 26, 2020, we obtained sociodemographic and clinical characteristics information of COVID-19 patients in Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital (Wuhan, China) and assessed their mental health status and sleep quality. Data were obtained with an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a set of items on demographic characteristics, a set of items on clinical characteristics, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Three hundred seven COVID-19 patients who were admitted to Jianghan Fangcang Shelter Hospital participated in this study. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms were 18.6% and 13.4%, respectively. Poor sleep quality and having ≥ two current physical symptoms were independent risk factors for anxiety symptoms. Female sex, having a family member with confirmed COVID-19, and having ≥ two current physical symptoms were independent risk factors for depressive symptoms. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were found to be common among COVID-19 patients in Fangcang Shelter Hospital, with some patients being at high risk.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Special , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 6(2): 98-105, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306057

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a major threat to public health globally. Though its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been recently identified as a receptor for the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the cell. Here, we aimed to clarify the potential role of ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-induced acute lung injury and its underlying mechanism. As a receptor for coronavirus, ACE2 mediates the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells in a similar way as for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The high binding affinity of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 correlates with its efficient spread among humans. On the other hand, ACE2 negatively regulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) primarily by converting angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7, which exerts a beneficial effect on coronavirus-induced acute lung injury. Human recombinant ACE2 has been considered as a potential therapy for SARS-CoV-2 by blocking virus entry and redressing the imbalance of RAAS in SARS-CoV-2 infection. The level of ACE2 expression can be upregulated by treatment with an ACE inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin Ⅱ type 1 receptor blocker (ARB). To date, no evidence shows that ACEIs or ARBs increase the susceptibility and mortality of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, and hence, it is not advisable to discontinue such drugs in patients with cardiovascular disease.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...