Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 20
Filter
1.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 103(2): 115677, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748081

ABSTRACT

Accurate detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is not only necessary for viral load monitoring to optimize treatment in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients, but also critical for deciding whether the patient could be discharged without any risk of viral shedding. Digital droplet PCR (ddPCR) is more sensitive than reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and is usually considered the superior choice. In the current study, we compared the clinical performance of RT-qPCR and ddPCR using oropharyngeal swab samples from patients hospitalized in the temporary Huoshenshan Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China. Results demonstrated that ddPCR was indeed more sensitive than RT-qPCR. Negative results might be caused by poor sampling technique or recovered patients, as the range of viral load in these patients varied significantly. In addition, both methods were highly correlated in terms of their ability to detect all three target genes as well as the ratio of copies of viral genes to that of the IC gene. Furthermore, our results evidenced that both methods detected the N gene more easily than the ORF gene. Taken together, these findings imply that the use of ddPCR, as an alternative to RT-qPCR, is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load/methods
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 3112-3120, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729154

ABSTRACT

There is growing evidence that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is highly expressed on endothelial cells, endothelial dysfunction plays a critical role in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progression, but laboratory evidence is still lacking. This study established a multicenter retrospective cohort of 966 COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Wuhan, China. We found that male (62.8% vs. 46.5%), old age [72 (17) vs. 60.5 (21)], and coexisting chronic diseases (88.5% vs. 60.0%) were associated with poor clinical prognosis in COVID-19. Furthermore, the deteriorated patients exhibited more severe multiorgan damage, coagulation dysfunction, and extensive inflammation. Additionally, a cross-sectional study including 41 non-COVID-19 controls and 39 COVID-19 patients assayed endothelial function parameters in plasma and showed that COVID-19 patients exhibited elevated vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) (median [IQR]: 0.32 [0.27] vs. 0.17 [0.11] µg/ml, p < 0.001), E-selectin (21.06 [12.60] vs. 11.01 [4.63] ng/ml, p < 0.001), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) (0.22 [0.12] vs. 0.09 [0.04] ng/ml, p < 0.001), and decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (0.75 [1.31] vs 6.20 [5.34] ng/ml, p < 0.001), as compared to normal controls. Moreover, VCAM-1 was positively correlated with d-dimer (R = 0.544, p < 0.001); tPA was positively correlated with d-dimer (R = 0.800, p < 0.001) and blood urea nitrogen (R = 0.638, p < 0.001). Our findings further confirm the strong association between endothelial dysfunction and poor prognosis of COVID-19, which offers a rationale for targeting endothelial dysfunction as a therapeutic strategy for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Progression , Endothelial Cells , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Diseases/virology
3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(6): 604, 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692482
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309717

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a six-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. Methods: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a six-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 5 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a six-month follow-up after discharge. Results: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At six-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95%CI 1.33 - 12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95%CI 1.06 - 10.81, p = 0.039). Conclusions: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a six-month follow-up;intervention strategies are required.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322635

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly influenced epidemiology, yet its impact on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of OHCA. We also evaluated the impact on intermediate outcomes and clinical characteristics. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to May 3, 2021. Studies were included if they compared OHCA processes and outcomes between the pandemic and historical control time periods. Meta-analyses were performed for primary outcomes (annual incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate [CFR]), secondary outcomes (field termination of resuscitation [TOR], return of spontaneous circulation [ROSC]), survival to hospital admission, and survival to hospital discharge), and clinical characteristics (shockable rhythm and etiologies). This study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42021253879). Results The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a 39.5% increase in pooled annual OHCA incidence (p < 0.001). Pooled CFR was increased by 2.65% (p < 0.001), with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.95 for mortality (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.51–2.51). There was increased field TOR (OR = 2.46, 95%CI 1.62–3.74). There were decreased ROSC (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.55–0.77), survival to hospital admission (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.48–0.89), and survival to discharge (OR = 0.52, 95%CI 0.40–0.69). There was decreased shockable rhythm (OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.60–0.88) and increased asphyxial etiology of OHCA (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.02–1.33). Conclusion Compared to the pre-pandemic period, the COVID-19 pandemic period was significantly associated with increased OHCA incidence and worse outcomes.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1271, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term functional outcome of discharged patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unresolved. We aimed to describe a 6-month follow-up of functional status of COVID-19 survivors. METHODS: We reviewed the data of COVID-19 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Tumor Center of Union Hospital (Wuhan, China) between 15 February and 14 March 2020. We quantified a 6-month functional outcome reflecting symptoms and disability in COVID-19 survivors using a post-COVID-19 functional status scale ranging from 0 to 4 (PCFS). We examined the risk factors for the incomplete functional status defined as a PCFS > 0 at a 6-month follow-up after discharge. RESULTS: We included a total of 95 COVID-19 survivors with a median age of 62 (IQR 53-69) who had a complete functional status (PCFS grade 0) at baseline in this retrospective observational study. At 6-month follow-up, 67 (70.5%) patients had a complete functional outcome (grade 0), 9 (9.5%) had a negligible limited function (grade 1), 12 (12.6%) had a mild limited function (grade 2), 7 (7.4%) had moderate limited function (grade 3). Univariable logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between the onset symptoms of muscle or joint pain and an increased risk of incomplete function (unadjusted OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.33-12.37). This association remained after adjustment for age and admission delay (adjusted OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.06-10.81, p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: A small proportion of discharged COVID-19 patients may have an incomplete functional outcome at a 6-month follow-up; intervention strategies are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Follow-Up Studies , Functional Status , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sex Med ; 9(1): 100301, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574289

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic. In this unprecedented situation, the intimate relationship, sexual behavior, and family functions of partners have also undergone unique changes. There are few reports on whether sexual behavior and family function affect intimate relationships between partners, especially among people aged 18 to 44 years. AIM: To analyze the influence of sociodemographic characteristics, family function, and changes in sexual behavior on male-female intimacy, the independent contributions of the aforementioned factors in this population group are required to be further investigated. METHODS: In the present study, 284 Chinese citizens aged 18-44 years completed the online questionnaire. The univariate analysis and cluster multiple linear regression were used to analyze the associations between sociodemographic factors, sexual-behavior changes, family function, and male-female intimacy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Family adaptation, partnership, growth, affection, resolve (APGAR) Scale and Relationship Assessment Scale were used to evaluate participants' family function and their intimacy. Details of the participants (sociodemographic and sexual factors) were obtained. RESULTS: The summary scores, with Relationship Assessment Scale and APGAR scales, were 27.19 ± 4.49 and 6.76 ± 2.28, respectively. About 43.3% of participants reported a decrease in sexual frequency. There were considerable differences among age, education level, sexual desire, sexual satisfaction, quality of sexual life, family function with male-female intimacy (P < .05). The sexual satisfaction and intimacy demonstrated a significant positive correlation (P < .05) by cluster multiple linear regression analysis. Compared with those who had a sexual life of mediocre quality, respondents who experienced a good quality sexual life had relatively higher scores in intimacy. The independent contributions of sociodemographic factors, sexual behavior factors, and family function in male-female intimacy were 13.0%, 38.2%, and 48.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual behavior factors and family function were important independent determinants of partner intimacy among people aged 18-44 years. It can provide supportive information for health care to develop intervention plans and services to promote the harmonious development of intimate relationship. Feng Y-J, Fan Y-J, Su Z-Z, et al. Correlation of Sexual Behavior Change, Family Function, and Male-Female Intimacy Among Adults Aged 18-44 Years During COVID-19 Epidemic. Sex Med 2021;9:100301.

8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 169, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly influenced epidemiology, yet its impact on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of OHCA. We also evaluated the impact on intermediate outcomes and clinical characteristics. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from inception to May 3, 2021. Studies were included if they compared OHCA processes and outcomes between the pandemic and historical control time periods. Meta-analyses were performed for primary outcomes [annual incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate (CFR)], secondary outcomes [field termination of resuscitation (TOR), return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission, and survival to hospital discharge], and clinical characteristics (shockable rhythm and etiologies). This study was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) (CRD42021253879). RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a 39.5% increase in pooled annual OHCA incidence (p < 0.001). Pooled CFR was increased by 2.65% (p < 0.001), with a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.95 for mortality [95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.51-2.51]. There was increased field TOR (OR = 2.46, 95%CI 1.62-3.74). There were decreased ROSC (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.55-0.77), survival to hospital admission (OR = 0.65, 95%CI 0.48-0.89), and survival to discharge (OR = 0.52, 95%CI 0.40-0.69). There was decreased shockable rhythm (OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.60-0.88) and increased asphyxial etiology of OHCA (OR = 1.17, 95%CI 1.02-1.33). CONCLUSION: Compared to the pre-pandemic period, the COVID-19 pandemic period was significantly associated with increased OHCA incidence and worse outcomes.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296347

ABSTRACT

There is a continuously growing demand for emergency department (ED) services across the world, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic. Risk triaging plays a crucial role in prioritizing limited medical resources for patients who need them most. Recently the pervasive use of Electronic Health Records (EHR) has generated a large volume of stored data, accompanied by vast opportunities for the development of predictive models which could improve emergency care. However, there is an absence of widely accepted ED benchmarks based on large-scale public EHR, which new researchers could easily access. Success in filling in this gap could enable researchers to start studies on ED more quickly and conveniently without verbose data preprocessing and facilitate comparisons among different studies and methodologies. In this paper, based on the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care IV Emergency Department (MIMIC-IV-ED) database, we proposed a public ED benchmark suite and obtained a benchmark dataset containing over 500,000 ED visits episodes from 2011 to 2019. Three ED-based prediction tasks (hospitalization, critical outcomes, and 72-hour ED revisit) were introduced, where various popular methodologies, from machine learning methods to clinical scoring systems, were implemented. The results of their performance were evaluated and compared. Our codes are open-source so that anyone with access to MIMIC-IV-ED could follow the same steps of data processing, build the benchmarks, and reproduce the experiments. This study provided insights, suggestions, as well as protocols for future researchers to process the raw data and quickly build up models for emergency care.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293163

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been ravaging throughout the world for almost two years and has severely impaired both human health and the economy. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) employs the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex for genome replication and transcription, making RdRp an appealing target for antiviral drug development. Although the structure of the RdRp complex has been determined, the function of RdRp has not been fully characterized. Here we reveal that in addition to RNA dependent RNA polymerase activity, RdRp also shows exoribonuclease activity and consequently proofreading activity. We observed that RdRp and nsp14-ExoN, when combined, exhibit higher proofreading activity compared to RdRp alone. Moreover, RdRp can recognize and utilize nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) as substrate to synthesize RNA and can also incorporate β-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) into RNA while using diphosphate form molnupiravir as substrate.

11.
Sustainability ; 13(19):10597, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1468455

ABSTRACT

The Internet of Things (IoT) technology-based tracking system can reduce freight loss/damage during delivery, thereby avoiding wasting social resources. In this study, we address the issue of whether an E-retailer with a logistics arm should provide high-traceability logistics value-added service (based on IoT technology) in two customer segments and analyze their pricing decision. We found that companies always adopt IoT when equipment operation cost is low and not when the cost is high. Otherwise, the optimal IoT adoption strategy for a company depends on multiple factors, for example, the internal operation efficiency of a company. Providing high-traceability service as one kind of public service does not necessarily optimize social welfare even if the overall delivery failure is reduced. The customers’ preference for traceability significantly affects the company’s decision. Hence, we suggest that the company should implement a comprehensive investigation before launching a specific strategy.

12.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 15: 17534666211025221, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277888

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Physical inactivity is considered an important lifestyle factor for overweight and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate the association between pre-existent physical inactivity and the risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We included 164 (61.8 ± 13.6 years) patients with COVID-19 who were admitted between 15 February and 14 March 2020 in this retrospective study. We evaluated the association between pre-existent physical inactivity and severe COVID-19 using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 164 eligible patients with COVID-19, 103 (62.8%) were reported to be physically inactive. Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 [unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 6.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-22.62]. In the multivariable regression analysis, physical inactivity remained significantly associated with an increased risk of severe COVID-19 (adjusted OR 4.12, 95% CI 1.12-15.14) after adjustment for age, sex, stroke, and overweight. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that pre-existent physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of experiencing severe COVID-19. Our findings indicate that people should be encouraged to keep physically active to be at a lower risk of experiencing a severe illness when COVID-19 infection seems unpredicted.The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Sedentary Behavior , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , China , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217071

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the role of artificial intelligence (AI) as a decisive technology in the clinical management of COVID-19 patients. We aimed to systematically review and critically appraise the current evidence on AI applications for COVID-19 in intensive care and emergency settings. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, IEEE Xplore, and ACM Digital Library databases from inception to 1 October 2020, without language restrictions. We included peer-reviewed original studies that applied AI for COVID-19 patients, healthcare workers, or health systems in intensive care, emergency, or prehospital settings. We assessed predictive modelling studies and critically appraised the methodology and key findings of all other studies. Results: Of fourteen eligible studies, eleven developed prognostic or diagnostic AI predictive models, all of which were assessed to be at high risk of bias. Common pitfalls included inadequate sample sizes, poor handling of missing data, failure to account for censored participants, and weak validation of models. Conclusions: Current AI applications for COVID-19 are not ready for deployment in acute care settings, given their limited scope and poor quality. Our findings underscore the need for improvements to facilitate safe and effective clinical adoption of AI applications, for and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Artificial Intelligence , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cell Research ; 31(5):517-525, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1210136

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represent promising candidates for clinical intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated a large number of nAbs from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals capable of disrupting proper interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein and the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, the structural basis for their potent neutralizing activity remains unclear. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of the ten most potent nAbs in their native full-length IgG-form or in both IgG-form and Fab-form bound to the trimeric S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The bivalent binding of the full-length IgG is found to associate with more RBDs in the “up” conformation than the monovalent binding of Fab, perhaps contributing to the enhanced neutralizing activity of IgG and triggering more shedding of the S1 subunit from the S protein. Comparison of a large number of nAbs identified common and unique structural features associated with their potent neutralizing activities. This work provides a structural basis for further understanding the mechanism of nAbs, especially through revealing the bivalent binding and its correlation with more potent neutralization and the shedding of S1 subunit.

15.
Cell Res ; 31(5): 517-525, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139736

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represent promising candidates for clinical intervention against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We isolated a large number of nAbs from SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals capable of disrupting proper interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein and the receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, the structural basis for their potent neutralizing activity remains unclear. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of the ten most potent nAbs in their native full-length IgG-form or in both IgG-form and Fab-form bound to the trimeric S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The bivalent binding of the full-length IgG is found to associate with more RBDs in the "up" conformation than the monovalent binding of Fab, perhaps contributing to the enhanced neutralizing activity of IgG and triggering more shedding of the S1 subunit from the S protein. Comparison of a large number of nAbs identified common and unique structural features associated with their potent neutralizing activities. This work provides a structural basis for further understanding the mechanism of nAbs, especially through revealing the bivalent binding and its correlation with more potent neutralization and the shedding of S1 subunit.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/ultrastructure , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/ultrastructure , Models, Molecular , Protein Conformation , Protein Multimerization , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(21): 27056-27066, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064578

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence has confirmed meteorological factors and air pollutants affect novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no studies to date have considered the impact of interactions between meteorological factors and air pollutants on COVID-19 transmission. This study explores the association between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, and O3), meteorological factors (average temperature, diurnal temperature range, relative humidity, wind velocity, air pressure, precipitation, and hours of sunshine), and their interaction on confirmed case counts of COVID-19 in 120 Chinese cities. We modeled total confirmed cases of COVID-19 as the dependent variable with meteorological factors, air pollutants, and their interactions as the independent variables. To account for potential migration effects, we included the migration scale index (MSI) from Wuhan to each of the 120 cities included in the model, using data from 15 Jan. to 18 Mar. 2020. As an important confounding factor, MSI was considered in a negative binomial regression analysis. Positive associations were found between the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 and CO, PM2.5, relative humidity, and O3, with and without MSI-adjustment. Negative associations were also found for SO2 and wind velocity both with and without controlling for population migration. In addition, air pollutants and meteorological factors had interactive effects on COVID-19 after controlling for MSI. In conclusion, air pollutants, meteorological factors, and their interactions all affect COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
17.
chemRxiv; 2020.
Preprint | ChemRxiv | ID: ppcovidwho-471

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading and infecting the population on the global scale, it is a global health threat due to its high infection rate, high mortality and the lack of clinically approved drugs and vaccines for treating the disease (COVID-19). Utilising the published structures and homologue remodelling for proteins from SARS-CoV-2, an in silico molecular docking based screening was conducted and deposited in the Shennong project database. The results from the screening could be used to explain the clinical observation of repurposing the Ritonavir and Lopinavir to treat patients in the early stage of COVID-19 infection, and the prescription of Remdisivir in the United States as the therapy. Additionally, this molecular docking identified natural compound candidates for drug repurposing. This in silico molecular docking screen may be used for the initatial evaluation and rationalisation for drug repurposing of other potential candidates, especially other natural compounds from traditional Chinese medicines.

18.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 241, 2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with cardiovascular comorbidities are at high risk of poor outcome from COVID-19. However, how the burden (number) of vascular risk factors influences the risk of severe COVID-19 disease remains unresolved. Our aim was to investigate the association of severe COVID-19 illness with vascular risk factor burden. METHODS: We included 164 (61.8 ± 13.6 years) patients with COVID-19 in this retrospective study. We compared the difference in clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and chest computed tomography (CT) findings between patients with severe and non-severe COVID-19 illness. We evaluated the association between the number of vascular risk factors and the development of severe COVID-19 disease, using a Cox regression model. RESULTS: Sixteen (9.8%) patients had no vascular risk factors; 38 (23.2%) had 1; 58 (35.4%) had 2; 34 (20.7%) had 3; and 18 (10.9%) had ≥4 risk factors. Twenty-nine patients (17.7%) experienced severe COVID-19 disease with a median (14 [7-27] days) duration between onset to developing severe COVID-19 disease, an event rate of 4.47 per 1000-patient days (95%CI 3.10-6.43). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a gradual increase in the risk of severe COVID-19 illness (log-rank P < 0.001) stratified by the number of vascular risk factors. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidities as potential confounders, vascular risk factor burden remained associated with an increasing risk of severe COVID-19 illness. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with increasing vascular risk factor burden have an increasing risk of severe COVID-19 disease, and this population might benefit from specific COVID-19 prevention (e.g., self-isolation) and early hospital treatment measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology , Aged , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Vascular Diseases/diagnosis
19.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(2): 413-417, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-737930

ABSTRACT

The prevalence and outcomes of patients who had re-activation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge remain poorly understood. We included 126 consecutively confirmed cases of COVID-19 with 2-month follow-up data after discharge in this retrospective study. The upper respiratory specimen using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction test of three patients (71 years [60-76]) were positive within 11-20 days after their discharge, with an event rate of 19.8 (95%CI 2.60-42.1) per 1,000,000 patient-days. Moreover, all re-positive patients were asymptomatic. Our findings suggest that few recovered patients may still be virus carriers even after reaching the discharge criteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 177, 2020 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-621490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in December 2019, a substantial body of COVID-19 medical literature has been generated. As of June 2020, gaps and longitudinal trends in the COVID-19 medical literature remain unidentified, despite potential benefits for research prioritisation and policy setting in both the COVID-19 pandemic and future large-scale public health crises. METHODS: In this paper, we searched PubMed and Embase for medical literature on COVID-19 between 1 January and 24 March 2020. We characterised the growth of the early COVID-19 medical literature using evidence maps and bibliometric analyses to elicit cross-sectional and longitudinal trends and systematically identify gaps. RESULTS: The early COVID-19 medical literature originated primarily from Asia and focused mainly on clinical features and diagnosis of the disease. Many areas of potential research remain underexplored, such as mental health, the use of novel technologies and artificial intelligence, pathophysiology of COVID-19 within different body systems, and indirect effects of COVID-19 on the care of non-COVID-19 patients. Few articles involved research collaboration at the international level (24.7%). The median submission-to-publication duration was 8 days (interquartile range: 4-16). CONCLUSIONS: Although in its early phase, COVID-19 research has generated a large volume of publications. However, there are still knowledge gaps yet to be filled and areas for improvement for the global research community. Our analysis of early COVID-19 research may be valuable in informing research prioritisation and policy planning both in the current COVID-19 pandemic and similar global health crises.


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Literature , PubMed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL