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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 132, 2021 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) becomes increasingly fierce due to the emergence of variants. Rapid herd immunity through vaccination is needed to block the mutation and prevent the emergence of variants that can completely escape the immune surveillance. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in the real world and to establish a reliable evidence-based basis for the actual protective effect of the COVID-19 vaccines, especially in the ensuing waves of infections dominated by variants. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to July 22, 2021. Observational studies that examined the effectiveness and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among people vaccinated were included. Random-effects or fixed-effects models were used to estimate the pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE) and incidence rate of adverse events after vaccination, and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 58 studies (32 studies for vaccine effectiveness and 26 studies for vaccine safety) were included. A single dose of vaccines was 41% (95% CI: 28-54%) effective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections, 52% (31-73%) for symptomatic COVID-19, 66% (50-81%) for hospitalization, 45% (42-49%) for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, and 53% (15-91%) for COVID-19-related death; and two doses were 85% (81-89%) effective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections, 97% (97-98%) for symptomatic COVID-19, 93% (89-96%) for hospitalization, 96% (93-98%) for ICU admissions, and 95% (92-98%) effective for COVID-19-related death, respectively. The pooled VE was 85% (80-91%) for the prevention of Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2 infections, 75% (71-79%) for the Beta variant, 54% (35-74%) for the Gamma variant, and 74% (62-85%) for the Delta variant. The overall pooled incidence rate was 1.5% (1.4-1.6%) for adverse events, 0.4 (0.2-0.5) per 10 000 for severe adverse events, and 0.1 (0.1-0.2) per 10 000 for death after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have reassuring safety and could effectively reduce the death, severe cases, symptomatic cases, and infections resulting from SARS-CoV-2 across the world. In the context of global pandemic and the continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, accelerating vaccination and improving vaccination coverage is still the most important and urgent matter, and it is also the final means to end the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292266

ABSTRACT

Background: Some pain, fatigue, and gastrointestinal adverse reactions were observed in potential association with injection of COVID-19 vaccines. However, there were no preventive intervention for it. We aim to investigate efficacy of auricular acupressure (AA) therapy in preventing and (or) relieving AEFI after injection of COVID-19 vaccine. Methods/design: The study design is a randomized controlled, multicentre, three-arm, single-blind trial. Participants meeting the inclusion criteria will be advertised and enrolled, and assigned randomly in the medical institutions for post-injection observation. No less than 360 participants will be randomized into one of three groups: auricular acupressure group, sham auricular acupressure group and wait-list group. Interventions will be performed immediately, and will happen 4 to 5 times per day for 5 days. The primary clinical outcomes will be quality and quantity evaluation among participants who reported any AEFI and who reported local pain at injection site. Secondary outcomes will concern headache, muscle and (or) joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and other potential events. All the outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the injection. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses will be performed, with significance level determined at the 5 % level. Discussion Results of this trial will help clarify the value of auricular acupressure therapy in preventing and (or) relieving overall and certain adverse events following immunization after injection of COVID-19 vaccine. Trial registration: This trial was registered in the China Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR) (ChiCTR2100043210) on 8th February, 2021.

3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 745, 2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seasonal influenza can circulate in parallel with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in winter. In the context of COVID-19 pandemic, the risk of co-infection and the burden it poses on healthcare system calls for timely influenza vaccination among pregnant women, who are the priority population recommended for vaccination. We aimed to evaluate the acceptance of influenza vaccination and associated factors among pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic, provide evidence to improve influenza vaccination among pregnant women, help reduce the risk of infection and alleviate the burden of healthcare system for co-infected patients. METHODS: We conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women in China. Sociodemographic characteristics, health status, knowledge on influenza, attitude towards vaccination, and health beliefs were collected. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression analysis was used to evaluate the trends in the acceptance of influenza vaccine. Logistic regression was applied to identify factors associated with vaccination acceptance. RESULTS: The total acceptance rate was 76.5% (95%CI: 74.8-78.1%) among 2568 pregnant women enrolled. Only 8.3% of the participants had a history of seasonal influenza vaccination. In the logistic regression model, factors associated with the acceptance of influenza vaccine were western region, history of influenza vaccination, high knowledge of influenza infection and vaccination, high level of perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit, cues to action and low level of perceived barriers. Among 23.5% of the participants who had vaccine hesitancy, 48.0% of them were worried about side effect, 35.6% of them lacked confidence of vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlighted that tailored strategies and publicity for influenza vaccination in the context of COVID-19 pandemic are warranted to reduce pregnant women's concerns, improve their knowledge, expand vaccine uptake and alleviate pressure for healthcare system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/pharmacology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination/methods , Adult , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Atmosphere ; 12(10):1298, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1463545

ABSTRACT

In response to COVID-19 in December 2019, China imposed a strict lockdown for the following two months, which led to an unprecedented reduction in industrial activities and transportation. However, haze pollution was still recorded in many Chinese cities during the lockdown period. To explore temporal and spatial variations in urban haze pollution, concentrations of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO, NO2, and O3) from April 2017 to March 2020 were observed at 23 monitoring stations throughout Nanchang City (including one industrial site, sixteen urban central sites, two mountain sites, and four suburban sites). Overall, the highest concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 were observed at industrial sites and the highest CO and NOx (NO and NO2) concentrations were recorded at urban sites. The air pollutants at mountain sites all showed the lowest concentrations, which indicated that anthropogenic activities are largely responsible for air pollutants. Concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, CO, NO, and NO2 showed similar season trends, that is, the highest levels in winter and lowest concentrations in summer, but an opposite season pattern for O3. Except for a sharply dropping pattern from January to May 2018, there were no seasonal patterns for SO2 concentration in all the observed sites. Daily PM2.5, PM10, CO, NOx, and SO2 concentrations showed a peak during the morning commute, which indicated the influences of anthropogenic activities on PM2.5, PM10, CO, NOx, and SO2. PM2.5, PM10, NOx, and CO concentrations at industrial, urban, and suburban sites were higher during nighttime than during daytime, but they showed the opposite pattern at mountain sites. In addition, PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NOx concentrations were lower during the lockdown period (D2) than those before the lockdown (B1). After the lockdown was lifted (A3), PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NOx concentrations showed a slowly increasing trend. However, O3 concentrations continuously increased from B1 to A3.

5.
Energy Economics ; 103:105622, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1458694

ABSTRACT

The launch of the China's Shanghai International Energy Exchange (INE) oil futures market in 2018 has shed new light on the role of China in international crude oil market. Understanding the dynamics of the newly arrived RMB denominated crude oil futures market not only facilitates the international market participants in risk management and hedging, but also provides helpful information for policy-makers, especially for those from emerging countries, to financialize its energy market, along with the currency internationalization and financial market liberalization. However, the literature on the China crude oil futures is quite scant compared with abundant literature on international benchmarks. In this regard, we make attempts to capture the dynamics of the China crude oil futures by: (1) adopting Markov switching analysis to uncover the regime switching of the INE crude oil futures market;(2) investigating the dynamic connectedness of INE, WTI, and Brent crude oil futures;(3) forecasting the realized volatility of INE crude oil futures. The results have shown that: (1) the outbreak of global pandemic at the beginning of 2020 has switched the crude oil futures market from a stable regime to a volatile regime;(2) the increasing financial uncertainty originated from the world, U.S., other advanced countries and emerging countries could significantly negatively affect the movement of crude oil futures. However, China suffers the least;(3) the dynamic conditional correlations between INE vs WTI, and INE vs Brent are high but lower and more volatile than that of WTI vs Brent;(4) Brent crude oil futures contribute to improving the accuracy of volatility forecasting of INE crude oil futures;and more importantly (5) we highly recommend carrying out volatility forecasting by incorporating intraday realized measures into mixed data sampling approach, in particular, when intraday transactions present extremely different behavior across the time.

6.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm ; : 1-22, 2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450327

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Through the method of network pharmacology, the active components and targets of Shenqi wan (SQW) were excavated, the relationship with COVID-19 was discussed, and the possible mechanism of SQW in the treatment of COVID-19 was revealed from the aspects of multi-components, multi-targets, and multi-pathways. METHODS: Firstly, the active components of SQW were screened from TCMSP and the 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and the related targets of the components were obtained. Then the disease targets related to COVID-19 were screened from GeneCards and OMIM. Venny was used to map the relationship between component-target and disease-target, and String was used to analyzing the interaction of common targets. The network was constructed and analyzed by Cytoscape, the function of GO and KEGG genes was enriched by Metascape, and the molecular docking was verified by CB-Dock. RESULTS: Finally, 45 active components of SQW were obtained, and 72 potential targets were related to COVID-19, ACE2, IL6, NOS3, and CRP may be the key targets. GO enrichment of 1715 projects, such as lipopolysaccharide stress response, active oxygen metabolism, positive regulation of cell migration, and other GO enrichment. 136 KEGG pathways were obtained, TNF signaling pathway, IL-17 signaling pathway, HIF-1 signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, astragaloside, calyx isoflavone glucoside, matrine, and other COVID-19-related targets such as ACE2, 3CLpro, PLpro, PTGS2 have good binding ability. CONCLUSION: According to the above results, it is suggested that SQW may play a role in the treatment of COVID-19 by directly or indirectly combining kaempferol, quercetin, and luteolin with ACE2, 3CLpro, PLpro, and PTGS2 to regulate multiple biological functions and signaling pathways.

7.
Case Rep Hematol ; 2021: 2348977, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448058

ABSTRACT

Hematological malignancies with a BCR-JAK2 rearrangement have been described only sporadically in the literature over the last three decades. Although most patients suffer from a chronic myeloid neoplasm with marked eosinophilia, the clinical presentation varies significantly and can even manifest as a lymphoid malignancy. In this case report, we present a patient with a therapy-related BCR-JAK2 + myeloid neoplasm with extensive extramedullary disease localizing in the lymph nodes. While treatment with a JAK2 inhibitor (ruxolitinib) was not able to stop disease progression, combination treatment with inhibitors of both JAK2 and BCL2 (venetoclax) resulted in disease control for over 1.5 years. Combining these two inhibitors might be strategic in these patients, not only because BCL2 is a downstream target of JAK/STAT signaling but also because BCL2 is crucial for JAK2 inhibitor resistance. The recent inclusion of JAK2-rearranged malignancies in major classification systems and guidelines emphasizes the importance of not only getting a better understanding of the clinical phenotype of these rare disorders but also of identifying alternative treatment options for patients ineligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Considering the low toxicity of combination treatment with these two small molecule inhibitors, this regimen could be further explored in future studies.

8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 346, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437668

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to viral infection are a form of antibody regulated immune responses mediated through the Fc fragment. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered ADCC responses contributes to COVID-19 disease development is currently not well understood. To understand the potential correlation between ADCC responses and COVID-19 disease development, we analyzed the ADCC activity and neutralizing antibody response in 255 individuals ranging from asymptomatic to fatal infections over 1 year post disease. ADCC was elicited by 10 days post-infection, peaked by 11-20 days, and remained detectable until 400 days post-infection. In general, patients with severe disease had higher ADCC activities. Notably, patients who had severe disease and recovered had higher ADCC activities than patients who had severe disease and deceased. Importantly, ADCC activities were mediated by a diversity of epitopes in SARS-COV-2-infected mice and induced to comparable levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as that against the D614G mutant in human patients and vaccinated mice. Our study indicates anti-SARS-CoV-2 ADCC as a major trait of COVID-19 patients with various conditions, which can be applied to estimate the extra-neutralization level against COVID-19, especially lethal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged
9.
BMJ ; 369: m2195, 2020 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430181

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the protective effects of appropriate personal protective equipment for frontline healthcare professionals who provided care for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: Four hospitals in Wuhan, China. PARTICIPANTS: 420 healthcare professionals (116 doctors and 304 nurses) who were deployed to Wuhan by two affiliated hospitals of Sun Yat-sen University and Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University for 6-8 weeks from 24 January to 7 April 2020. These study participants were provided with appropriate personal protective equipment to deliver healthcare to patients admitted to hospital with covid-19 and were involved in aerosol generating procedures. 77 healthcare professionals with no exposure history to covid-19 and 80 patients who had recovered from covid-19 were recruited to verify the accuracy of antibody testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Covid-19 related symptoms (fever, cough, and dyspnoea) and evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, defined as a positive test for virus specific nucleic acids in nasopharyngeal swabs, or a positive test for IgM or IgG antibodies in the serum samples. RESULTS: The average age of study participants was 35.8 years and 68.1% (286/420) were women. These study participants worked 4-6 hour shifts for an average of 5.4 days a week; they worked an average of 16.2 hours each week in intensive care units. All 420 study participants had direct contact with patients with covid-19 and performed at least one aerosol generating procedure. During the deployment period in Wuhan, none of the study participants reported covid-19 related symptoms. When the participants returned home, they all tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleic acids and IgM or IgG antibodies (95% confidence interval 0.0 to 0.7%). CONCLUSION: Before a safe and effective vaccine becomes available, healthcare professionals remain susceptible to covid-19. Despite being at high risk of exposure, study participants were appropriately protected and did not contract infection or develop protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Healthcare systems must give priority to the procurement and distribution of personal protective equipment, and provide adequate training to healthcare professionals in its use.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/instrumentation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 708698, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405440

ABSTRACT

Background: Studies showed that healthcare workers (HCWs) and pregnant women bore the burden of mental problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. While, few studies have focused on the psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women who work at healthcare settings. This study aimed to investigate and compare the prevalence difference of psychological symptoms between pregnant HCWs and pregnant non-HCWs during the early stage of COVID-19 pandemic in China. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey with anonymous structured questionnaires was conducted from February 15 to March 9, 2020. A total of 205 pregnant women in Chongqing, China were recruited. The mental health status was assessed using symptom checklist-90 (SCL-90). Results: Our sample was composed of 83 pregnant HCWs (mean age = 29.8) and 122 pregnant non-HCWs (mean age = 30.8). The results suggested the prevalence of psychological symptoms (the factor score ≥2) among all pregnant women ranged from 6.83% (psychosis symptoms) to 17.56% (obsessive-compulsive symptoms). Compared with pregnant non-HCWs, pregnant HCWs reported higher prevalence of psychological symptoms in 10 factors of SCL-90. After controlling the confounding variables, multiple logistic regression demonstrated that pregnant HCWs experienced higher prevalence of psychological symptoms of somatization (18.07 vs. 5.74%, p = 0.006, aOR = 4.52), anxiety disorders (16.87 vs. 6.56%, p = 0.016, aOR = 3.54), and hostility (24.10 vs. 10.66%, p = 0.027, aOR = 2.70) than those among pregnant non-HCW. Conclusion: Our study indicated that pregnant HCWs were more likely to suffer from mental health distress than pregnant non-HCWs during the early stage of COVID-19 pandemic. It is vital to implement targeted psychological interventions for pregnant women, especially for pregnant HCWs to cope with distress when facing the emerging infectious diseases.

11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(8): 9233-9238, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The optimal duration of treatment for intestinal tuberculosis (TB), which remains a common disease worldwide, has not yet been established. The proposed randomized controlled study will aim to compare the efficacy of short-term six-month with nine-month anti-TB therapy for treating intestinal TB. METHODS: This multicenter, open-label, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted in the Affiliated Hangzhou Chest Hospital of Zhejiang University will include a total of 80 patients. Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly assigned to either the six-month (n=40) or nine-month (n=40) treatment group. The primary outcome will be complete response, which is defined as endoscopy displaying active lesion healing at the end of treatment. Participants will be scheduled for follow-up visits once a month in the first three months, then once every three months until the end of the treatment. The last follow-up will be one year after the treatment. Recurrence will be assessed one year after the end of treatment, which is defined as endoscopy displaying recurrent lesions after complete response. DISCUSSION: In addition to the reports of tuberculous lymphadenitis and spinal TB, there are few appropriate randomized trials for the treatment of extrapulmonary TB with appropriate clinical endpoints. We believe that the proposed randomized controlled trial will provide further data on the efficacy of short-term six-month anti-TB therapy in intestinal TB patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial will be registered on ClinicalTrial.gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Lymph Node , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
Lancet ; 398(10302): 747-758, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376121

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. FINDINGS: 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0-67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0-198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0-361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04-1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48-2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50-5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls. INTERPRETATION: Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test
14.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111910, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372992

ABSTRACT

India has suffered from the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic since March 2021. This wave of the outbreak has been more serious than the first wave pandemic in 2020, which suggests that some new transmission characteristics may exist. COVID-19 is transmitted through droplets, aerosols, and contact with infected surfaces. Air pollutants are also considered to be associated with COVID-19 transmission. However, the roles of indoor transmission in the COVID-19 pandemic and the effects of these factors in indoor environments are still poorly understood. Our study focused on reveal the role of indoor transmission in the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in India. Our results indicated that human mobility in the home environment had the highest relative influence on COVID-19 daily growth rate in the country. The COVID-19 daily growth rate was significantly positively correlated with the residential percent rate in most state-level areas in India. A significant positive nonlinear relationship was found when the residential percent ratio ranged from 100 to 120%. Further, epidemic dynamics modelling indicated that a higher proportion of indoor transmission in the home environment was able to intensify the severity of the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in India. Our findings suggested that more attention should be paid to the indoor transmission in home environment. The public health strategies to reduce indoor transmission such as ventilation and centralized isolation will be beneficial to the prevention and control of COVID-19.

15.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; : 101793, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363934

ABSTRACT

Currently, there have been more than one hundred million confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with two million deaths worldwide. This has caused a huge medical burden. Severe COVID-19 patients can experience multi-organ damage, including cardiac injury, kidney injury, and liver injury. About 2.0%-4.9% of COVID-19 cases involve patients with preexisting liver diseases. Additionally, preexisting liver diseases were reported and associated with severity (odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) = 1.48-1.70) and mortality (OR or RR = 1.08-2.65) among COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, the prevalence of liver injury was 16%-29% in COVID-19 patients. Higher prevalence of liver injury may worsen prognosis in patients (severity: OR or RR = 1.9-2.6; mortality: OR or RR = 1.1-4.0). The mechanisms of this association between liver injury and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection are complex, including direct cholangiocyte damage induced by SARS-COV-2, cytokine storm, and drug-induced liver injury. In particular, drug-induced liver injury may be the most important reason. This review discusses the epidemiology of COVID-19 and liver dysfunction as well as potential mechanisms underlying the association between COVID-19 and liver dysfunction or other preexisting liver diseases. However, the association between preexisting liver diseases and COVID-19 prognosis and potential mechanisms underlying these associations require further prospective studies.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 57-62, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamic characteristics of serological antibodies against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is of much current significance. METHODS: The dynamic changes and prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were assessed from the time of symptom onset up to 210 days. Antibodies were detected using a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: The average titers and IgG/IgM positivity rates reached a peak within 30 days of symptom onset and then began to decline continuously. Between 180 and 210 days following symptom onset, the titers of IgG and IgM were 43.1 ± 27.0 AU/mL and 4.4 ± 5.2 AU/mL, respectively, while the respective positivity rates were 84.3% and 12.0%. Further statistical analyses revealed that the dynamic changes and prevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies were related to age and disease severity, but not to sex. The dynamic changes and the prevalence were similar for both the IgM and the IgG antibodies. Even so, there was a more rapid rate of decline for the IgM antibodies. It was found that an IgG level of 16.33 ± 3.15 AU/mL may represent a threshold value that should act as an alert, as it may indicate that the IgG level will become undetectable within the next 30-60 days. CONCLUSION: The results provide important information concerning COVID-19 and may be of relevance for diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244154

ABSTRACT

Influenza could circulate in parallel with COVID-19. In the context of COVID-19, some studies observed inverse associations between influenza vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical outcomes, while others did not. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between influenza vaccination and SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical outcomes, aiming to provide evidence for COVID-19 prevention and vaccination promotion. We searched four databases from inception to 10 March, 2021. Random effects and fixed effects models were used to pool odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used funnel plots to evaluate the publication bias, I2 statistics to evaluate the heterogeneity, and conducted subgroup analyses. Sixteen observational studies involving 290,327 participants were included. Influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (pooled adjusted OR: 0.86, 95%CI: 0.81-0.91), while not significantly associated with adverse outcomes (intensive care: adjusted OR 0.63, 95%CI: 0.22-1.81; hospitalization: adjusted OR 0.74, 95%CI: 0.51-1.06; mortality: adjusted OR 0.89, 95%CI: 0.73-1.09). Our findings suggest that influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is crucial for policy makers to implement strategies on influenza vaccination, for it may also have benefits for COVID-19 prevention.

18.
China Tropical Medicine ; 21(3):216-219, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1236984

ABSTRACT

Objective The time and the risk factors of virus nucleic acids negative conversion of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were analyzed. Methods The clinical data of patients with COVID-19 admitted to Chongqing Public Health Medical Treatment Center from February 6 to March 9, 2020 were collected retrospectively. The clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome were described. The time of turning negative of nucleic acid was counted and the risk factors of turning negative of nucleic acid were analyzed. Results There were 104 confirmed cases of COVID-19, 56 males and 48 females, with an average age of (49.9 +or- 15.5) years (12-86 years old). The average interval between clinical symptoms and medical treatment was 5.5 days. From the time point of clinical symptoms, the time needed for nucleic acid to turn negative was (19.8 +or- 7.7) days, of which 32 cases (30.8%) turned negative within 14 days, 72 cases (69.2%) turned negative more than 14 days, and 14 cases (13.5%) turned negative more than 28 days. Univariate analysis showed that the time interval from clinical symptoms to medical treatment (6.7+or-4.4) days of nucleic acid conversion group after 14 days was longer than that (2.6 +or-1.8) days of conversion group within 14 days (P < 0.05);the incidence of combined with pulmonary bacterial infection (25 cases, 34.7%), infection more than three pulmonary lobes (36 cases, 50.0%), severe patients (24 cases, 33.3%) and combined use of glucocorticoids were greater than those of conversion group within 14 days (all P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in the time interval from symptoms to medical treatment and the proportion of three or more lobes involved in lung lesions between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions The risk factors of viral nucleic acid turning negative are the timeliness of medical treatment, combined with pulmonary bacterial infection, wide range of pulmonary lesions, clinical typing and combined use of glucocorticoids, especially the timeliness of medical treatment and the range of pulmonary lesions.

19.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(8): 2378-2388, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228401

ABSTRACT

Background: Vaccine hesitancy has been recognized as an urgent public health issue. We aimed to explore the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine and related factors among pregnant women, a vulnerable population for vaccine-preventable diseases.Methods: A multi-center cross-sectional study among pregnant women was conducted in five provinces of mainland China from November 13 to 27, 2020. We collected sociodemographic characteristics, attitude, knowledge, and health beliefs on COVID-19 vaccination. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing regression analysis was used to assess the trends of vaccination acceptance. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors related to vaccination acceptance.Results: Among the 1392 pregnant women, the acceptance rate of a COVID-19 vaccine were 77.4% (95%CI 75.1-79.5%). In the multivariable regression model, the acceptance rate was associated with young age (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), western region (aOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.72-4.32), low level of education (aOR = 2.49, 95% CI: 1.13-5.51), late pregnancy (aOR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03-2.16), high knowledge score on COVID-19 (aOR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.10), high level of perceived susceptibility (aOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.36-3.49), low level of perceived barriers (aOR = 4.76, 95% CI: 2.23-10.18), high level of perceived benefit (aOR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.36-3.49), and high level of perceived cues to action (aOR = 15.70, 95% CI: 8.28-29.80).Conclusions: About one quarters of pregnant women have vaccine hesitancy. Our findings highlight that targeted and multipronged efforts are needed to build vaccine literacy and confidence to increase the acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
20.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 638556, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221963

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is continuing to impact multiple countries worldwide and effective treatment options are still being developed. In this study, we investigate the potential of high-dose intravenous vitamin C (HDIVC) in the prevention of moderate COVID-19 disease aggravation. Methods: In this retrospective before-after case-matched clinical study, we compare the outcome and clinical courses of patients with moderate COVID-19 patients who were treated with an HDIVC protocol (intravenous injection of vitamin C, 100 mg/kg/day, 1 g/h, for 7 days from admission) during a one-month period (between March 18 and april 18, 2020, HDIVC group) with a control group treated without the HDIVC protocol during the preceding two months (January 18 to March 18, 2020). Patients in the two groups were matched in a 1:1 ratio according to age and gender. Results: The HDIVC and control groups each comprised 55 patients. For the primary outcomes, there was a significant difference in the number of patients that evolved from moderate to severe type between the two groups (HDIVC: 4/55 vs. control: 12/55, relative risk [RR] = 0.28 [0.08, 0.93], P = 0.03). Compared to the control group, there was a shorter duration of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (P = 0.0004) during the first week and lower SIRS occurrence (2/21 vs 10/22, P = 0.0086) on Day 7 (6-7 days after admission). In addition, HDIVC group had lower C-reactive protein levels (P = 0.005) and higher number of CD4+ T cells from Day 0 (on admission) to Day 7 (P = 0.04)." The levels of coagulation indicators, including activated partial thromboplastin time and D-dimer were also improved in the HDIVC compared to the control group on Day 7. Conclusion: HDIVC may be beneficial in limiting disease aggravation in the early stage of COVID-19 pneumonia, which may be related to its improvements on the inflammatory response, immune function and coagulation function. Further randomized controlled trials are required to augment these findings.

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