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1.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909288

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have proven to be safe, effective and life-saving. However, little information is available on the neurological complications of COVID-19 vaccine. Here, we report a case who developed acute encephalomyelitis 1 week after being vaccinated with AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (AZ vaccine). Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) was also suspected. After intravenous dexamethasone and subcutaneous fondaparinux therapy, he returned to normal life without neurological sequelae. Four months later, he received Moderna COVID-19 vaccine without any sequelae.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(25): e29243, 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909028

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic disease with major clinical manifestations in the respiratory system. However, thyroid involvement has also been reported. We present a case of hypothyroidism with ventricular tachycardia following diagnosis with COVID-19. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 77-year-old man was admitted to the isolation ward due to COVID-19. After respiratory support and medical treatment, the patient was successfully weaned off the ventilator. However, an episode of short-run ventricular tachycardia was detected, and primary hypothyroidism was also diagnosed. DIAGNOSIS: Ventricular tachycardia was detected by electrocardiography. INTERVENTIONS: Intravenous amiodarone administration and oral levothyroxine replacement. OUTCOMES: No arrhythmia detected following treatment. LESSONS: Awareness of the association between hypothyroidism and COVID-19 is important in preventing possible complications.


Subject(s)
Amiodarone , COVID-19 , Hypothyroidism , Tachycardia, Ventricular , Aged , Amiodarone/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hypothyroidism/complications , Hypothyroidism/diagnosis , Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Male , Tachycardia, Ventricular/complications , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903381

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises awareness of how the fatal spreading of infectious disease impacts economic, political, and cultural sectors, which causes social implications. Across the world, strategies aimed at quickly recognizing risk factors have also helped shape public health guidelines and direct resources; however, they are challenging to analyze and predict since those events still happen. This paper intends to invesitgate the association between air pollutants and COVID-19 confirmed cases using Deep Learning. We used Delhi, India, for daily confirmed cases and air pollutant data for the dataset. We used LSTM deep learning for training the combination of COVID-19 Confirmed Case and AQI parameters over the four different lag times of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. The finding indicates that CO is the most excellent model compared with the others, having on average, 13 RMSE values. This was followed by pressure at 15, PM2.5 at 20, NO2 at 20, and O3 at 22 error rates.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis
4.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(11):6373, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857816

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic raises awareness of how the fatal spreading of infectious disease impacts economic, political, and cultural sectors, which causes social implications. Across the world, strategies aimed at quickly recognizing risk factors have also helped shape public health guidelines and direct resources;however, they are challenging to analyze and predict since those events still happen. This paper intends to invesitgate the association between air pollutants and COVID-19 confirmed cases using Deep Learning. We used Delhi, India, for daily confirmed cases and air pollutant data for the dataset. We used LSTM deep learning for training the combination of COVID-19 Confirmed Case and AQI parameters over the four different lag times of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. The finding indicates that CO is the most excellent model compared with the others, having on average, 13 RMSE values. This was followed by pressure at 15, PM2.5 at 20, NO2 at 20, and O3 at 22 error rates.

5.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 15: 1083-1088, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855205

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has reaffirmed the critical significance of effective diagnostics in outbreak response. In Taiwan, the COVID-19 wave in May 2021 led to a rapidly growing demand for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests. To meet the challenge, an extensive system-wide emergency preparedness plan, hospital emergency incident command system (HEICS), was developed to deal with emergencies involving healthcare systems. During the wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, a 19.4-fold increase in SARS-CoV-2 PCR (polymerase chain reaction) diagnostic tests occurred in the hospital. The incident commander of TCVGH reviewed COVID-19 related events daily and purchased a high-throughput PCR machine for SARS-CoV-2 PCR diagnostic tests. In addition, the Department of Operations was responsible for staff scheduling and educational training. The turn-around times of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests were shortened from 21.2 hours to 5.8 hours in the second week of the COVID-19 wave. Implementation of HEICS integrated resources could be helpful for expanding surge capacity during future outbreaks.

6.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 805-815, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817761

ABSTRACT

Veterans are a special population that has been largely ignored during the corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Veterans with COVID-19 not only suffered symptoms from the disease but also had a higher risk of further development of in-hospital complications involving multiple organs. This article aims to review the current literature on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome in veterans who contracted COVID-19 during the pandemic, using papers published between January 1, 2020 and August 1, 2021. Forty published papers were considered relevant to this review study. The COVID-19 pandemic not only caused a burden on health-care facilities but also affected the veterans population. Veterans with COVID-19 not only suffered symptoms from the disease but also had a higher risk of further development of in-hospital complications involving multiple organs. The dismal outcome might be attributed to old age and multiple comorbidities among veterans. Symptoms that may be seen in veterans with COVID-19 are comparable to those in the general population with fever, cough, and dyspnea, the most commonly reported. There are several approaches, such as self-assessment tools and virtual or telephone triage strategies, that can initially provide adequate evaluation of the symptoms related to COVID-19 in veterans. Adequate risk stratification could be carried out using the VA COVID-19 (VACO) Index, which predicts the risk of 30-day all-cause mortality after COVID-19 infection. There are several COVID-19 specific treatments that have been given to veterans; however, none of them have been proven to reduce the overall mortality in veterans. The overall mortality rate among veterans showed a declining trend. However, veterans suffering from chronic COVID-19 are at risk of dependence on activities of daily living after recovering from the illness. In summary, veterans are a special population that requires more attention especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 373-385, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686263

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread rapidly over the world and claimed million lives. The virus evolves constantly, and a swarm of mutants is a now major concern globally. Distinct variants could have independently converged on same mutation, despite being detected in different geographic regions, which suggested it could confer an evolutionary advantage. E484K has rapidly emerged and has frequently been detected in several SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. In this study, we review the epidemiology and impact of E484K, its effects on neutralizing effect of several monoclonal antibodies, convalescent plasma, and post-vaccine sera.

8.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 167-170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666859

ABSTRACT

We report a COVID-19 case with carbapenem resistant Chryseobacterium indologenes bacteremia. Whole genome sequencing identified the presence of bla IND-2, bla CIA and bla CcrA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Chryseobacterium indologenes complicating COVID-19 and the detection of bla CcrA in C. indologenes. The presence of bla CcrA in Chryseobacterium was overlooked previously may related to substantial sequence divergence with the original allele in Bacteroides fragilis. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a challenge to global health in the age of COVID-19 pandemic. Further study and surveillance of underlying mechanisms is needed.

9.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 3027-3034, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496752

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic poses a serious threat to healthcare workers and hospitalized patients. Early detection of COVID-19 cases is essential to control the spread in healthcare facilities. However, real-world data on the screening criteria for hospitalized patients remain scarce. We aimed to explore whether patients with negative results of pre-hospital screening for COVID-19 should be rescreened after admission in a low-prevalence (less than 3% of the world average) setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively included patients in central Taiwan who were negative at the first screening but were newly diagnosed with pneumonia or had a body temperature above 38 degrees Celsius during their hospitalization. Each patient might be included as an eligible case several times, and the proportions of cases who were rescreened for COVID-19 and those diagnosed with COVID-19 were calculated. A logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with rescreening. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests were used to confirm the diagnosis of COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 3549 cases eligible for COVID-19 rescreening were included. There were 242 cases (6.8%) who received rescreening. In the multivariable analysis, cases aged 75 years or older, those with potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2, or patients visiting specific departments, such as the Cardiovascular Center and Department of Neurology, were more likely to be rescreened. None was diagnosed with COVID-19 after rescreening. There was no known cluster infection outbreak in the hospital or in the local community during the study period and in the following two months. CONCLUSION: In Taiwan, a country with a low COVID-19 prevalence, it was deemed safe to rescreen only high-risk hospitalized patients. This strategy was effective and reduced unnecessary costs.

10.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(10)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438691

ABSTRACT

Some effective drugs have been approved or issued an Emergency Use Authorization for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients, but post-market surveillance is warranted to monitor adverse events. We reviewed clinical trials and case reports in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 infection who received remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab, or sarilumab. The drug-specific pharmacokinetics, toxicity, and drug interactions are summarized in this study. Remdesivir and baricitinib are small-molecule drugs that are mainly metabolized by the kidneys, while tocilizumab and sarilumab are monoclonal antibody drugs with metabolic pathways that are currently not fully understood. The most common adverse events of these drugs are alterations in liver function, but serious adverse events have rarely been attributed to them. Only a few studies have reported that remdesivir might be cardiotoxic and that baricitinib might cause thromboembolism. Biological agents such as baricitinib, tocilizumab, and sarilumab could inhibit the pathway of inflammatory processes, leading to immune dysregulation, so the risk of secondary infection should be assessed before prescribing. Further recognition of the pathogenic mechanism and risk factors of adverse events is essential for optimizing treatment strategies.

11.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 26: 308-316, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313234

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the trends in serotypes and in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline and other comparator antibiotics from 2017-2020 following implementation of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) and during the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic. METHODS: During the study period, 237 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from non-duplicate patients, covering 15.0% of IPD cases in Taiwan. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using a Sensititre® system. A latex agglutination method (ImmuLex™ Pneumotest Kit) was used to determine serotypes. RESULTS: Susceptibility rates were high for vancomycin (100%), teicoplanin (100%) and linezolid (100%), followed by ceftaroline (non-meningitis) (98.3%), moxifloxacin (94.9%) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (89.9%). MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline and omadacycline were generally low. Non-vaccine serotype 23A was the leading cause of IPD across the adult age range. Isolates of serotype 15B were slightly fewer than those of PCV-13 serotypes in patients aged ≥65 years. The overall case fatality rate was 15.2% (36/237) but was especially high for non-PCV-13 serotype 15B (21.4%; 3/14). Vaccine coverage was 44.7% for PCV-13 and 49.4% for the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV-23), but was 57% for both PCV-13 and PPSV-23. CONCLUSION: The incidence of IPD was stationary after PCV-13 introduction and only dramatically decreased in the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of dalbavancin, telavancin, tedizolid, eravacycline, omadacycline were generally low for S. pneumoniae causing adult IPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Adult , Aminoglycosides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Lipoglycopeptides , Oxazolidinones , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Serogroup , Taiwan/epidemiology , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Teicoplanin/pharmacology , Tetracyclines , Tetrazoles
12.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 794-800, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071666

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly transmitted from person to person, causing global pandemic since December 2019. Instantly detecting COVID-19 is crucial for epidemic prevention. In this study, olfactory dysfunction is a significant symptom in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients but relatively rare in other respiratory viral infections. The Taiwan smell identification test (TWSIT) is a speedy and inexpensive option for accurately distinguishing anosmia that also quantifies the degree of anosmia. Using TWSIT in the outpatient clinic for early identifying the patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 can be promising. METHODS: Nineteen patients confirmed COVID-19 in central Taiwan were collected and divided into two groups: olfactory dysfunction and non-olfactory dysfunction. Demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, and the results of the olfactory test were compared between these two groups. FINDINGS: Thirteen (68.4%) of the 19 patients had olfactory dysfunction. The patients with olfactory dysfunction were younger than those without this symptom. The statistical difference in age distribution was significant between these two groups (IQR: 25.5-35.5 vs. IQR: 32.5-60.3; p-value: 0.012). There was no significant difference in gender, smoking history, comorbidities, travel history, respiratory tract infection symptoms, and laboratory findings between these two groups. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that young adults were prone to develop olfactory dysfunctions. In the flu season, olfactory dysfunction is considered a specific screening criterion for early detecting COVID-19 in the community. TWSIT can serve as a decent test for quantifying and qualifying olfactory dysfunction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anosmia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Clin Case Rep ; 2020 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738431

ABSTRACT

Although most COVID-19 patients feel their olfactory function returns to normal, the smell test demonstrates that a mild impairment of the olfactory function may have remained. Therefore, their olfactory function should be evaluated by a smell test.

14.
Biomed J ; 43(4): 314-317, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436885

ABSTRACT

By the request of the Minister of Health and Welfare, NHRI Biobank was assigned to establish a COVID-19 biobank in early Feb, 2020 to collect COVID-19 patients' blood samples for Taiwan researchers and industries in an emergent way. It was set up in less than 3 weeks and quickly opened for application. By August 5, 2020, this COVID-19 biobank has collected 165 blood samples of 110 patients from more than 10 hospitals across north, middle and south part of Taiwan, including both COVID-19 (+) and (-) pneumonia patients. This biobank can provide applicants with biosamples, such as serum, DNA and RNA, and also the clinical and genomic data, so as to accelerate the COVID-19 treatment and prevention research in Taiwan. This COID-19 biobank already received 15 applications. It has become the most important research resource for the COVID-19 pandemic in Taiwan, including new screening reagents, disease mechanism, the variable human responses and epidemic preventions. Since it is publicly available for both academic and industrial applicants.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Specimen Banks , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taiwan/epidemiology
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