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1.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 13:984981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029976

ABSTRACT

Therapies based on orally administrated nucleic acids have significant potential for the treatment of infectious diseases, including chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and infectious and acute contagious diseases like coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is because nucleic acids could precisely regulate susceptibility genes in regulating the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines expression related to the infections. Unfortunately, gene delivery remains a major hurdle due to multiple intracellular and extracellular barriers. This review thoroughly discusses the challenges of nanoparticle-based nucleic acid gene deliveries and strategies for overcoming delivery barriers to the inflammatory sites. Oral nucleic acid delivery case studies were also present as vital examples of applications in infectious diseases such as IBD and COVID-19.

2.
World Journal of Oncology ; 13(4):172-184, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2025722

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant cancer in China. Considering the specific national conditions, no evidence is available for factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey, fielded from June 21 through June 27, 2021. A total of 944 nationally representative samples of Chinese breast cancer patients participating in the survey were included. Participant surveys included questions addressing who finished COVID-19 vaccination with the question "Have you taken the COVID-19 vaccine?", and response options were "Yes" and "No". Results: Overall, 730 (77.33%) women with breast cancer were unvaccinated, and only 214 (22.67%) were vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine. After adjusting for potential confounders, including both sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, we found that external support, including positive doctor suggestions (odds ratio (OR): 5.52;95% confidence interval (CI): 3.50 - 8.71;P < 0.0001), positive support from surrounding people (OR: 11.65;95% CI: 7.57 - 17.91;P < 0.0001), and negative initiative from the community (OR: 0.15;95% CI: 0.06 - 0.35;P < 0.0001), was associated with COVID-19 vaccination rates among breast cancer patients. These results remain stable in subgroup analyses. We found that most participants (82.52%) understood the necessity of COVID-19 vaccinations in China was strong;however, the recognition regarding the COVID-19 vaccine showed different patterns between vaccinated and unvaccinated participants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest external support, including vaccination suggestions from surgeons or oncologists, vaccination suggestions from associated people, and residents' committee mandated vaccinations, was associated with the COVID-19 vaccination rates. Interventions regarding these factors and improving publicity as well as education regarding COVID-19 vaccines among breast cancer patients are warranted.

3.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10:978159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023005

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, a tuberculosis outbreak occurred in a university in eastern China, with 4,488 students and 421 staff on the campus. A 19-year-old student was diagnosed in August 2019. Later, the first round of screening was initiated among close contacts, but no active cases were found. Till September 2020, four rounds of screening were performed. Four rounds of screening were conducted on September 9, November 8, November 22-25 in 2019 and September 2020, with 0, 5, 0 and 43 cases identified, respectively. A total of 66 active tuberculosis were found in the same university, including 4 sputum culture-positive and 7 sputum smear-positive. The total attack rate of active tuberculosis was 1.34% (66/4909). The whole-genome sequencing showed that the isolates belonged to the same L2 sub-specie and were sensitive to all tested antituberculosis drugs. Delay detection, diagnosis and report of cases were the major cause of this university tuberculosis epidemic. More attention should be paid to the asymptomatic students in the index class. After the occurrence of tuberculosis cases in schools, multiple rounds of screening should be carried out, and preventive therapy should be applied in a timely manner.

4.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022934

ABSTRACT

Based on the epidemic data of COVID-19 in 50 states of the United States (the US) from December 2021 to January 2022, the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of COVID-19 in the US are explored and analyzed. First, the retrospective spatiotemporal analysis is performed by using SaTScan 9.5, and 17 incidence areas are obtained. Second, the reliability of the results is tested by the circular distribution method in the time latitude and the clustering method in the spatial latitude, and it is confirmed that the retrospective spatiotemporal analysis accurately measures in time and reasonably divides regions according to the characteristics in space. Empirical results show that the first-level clustering area of the epidemic has six states with an average relative risk of 1.28 and the second-level clustering area includes 18 states with an average relative risk of 0.86. At present, the epidemic situation in the US continues to expand. It is necessary to do constructive work in epidemic prevention, reduce the impact of epidemic, and effectively control the spread of the epidemic.

5.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 10105395221124278, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2020939
6.
Immunology ; 03:03, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019335

ABSTRACT

Given increased acceptance of the CoronaVac, there is an unmet need to assess the safety and immunogenic changes of CoronaVac in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD). Here we comprehensively analyzed humoral and cellular responses in patient with RD after a three-dose immunization regimen of CoronaVac. RD patients with stable condition and/or low disease activity (n=40) or healthy controls (n=40) were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive CoronaVac (Sinovac). The prevalence of anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies and neutralizing antibodies was similar between HC and RD patients after the second and the third vaccination. However, the titers of anti-RBD IgG and neutralizing antibodies were significantly lower in RD patients compared to HCs (p<0.05), which was associated with an impaired T follicular helper (Tfh) cell response. Among RD patients, those who generated an antibody response displayed a significantly higher Tfh cells compared to those who failed after the first and the second vaccination (p<0.05). Interestingly, subjects with a negative serological response displayed a similar Tfh memory response to SARS-CoV-2-derived peptides as their anti-RBD IgG positive counterpart, and all (4/4) of the non-responders in HCs, and 62.5% (5/8) of the non-responders in patients with RD displayed a positive serological response following the third dose. No serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, our findings support SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with RD with stable and/or low disease activity. The impaired ability in generating vaccine-specific antibodies in patients with RD was associated with a reduction in Tfh cells induction. The window of vaccination times still needs to be explored in future studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Journal of Xi'an Jiaotong University (Medical Sciences) ; 43(5):641-645, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2010478

ABSTRACT

Objective: According to the need and practice of the National Medical Center Construction, this study structures the project communication management framework of the National Medical Center Construction based on Boyd/OODA loop and describes its background and practical path so as to explore its implementation efficiency. Methods: The theoretical framework was constructed and applied by means of lessons learned and case analysis. Results: The framework can meet various needs of project communication management of the National Medical Center Construction at different stages of epidemic prevention and control. Conclusion: The framework can improve the effectiveness, systematicness, coordination and efficiency of the National Medical Center Construction, and provide theoretical and empirical underpinning. Considerably more innovative and interdisciplinary research is needed in communication management.

8.
Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine ; 22(8):932-947, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006473

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the evidence of the experience with medical sewage treatment procedures in medical institutions in China. Methods Databases including CNKI, WanFang Data, PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO were electronically searched to collect studies on the medical sewage treatment process, flow, and specifications in medical institutions in China. We used the quality evaluation system to classify and grade the experiences based on the principles and methods of evidence-based science and performed a descriptive analysis. Results After the SARS pandemic in 2003, China systematically established and standardized the technical criteria of medical sewage treatment and discharge. Moreover, a prevention system for the epidemic using medical sewage was constructed, which guaranteed that the quality of medical sewage treatment and discharge would meet the criteria and protect the citizens, and the technical specifications of medical sewage treatment would progress and increase strictly. At present, medical sewage treatment in medical institutions in China was based on mechanical and biological methods, and disinfection was mainly performed using chlorine and its compounds, ozone, and ultraviolet light. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic requires a higher quality of medical sewage treatment and discharge criteria for medical institutions in China. To meet these criteria, all medical institutions in China should check, replace, and update their old facilities;strengthen personnel training and effectively ensure the quality of medical sewage treatment.

9.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1974653

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the spatiotemporal patterns of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric vertical column densities (TVCDs) before and during the second wave of COVID-19 in India. The results indicate that the NO2 columns increase significantly in the reopening period before the second wave (Mar. 1 ∼ Apr. 20) in 2021, which exceed the levels of the same period in 2019. The relative difference from the mean of 2010–2019 is 18.76% higher in 2021 than that of 2019, during the reopening. The paper identifies Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and West Bengal as the five states with the largest increases in relative difference from 2019 to 2021, which are 33.81%, 29.83%, 23.86%, 30.01%, and 25.48% respectively. As illustrated by trends in the indices of industrial production (IIP), these unexpected increases in tropospheric NO2 can be attributed to reopening as well as elevated production across various sectors including electricity, manufacturing and mining. Analysis of NO2 TVCD levels alongside IIPs indicate a marked increase in industrial activity during the reopening period in 2021 than in the same time period in 2019. After the beginning of the second wave of COVID-19 (Apr. 21 ∼ Jun. 21), India re-implemented lockdown policies to mitigate the spread of the pandemic. During this period, the relative difference of total NO2 columns declined in India as well as in most individual study regions, when compared to 2019, due to the pandemic mitigation policies. The relative declines are as follows: 6.43% for the whole country and 14.25%, 22.88%, 4.57% and 7.89% for Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhan, respectively, which contain large industrial clusters. The change in relative difference in West Bengal from 2019 to 2021 is not significant during the re-lockdown period with a 0.04% increase. As with the first wave, these decreases in NO2 TVCD mainly due to the mitigation policies during the second wave. Copyright © 2022 Liu, Srirenganathanmalarvizhi, Howell and Yang.

10.
China Biotechnology ; 42(5):146-153, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1934650

ABSTRACT

With the increasing exhaustion of global resources, various countries have explored bioeconomy as an economic model that can cope with environmental, climate,resource problems and food security crisis. China recently released the " 14th Five-Year Plan for Bioeconomy Development", raising the bioeconomy to the level of national strategic development for the first time. Based on the innovation of life science and biotechnology, emerging industries have come into being in bioeconomy including biomedicine, bioagriculture, biomanufacturing and bioenergy. Bioeconomy is an economic development model with great potential for sustainable development in the future. This paper summarizes the evolution law of the global bioeconomy, the development of the bioeconomy worldwide and the industrial development of Chinese bioeconomy. Moreover, under the complex situation in a time of unprecedented global changes in a century and the COVID-19 epidemic, the relevant countermeasures to cope with challenges and suggestions on Chinese future are put forward. © 2022, China Biotechnology Press. All rights reserved.

11.
2021 International Conference on Computer Application and Information Security, ICCAIS 2021 ; 12260, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1932601

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 plays role in every part of the world;especially, it does harm to lives of people. Thus, COVID-19 sounds the alarm that is very important to build an effective mechanism to help prevent pandemic disease. In this work, dynamic network based on status value is built, which aims to help simulate the added danger level by the addition of infected people or close contacts. First, each node of this network is labelled with different kinds of status which has special value to show its danger degree. Then, the weight of the network represents the relationship of nodes;with the value of each node, average length and average spread of danger level is calculated based on the accumulation of dynamic weight. Thus, epidemic speed and scope of the infectious disease can be simulated. Moreover, the experiments compared to other networks have verified the effectiveness of our model. © The Authors.

12.
14th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, CCD 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 ; 13313 LNCS:230-240, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919665

ABSTRACT

Social media is one of the most significant sources of information in modern people’s life. Due to the large quantity of user base and public opinions, when people read a blog post, the different tendencies of comments may affect their views on the event to a certain extent. This paper, taking the COVID-19 epidemic as an example, investigated the impact of Weibo (a popular social software in China) comments on readers’ sentiments. In this paper, text mining technology was adopted to collect data including the blogs and the comments under each blog, and the NLPIR-Parser platform was used to analyze the sentiment of the comments. Finally, the conclusion that the sentiments of other comments tend to follow the sentiments of the first comments was drawn. Based on the research results, this paper also gave some enlightenment on social media management and suggestions of public opinions oversight. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Chinese Journal of New Drugs ; 31(10):972-977, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1894105

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the implementation and management measures of drug clinical trials during the period of COVID-19 epidemic, protect the safety and rights of subjects, ensure the smooth implementation of clinical trials, and provide reference and suggestions for the management work of clinical trial institutions. Methods: According to the requirements of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control policies and the national guiding principles for drug clinical trial management, combining the experience of our hospital, we optimized the working process and proposed management measures in four aspects including project and personnel management, subject follow-up management, drug distribution management, and communication between all parties involved in clinical trials. Results and conclusions: During the period of COVID-19 epidemic, our hospital has taken a series of measures which ensured the smooth implementation of more than 200 drug clinical trials and protected the safety and rights of subjects and researchers.

14.
Journal of International Students ; 12(Special Issue 1):83-90, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863667

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disrupts regular educational order and poses significant challenges to international education. In the face of the uncertain development of the pandemic, Tsinghua University has been actively exploring to build a more resilient education system by further promoting convergence management of the local and international students. Based on the organization system theory, we explain the necessity of convergence management, review Tsinghua’s responses to the COVID-19 crisis, and introduce the practices in building a more resilient education system, and discuss the future for promoting system resilience. © Journal of International Students.

15.
Embase; 2020.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337377

ABSTRACT

Computational approaches for accurate prediction of drug interactions, such as drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and drug-target interactions (DTIs), are highly demanded for biochemical researchers due to the efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Despite the fact that many methods have been proposed and developed to predict DDIs and DTIs respectively, their success is still limited due to a lack of systematic evaluation of the intrinsic properties embedded in the corresponding chemical structure. In this paper, we develop a deep learning framework, named DeepDrug, to overcome the above limitation by using residual graph convolutional networks (RGCNs) and convolutional networks (CNNs) to learn the comprehensive structural and sequential representations of drugs and proteins in order to boost the DDIs and DTIs prediction accuracy. We benchmark our methods in a series of systematic experiments, including binary-class DDIs, multi-class/multi-label DDIs, binary-class DTIs classification and DTIs regression tasks using several datasets. We then demonstrate that DeepDrug outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and robustness in predicting DDIs and DTIs with multiple experimental settings. Furthermore, we visualize the structural features learned by DeepDrug RGCN module, which displays compatible and accordant patterns in chemical properties and drug categories, providing additional evidence to support the strong predictive power of DeepDrug. Ultimately, we apply DeepDrug to perform drug repositioning on the whole DrugBank database to discover the potential drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2, where 3 out of 5 top-ranked drugs are reported to be repurposed to potentially treat COVID-19. To sum up, we believe that DeepDrug is an efficient tool in accurate prediction of DDIs and DTIs and provides a promising insight in understanding the underlying mechanism of these biochemical relations. The source code of the DeepDrug can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/wanwenzeng/deepdrug.

16.
Epidemiology ; 70(SUPPL 1):S306, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1854027

ABSTRACT

Background: The psychological well-being of older adults may have been negatively affected by the outbreak of the COVID- 19 epidemic due to the presence of comorbidity, increased risk of complications, mortality, and difficulty in adapting to mhealth and social isolation. The study aimed to investigate the anxiety level of community older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic and explore its associated factors, so that there can be more evidence-based advice to improve the mental health status for the older adults. Methods: Online questionnaires and face to face communication were used to investigate 320 community older adults, who were selected randomly. The questionnaires were used to investigate the sociodemographic characteristics, anxiety and resilience level of the participants. One-way ANOVA, correlation and regression analysis were performed to explore the factors associated with the anxiety among the older adults. Results: The mean of the anxiety among the all participants is 44.03±10.89 and 128 persons (40%) suffer from the anxiety (mild anxiety: 84.38%, moderate anxiety: 14.06%, severe anxiety: 14.06%). The mean of resilience is 56.68±18.26, and the three dimensions of CD-RISC is negative correlation with the anxiety. The SAS can be influenced by the chronic disease history (P=0.045), physical health conditions (P=0.024), economic income (P=0.026), the health education of the COVID-19 epidemic (P<0.001) and the level of resilience (P=0.002). Conclusions: The morbidity and score of the anxiety among the community older adults are higher during the COVID-19 epidemic than the usual. While the score of the CD-RISC is lower than the previous studies. Anxiety emerged as a prominent issue for community- dwelling older adults during the COVID-19 epidemic. Interventions that targeted resilience may have the potential to reduce anxiety level and improve the psychological well-being of the older adults.

17.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 57(5): 455-461, 2022 May 09.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818247

ABSTRACT

Today, there is greater awareness on the association between oral diseases and respiration diseases after the outbreak of COVID-19. However, confusion regarding the oral health management and medical risk prevention for patients with chronic airway diseases has been remained among dental clinicians. Therefore, the dental experts of the Fifth General Dentistry Special Committee, Chinese Stomatological Association, combined with the experts of respiratory and critical care medicine, undertook the formation of consensus on the oral health management of patients with chronic airway diseases in order to help dental clinicians to evaluate medical risks and make better treatment decision in clinical practice. In the present consensus report, the relationship of oral diseases and chronic airway diseases, the oral health management and the treatment recommendations of patients with chronic airway diseases are provided.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oral Medicine , Consensus , Humans , Oral Health
18.
Acta Medica Mediterranea ; 38(2):1099-1102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798617

ABSTRACT

Objective: In this example, the patient accidentally fell from 8 meters high, causing trauma to the patient’s chest with tracheal laceration and ‘white lung’ in both lungs. The patient lost respiratory function and was using a breathing machine with 100% pure oxygen while still maintaining 80% oxygen saturation. Routine tracheal intubation under general anaesthesia could potentially cause patient death during the operation. The objective was to assess the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in surgery to repair the patient’s tracheal laceration. Methods: The thoracic surgery department applied hybrid surgery combined with ECMO to rescue the patient. With the support of ECMO, the patient’s intraoperative vital signs were stable, blood oxygen saturation was 100% and the surgery for repairing the laceration with fibreoptic bronchoscopy was successfully completed. Results: The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. Conclusion: ECMO has successfully treated many critically ill COVID-19 patients during the pandemic, but this is the first time in China that ECMO has been applied to patients suffering from multiple critical injuries such as chest trauma and tracheal laceration.

19.
Microbiology Spectrum ; 10(1):13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1790201

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an unprecedented event requiring frequent adaptation to changing clinical circumstances. Convalescent immune plasma (CIP) is a promising treatment that can be mobilized rapidly in a pandemic setting. We tested whether administration of SARS-CoV-2 CIP at hospital admission could reduce the rate of ICU transfer or 28-day mortality or alter levels of specific antibody responses before and after CIP infusion. In a single-arm phase II study, patients >18 years-old with respiratory symptoms with confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to a non-ICU bed were administered two units of CIP within 72 h of admission. Levels of SARS-CoV-2 detected by PCR in the respiratory tract and circulating anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers were sequentially measured before and after CIP transfusion. Twenty-nine patients were transfused high titer CIP and 48 contemporaneous comparable controls were identified. All classes of antibodies to the three SARS-CoV-2 target proteins were significantly increased at days 7 and 14 post-transfusion compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Anti-nucleocapsid IgA levels were reduced at day 28, suggesting that the initial rise may have been due to the contribution of CIP. The groups were well-balanced, without statistically significant differences in demographics or co-morbidities or use of remdesivir or dexamethasone. In participants transfused with CIP, the rate of ICU transfer was 13.8% compared to 27.1% for controls with a hazard ratio 0.506 (95% CI 0.165-1354), and 28-day mortality was 6.9% compared to 10.4% for controls, hazard ratio 0.640 (95% CI 0.124-3.298). IMPORTANCE Transfusion of high-titer CIP to non-critically ill patients early after admission with COVID-19 respiratory disease was associated with significantly increased anti-SARSCoV-2 specific antibodies (compared to baseline) and a non-significant reduction in Ku transfer and death (compared to controls). This prospective phase II trial provides a suggestion that the antiviral effects of CIP from early in the COVID-19 pandemic may delay progression to critical illness and death in specific patient populations. This study informs the optimal timing and potential population of use for CIP in COVID-19, particularly in settings without access to other interventions, or in planning for future coronavirus pandemics.

20.
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1788788

ABSTRACT

With the increase in inevitable large-scale crowd aggregation, disastrous pedestrian stampedes occurred with increasing frequency over the past decade. To prevent these tragedies, it is significant to assess crowd accident-risk (CAR) and identify high-risk areas to control crowd flow dynamically. The cost function of a conventional fluid dynamics model is improved with new items of Gaussian white noise and protection factor, considering both the abnormal pedestrian movements and social distance control due to epidemic, thereby to establish an improved crowd flow model comprehensively. Different from conventional density-based pedestrian aggregation-risk models, this study proposes a hybrid crowd accident-risk assessment (HCRA) model based on internal energy and information entropy. Using the HCRA model, we can consider not only crowd density but also the modulus and direction of a crowd velocity vector simultaneously. Then this study designs a framework to realize crowd accident risk assessment based on the improved crowd-flow model and HCRA model. To validate the proposed models, case studies of CAR assessment in the large-scale waiting hall of the Shanghai Hongqiao railway station are conducted. The pedestrian social control distance-range of 1.0 m-2.0 m under the COVID-19 epidemic situation is verified numerically. Moreover, a valuable result is that this social control distance-range can be shortened to 1.0 m-1.9 m without increase of crow accident-risk. Subsequently, the down-limit of accommodation-capacity of this large waiting hall can be enhanced to 10.54%under this epidemic. IEEE

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