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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1107639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261428

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody (NtAb) levels are key indicators in the development and evaluation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines. Establishing a unified and reliable WHO International Standard (IS) for NtAb is crucial for the calibration and harmonization of NtAb detection assays. National and other WHO secondary standards are key links in the transfer of IS to working standards but are often overlooked. The Chinese National Standard (NS) and WHO IS were developed by China and WHO in September and December 2020, respectively, the application of which prompted and coordinated sero-detection of vaccine and therapy globally. Currently, a second-generation Chinese NS is urgently required owing to the depletion of stocks and need for calibration to the WHO IS. The Chinese National Institutes for Food and Drug Control (NIFDC) developed two candidate NSs (samples 33 and 66-99) traced to the IS according to the WHO manual for the establishment of national secondary standards through a collaborative study of nine experienced labs. Either NS candidate can reduce the systematic error among different laboratories and the difference between the live virus neutralization (Neut) and pseudovirus neutralization (PsN) methods, ensuring the accuracy and comparability of NtAb test results among multiple labs and methods, especially for samples 66-99. At present, samples 66-99 have been approved as the second-generation NS, which is the first NS calibrated tracing to the IS with 580 (460-740) International Units (IU)/mL and 580 (520-640) IU/mL by Neut and PsN, respectively. The use of standards improves the reliability and comparability of NtAb detection, ensuring the continuity of the use of the IS unitage, which effectively promotes the development and application of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in China.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , Calibration , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing , China , World Health Organization
2.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2241292

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protein subunit vaccine is one of the mainstream technology platforms for the development of COVID-19 vaccines, and most R&D units use the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or spike (S) protein as the main target antigen. The complexity of vaccine design, sequence, and expression systems makes it urgent to establish common antigen assays to facilitate vaccine development. In this study, we report the development of a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the antigen content of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines based on the United States Pharmacopeia <1220> and ICH (international conference on harmonization) Q14 and Q2 (R2) requirements. A monoclonal antibody (mAb), 20D8, was identified as the detection antibody based on its high RBD binding activity (EC50 = 8.4 ng/mL), broad-spectrum anti-variant neutralizing activity (EC50: 2.7−9.8 ng/mL for pseudovirus and EC50: 9.6−127 ng/mL for authentic virus), good in vivo protection, and a recognized linear RBD epitope (369−379 aa). A porcine anti-RBD polyclonal antibody was selected as the coating antibody. Assay performance met the requirements of the analytical target profile with an accuracy and precision of ≥90% and adequate specificity. Within the specification range of 70−143%, the method capability index was >0.96; the misjudgment probability was <0.39%. The method successfully detected SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccine antigens (RBD or S protein sequences in Alpha, Beta, Gamma, or Delta variants) obtained from five different manufacturers. Thus, we present a new robust, reliable, and general method for measuring the antigenic content of SARS-CoV-2 protein subunit vaccines. In addition to currently marketed and emergency vaccines, it is suitable for vaccines in development containing antigens derived from pre-Omicron mutant strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Protein Subunits , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 20(8): 1119-1127, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860694

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Effective treatments for the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are limited. The virus has evolved strategies to evade the immune system or hijack immune responses to facilitate infection and escape immune surveillance. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2 takes advantage of TLR4 and cytokine-induced integrins to promote its entrance into the cell. Furthermore, the activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR)-mediated signaling pathways is compromised by SARS-CoV-2 non-structural proteins (NSPs), accessory protein open reading frames (ORFs), and structural proteins upon infection, contributing to viral infection and replication. Host factors necessary for cellular protein synthesis, metabolism, and viral replication can also be inhibited by the SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Exploring specific mechanisms would optimize the therapy methods and benefit drug research and development. AREAS COVERED: We describe pathways and mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 evades immune system; these include the mechanisms that operate during virus entry, signaling pathways involved, and processes at RNA and protein levels. EXPERT OPINION: Increased understanding of how viruses interfere with immune responses would provide more evidence for drug development. Drugs targeting conserved viral proteins to inhibit their replication or host factors to enhance immune responses would minimize the impact of virus mutations and prepare for future coronavirus outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines , Humans , Pandemics , Virus Replication
4.
Virol J ; 19(1): 86, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854813

ABSTRACT

To investigate the protective efficacy and mechanism of ZF2001 (a protein subunit vaccine with conditional approval in China) to SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant-induced severe pneumonia, the lethal challenge model of K18-hACE2 transgenic mice was used in this study. An inactivated-virus vaccine at the research and development stage (abbreviated as RDINA) was compared to ZF2001. We found that ZF2001 and RDINA could provide the protective effect against Delta variant-induced severe cases, as measured by the improved survival rates, the reduced virus loads, the alleviated lung histopathology and the high neutralizing antibody geomean titers, compared to aluminum adjuvant group. To prevent and control Omicron or other variant epidemics, further improvements in vaccine design and compatibilities with the novel adjuvant are required to achieve better immunogenicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Melphalan , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Vaccines, Inactivated , gamma-Globulins
5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(4): 471-481, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1647981

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Major emergent infectious diseases (MEID) pose the most serious threat to human health. The research proposes targeted response strategies for the prevention and control of potential MEID. AREAS COVERED: Based on the analysis of infectious diseases, this research analyzes pandemics that have a high probability of occurrence and aims to synthesize the past experience and lessons learned of controlling infectious diseases such as coronavirus, influenza, Ebola, etc. In addition, by integrating major infectious disease response guidelines developed by WHO, the European Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom, we intend to bring forward national vaccine R&D development strategies for emergency use. EXPERT OPINION: We advise to establish and improve existing laws, regulations, and also prevention and control systems for the emergent R&D and application of vaccines in response to potential infectious diseases. The strategies would not only help increase the various abilities in response to the research, development, evaluation, production, and supervision of emergency vaccines, but also establish surrogate endpoint of immunogenicity protection in early clinical studies to enable a rapid evaluation of the efficacy of emergency vaccines.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
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