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1.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics ; 2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907055

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new RNA virus affecting humans and spreads extensively through world populations since its first outbreak in December, 2019. Whether the transmissibility and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in humans after zoonotic transfer are actively evolving, and driven by adaptation to the new host and environments is still under debate. Understanding the evolutionary mechanism underlying epidemiological and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 is essential for predicting the epidemic trend, and providing guidance for disease control and treatments. Interrogating novel strategies for identifying natural selection using within-species polymorphisms and 3,674,076 SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences of 169 countries as of December 30, 2021, we demonstrate with population genetic evidence that during the course of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in humans, (i) SARS-CoV-2 genomes are overall conserved under purifying selection, especially for the 14 genes related to viral RNA replication, transcription, and assembly; (ii) Ongoing positive selection is actively driving the evolution of 6 genes (e.g., S, ORF3a, and N) that play critical roles in molecular processes involving pathogen-host interactions, including viral invasion into and egress from host cells, viral inhibition, or evasion of host immune response, possibly leading to high transmissibility and mild symptom in SARS-CoV-2 evolution. According to an established haplotype phylogenetic relationship of 138 viral clusters, a spatial and temporal landscape of 556 critical mutations is constructed based on their divergence among viral haplotype clusters or repeatedly increase in frequency within at least 2 clusters, of which multiple mutations potentially conferring alterations in viral transmissibility, pathogenicity, and virulence of SARS-CoV-2 are highlighted, warranting attentions.

2.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(5):751-754, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903998

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the progression of depressive and anxiety symptoms of children, especially whose parents were frontline workers in the combat of the coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19), and to provide evidence for children's mental health promotion.

3.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(5):727-730, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903997

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the changes of depressive and anxiety symptoms in school-aged children during home confinement and to identify possible influence of learning and lifestyle behaviors on mental health changes.

4.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(5):679-684, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903996

ABSTRACT

Children were vulnerable groups in major public health emergencies. In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was widespread in the world. The mental health of school-age children has become a worldwide concern. Herein, we conducted this review to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of general children and special children with a high risk of psychological problems, focusing on the prevalence of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder among school-age children in different countries and regions during the COVID-19 epidemic. Considering the susceptibility between individuals and the accessibility of social resources, we further explored the child, family, and social related factors affecting the mental health of school-age children. Finally, some suggestions on the construction of children's mental health service system in major public health emergencies were put forward at the national, school-family-community, and individual levels. Building a safe and reliable child mental health protection network required the joint efforts of all sectors of society.

5.
Viruses ; 14(7):1349, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894096

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in unprecedented morbidity and mortality worldwide. The host cells use a number of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) for early detection of coronavirus infection, and timely interferon secretion is highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the virus has developed many strategies to delay interferon secretion and disarm cellular defense by intervening in interferon-associated signaling pathways on multiple levels. As a result, some COVID-19 patients suffered dramatic susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, while another part of the population showed only mild or no symptoms. One hypothesis suggests that functional differences in innate immune integrity could be the key to such variability. This review tries to decipher possible interactions between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human antiviral interferon sensors. We found that SARS-CoV-2 actively interacts with PRR sensors and antiviral pathways by avoiding interferon suppression, which could result in severe COVID-19 pathogenesis. Finally, we summarize data on available antiviral pharmaceutical options that have shown potential to reduce COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in recent clinical trials.

6.
Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing (Online) ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1857271

ABSTRACT

Schooling system is rapidly shifting according to time. The 4G and 5G machineries are engineered to work flawlessly in heterogeneous platforms unlike 2G, 3G, and 4G wireless networks. New educational techniques are introduced for different environmental needs and E-learning, which is getting popular around the world, and wireless networking plays the vital role in it. E-learning is the requirement of every educational institute. There are a number of problems in the existing prototypes which need to be addressed and improved. This study provides the prototype for E-learning to make the higher education system more efficient. Especially, for the students who need distance learning and an online learning system, this research proposes a user-friendly cloud network infrastructure environment. Machine learning and cloud have strong relation in cloud computing;we store big amount of customer data but to analyze the data and create chatbots, we need machine learning algorithms. We need to enhance the existing prototype for the betterment of the higher education system in rural areas such a time of this COVID-19 pandemic. For this purpose, the existing prototype is critically examined. To achieve this factor why and how E-learning is familiar to the students of rural areas in developing countries, it was analyzed, as the method of education using a platform and interpreting the results. The researcher tried to discover the reason why E-learning is not being applied in higher education. Furthermore, attempts were made to change the existing model by adding the component “Cloud-based structure” that complements and fits the environment of the education system and benefits the long-term sustainability of higher education.

7.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 186: 114317, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821096

ABSTRACT

In the past decades, phytoconstituents have appeared as critical mediators for immune regulations among various diseases, both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These bioactive molecules, showing a broad range of biological functions, would hold tremendous promise for developing new therapeutics. The discovery of phytoconstituents' capability of functionally regulating immune cells and associating cytokines, suppressing systemic inflammation, and remodeling immunity have rapidly promoted the idea of their employment as anti-inflammatory agents. In this review, we discuss various roles of phyto-derived medicines in the field of inflammatory diseases, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and acute inflammatory disease such as COVID-19. Nevertheless, traditional phyto-derived medicines often concurred with their clinical administration limitations, such as their lack of cell specificity, inefficient cytoplasmic delivery, and rapid clearance by the immune system. As alternatives, phyto-derived nano-approaches may provide significant benefits. Both unmodified and engineered nanocarriers present the potential to serve as phytoconstituent delivery systems to improve therapeutic physio-chemical properties and pharmacokinetic profiles. Thus, the development of phytoconstituents' nano-delivery designs, their new and perspective approaches for therapeutical applications are elaborated herein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanomedicine , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations
8.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 809107, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818021

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children are rarely reported. We aimed to investigate the progression of depressive and anxiety symptoms among a cohort of children in the initial epicenter of COVID-19 in China. Methods: Two waves of surveys were conducted in the same two primary schools in Wuhan and Huangshi, Hubei province: Wave 1 from 28 February to 5 March, 2020 (children had been confined to home for 30-40 days) and Wave 2 from 27 November to 9 December, 2020 (schools had reopened for nearly 3 months). Depressive and anxiety symptoms were estimated using the Children's Depression Inventory - Short Form (CDI-S) and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), respectively. ΔCDI-S and ΔSCARED scores between Wave 2 and Wave 1 were calculated and further categorized into tertiles. Multivariable linear regression and multinomial logistic regression models were then applied. Results: A total of 1,224 children completed both surveys. The prevalence of mental health outcomes at Wave 2 increased significantly compared to Wave 1, specifically depressive symptoms (age-standardized prevalence rates: 37.5 vs. 21.8%) and anxiety symptoms (age-standardized prevalence rates: 24.0 vs. 19.6%). Higher ΔSCARED scores were observed in females and children in Wuhan, and children with experience of neglect had higher ΔCDI-S (ß = 1.12; 95% CI = 0.67-1.58) and ΔSCARED (ß = 6.46; 95% CI = 4.73-8.19) scores compared with those without experience of neglect. When the Δ scores were further categorized into tertiles, similar results were found. Conclusions: The prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms after schools resumed was increased compared with that during the home quarantine period, even though the COVID-19 pandemic was under control. Females and children in Wuhan, and also children with experience of neglect were at increased risk of mental health disorders.

9.
Bioinformatics ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815994

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: Intracellular communication is crucial to many biological processes, such as differentiation, development, homeostasis, and inflammation. Single cell transcriptomics provides an unprecedented opportunity for studying cell-cell communications mediated by ligand-receptor interactions. Although computational methods have been developed to infer cell type-specific ligand-receptor interactions from one single cell transcriptomics profile, there is lack of approaches considering ligand and receptor simultaneously to identifying dysregulated interactions across conditions from multiple single cell profiles. RESULTS: We developed scLR, a statistical method for examining dysregulated ligand-receptor interactions between two conditions. scLR models the distribution of the product of ligands and receptors expressions and accounts for inter-sample variances and small sample sizes. scLR achieved high sensitivity and specificity in simulation studies. scLR revealed important cytokine signaling between macrophages and proliferating T cells during severe acute COVID-19 infection, and activated TGF-ß signaling from alveolar type II cells in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. AVAILABILITY: scLR is freely available at https://github.com/cyhsuTN/scLR. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 226: 103571, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is profoundly affecting lives around the globe. Previous studies on COVID-19 mainly focused on epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of patients with confirmed infection. Little attention has been paid to the follow-up of recovered patients. As a vulnerable population to adverse events, the health status of the COVID-19 recovered pediatric patients is of great concern. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric patients recovered from the COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. METHODS: A total of 122 children who were suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases and hospitalized for treatment were enrolled in the study between April 2020 and May 2020 in Wuhan, China. We collected related information about hospitalization and discharge of the children and emotional symptoms of their parents through electronic medical records and questionnaire. The behavioral problems of children were examined by applying the parent-reported the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). RESULTS: The participant children were discharged from hospital after about two months. Among them, 76 (62%) were boys, and the mean age was 6.71 years old. The highest prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric children with COVID-19 was for prosocial behavior (15%), followed by total difficulties (13%), emotional symptoms (11%), hyperactivity (10%), conduct problems (9%), and peer problems (1%). With regarding to their parents, 26% reported having symptoms of anxiety and 23% as having symptoms of depression. The scores of SDQ were higher in those children whose parents have emotional problems compared to parents without. CONCLUSION: Long-term follow up studies on the psychological and behavioral problems of COVID-19 recovered children and their parents are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Problem Behavior , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Problem Behavior/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Aging Dis ; 13(2): 402-422, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776699

ABSTRACT

In addition to the rapid, global spread of SARS-CoV-2, new and comparatively more contagious variants are of considerable concern. These emerging mutations have become a threat to the global public health, creating COVID-19 surges in different countries. However, information on these emerging variants is limited and scattered. In this review, we discuss new variants that have emerged worldwide and identify several variants of concern, such as B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2 and B.1.1.529, and their basic characteristics. Other significant variants such as C.37, B.1.621, B.1.525, B.1.526, AZ.5, C.1.2, and B.1.617.1 are also discussed. This review highlights the clinical characteristics of these variants, including transmissibility, pathogenicity, susceptible population, and re-infectivity. It provides the latest information on the recent variants of SARS-CoV-2. The summary of this information will help researchers formulate reasonable strategies to curb the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Biomolecules ; 12(3)2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760346

ABSTRACT

Prokaryotic Argonautes (pAgos) from mesophilic bacteria are attracting increasing attention for their genome editing potential. So far, it has been reported that KmAgo from Kurthia massiliensis can utilize DNA and RNA guide of any sequence to effectively cleave DNA and RNA targets. Here we find that three active pAgos, which have about 50% sequence identity with KmAgo, possess typical DNA-guided DNA target cleavage ability. Among them, RsuAgo from Rummeliibacillus suwonensis is mainly explored for which can cleave both DNA and RNA targets. Interestingly, RsuAgo-mediated RNA target cleavage occurs only with short guide DNAs in a narrow length range (16-20 nt), and mismatches between the guide and target sequence greatly affect the efficiency of RNA target cleavage. RsuAgo-mediated target cleavage shows a preference for a guide strand with a 5'-terminal A residue. Furthermore, we have found that RsuAgo can cleave double-stranded DNA in a low-salt buffer at 37 °C. These properties of RsuAgo provide a new tool for DNA and RNA manipulation at moderate temperatures.


Subject(s)
Argonaute Proteins , Bacterial Proteins , Argonaute Proteins/genetics , Bacteria/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , DNA/chemistry , Endonucleases , Planococcaceae , RNA
13.
Acta psychologica ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1749830

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is profoundly affecting lives around the globe. Previous studies on COVID-19 mainly focused on epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of patients with confirmed infection. Little attention has been paid to the follow-up of recovered patients. As a vulnerable population to adverse events, the health status of the COVID-19 recovered pediatric patients is of great concern. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric patients recovered from the COVID-19 in Wuhan, China. Methods A total of 122 children who were suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases and hospitalized for treatment were enrolled in the study between April 2020 and May 2020 in Wuhan, China. We collected related information about hospitalization and discharge of the children and emotional symptoms of their parents through electronic medical records and questionnaire. The behavioral problems of children were examined by applying the parent-reported the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results The participant children were discharged from hospital after about two months. Among them, 76 (62%) were boys, and the mean age was 6.71 years old. The highest prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric children with COVID-19 was for prosocial behavior (15%), followed by total difficulties (13%), emotional symptoms (11%), hyperactivity (10%), conduct problems (9%), and peer problems (1%). With regarding to their parents, 26% reported having symptoms of anxiety and 23% as having symptoms of depression. The scores of SDQ were higher in those children whose parents have emotional problems compared to parents without. Conclusion Long-term follow up studies on the psychological and behavioral problems of COVID-19 recovered children and their parents are warranted.

14.
Ren Fail ; 44(1): 415-425, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730388

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine has been widely used as part of the standard treatment for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine increases the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed and Embase were searched for related publications from inception to Dec 31, 2021, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies of interventions (NRSIs) comparing the risk of AKI and/or increased creatinine in COVID-19 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine and other controls (active treatment and placebo). We conducted separate meta-analyses for RCTs and NRSIs based on fixed-effect model, with odds ratios (ORs) being considered as effect sizes. RESULTS: We included 21 studies in the analysis, with 12 were RCTs. Based on the RCTs, compared to placebo, the OR was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 1.64; p = .30, n = 4, moderate quality) for AKI and 1.00 (95%CI: 0.64, 1.56; p = .99, n = 5, moderate quality) for increased creatinine for patients received hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine treatment; compared to active treatment, the odds was 1.28 (95%CI: 0.65, 2.53; p = .47, n = 2, low quality) for AKI and 0.64 (95%CI: 0.13, 3.20; p = .59, n = 1, low quality) for increased creatine. Evidence from NRSIs showed slightly increased odds of AKI, with low quality. CONCLUSION: Based on current available studies which were graded as low to moderate quality, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine use is associated with increased risk of AKI or raised creatinine. Abbreviations: AKI: acute kidney injury; COVID-19: Coronavirus Disease 2019; RCT: randomized controlled trials; NRSI: non-randomized studies of interventions; OR: odds ratios; ROBIS-I: Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Humans
15.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714302

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and explore its related factors among undergraduates during widespread online learning in China. DESIGN AND METHODS: The online survey was conducted in April 2020. The Young diagnostic questionnaire and academic burnout scale were respectively used to measure IA and academic burnout. FINDINGS: A total of 28.4% of 7562 participants developed IA, which correlated with academic burnout. Additionally, positive attitude and practice towards COVID-19 and exercise were protective factors of it. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: IA was associated with academic burnout, and better cognition of COVID-19 and positive lifestyles might reduce its risk.

16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 23(12): 1240-1254, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699219

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles and exomere nanoparticles are under intense investigation as sources of clinically relevant cargo. Here we report the discovery of a distinct extracellular nanoparticle, termed supermere. Supermeres are morphologically distinct from exomeres and display a markedly greater uptake in vivo compared with small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. The protein and RNA composition of supermeres differs from small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. Supermeres are highly enriched with cargo involved in multiple cancers (glycolytic enzymes, TGFBI, miR-1246, MET, GPC1 and AGO2), Alzheimer's disease (APP) and cardiovascular disease (ACE2, ACE and PCSK9). The majority of extracellular RNA is associated with supermeres rather than small extracellular vesicles and exomeres. Cancer-derived supermeres increase lactate secretion, transfer cetuximab resistance and decrease hepatic lipids and glycogen in vivo. This study identifies a distinct functional nanoparticle replete with potential circulating biomarkers and therapeutic targets for a host of human diseases.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Nanoparticles/metabolism , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Biological Transport/physiology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cell Communication/physiology , Cell Line, Tumor , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lactic Acid/metabolism , MicroRNAs/genetics , Nanoparticles/classification , Neoplasms/pathology , Tumor Microenvironment
17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324233

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is profoundly affecting lives around the globe, and up to now, a large of patients have clinically recovered from their initial illness. As the vulnerable population to adverse events, the effect of the COVID-19 outbreak on pediatric recovered patients are of great concern, but relevant researches are limited. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection after discharge. Methods: : A total of 122 children who were suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases and hospitalized for treatment were enrolled in the study between April 2020 and May 2020 in Wuhan, China. We collected related information about hospitalization and discharge for the children and emotional symptoms for their parents through electronic medical records and questionnaire. The behavioral problems for children were examined applying the parent-reported the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The participant children were discharged from hospital for about two months. Among them, 76 (62%) were boys, and the mean age were 6.71 years old. The highest prevalence of behavioral problems among pediatric children with COVID-19 was 15% (prosocial behavior), followed by 13% (total difficulties), 11% (emotional symptoms), 10% (hyperactivity), 9% (conduct problems), and 1% (peer problems). With regarding to their parents, 26% of them reported having anxiety symptoms and 23% having depression symptoms. Compared with children without anxious or depressive parents, the scores of SDQ were higher in children whose parents have emotional problems. Conclusions: : The long-term follow up studies on the psychological and behavioral problems of children infected with COVID-19 and their parents are warranted.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323579

ABSTRACT

Background: The initial mechanism of COVID-19 is the binding of the virus to ACE2. Since the heart and the vessels also express ACE2, they both could become targets of the virus. However, cardiac performance of patients in ICU and general ward may be different, requested individualized treatment. The aim of this study is to explore the global and segmental myocardial performance of the severe and mild COVID-19 patients. Methods: : 45 patients, including 25 mild and 20 severe patients in intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 infection were included in this study. The clinical history, laboratory test and standard and strain echocardiography were performed at admission. Of them, 13 severe patients received serial echocardiography, especially, 10 patients received echocardiographic examinations more than 7 times. Results: : 1. Both mild and severe COVID-19 infected patients showed reduced cardiac diastolic function;2. Severe patients in ICU exhibited exacerbated right ventricular systolic function;3. Both mild and severe patients with COVID-19 showed impaired left ventricular strain, worse strain in severe patient. 4. The apical longitudinal strain of mild patients was higher than basal and middle segment. No difference among apical, middle and basal segments in severe patients. 5. There was a negative correlation between LV GLS and log TnT-hs, as well as NT-pro BNP. 6. The EF value and strain of left atrium of mild and severe patients decreased;7. LV GLS, LV GCS and LA GLS area under the ROC curve to predict the disease severity were 0.698, 0.758 and 0.782 respectively. 8. In the follow-up of severe patients, left atrial and ventricular strain showed an increased trend. Conclusions: : These findings suggested that left ventricular performance was subclinically impaired during COVID-9 infection irrespective of infection severity and the strain of LV and LA may predict the disease severity. The cardiac function had an increasing trend for severe patients treated in ICU.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318920

ABSTRACT

Background: Moderate cases account for the majority in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and can also progress to severe/critical condition. Here, we investigated the clinical course and management of hospitalized moderate SARS-CoV-2 patients. Methods: : The medical records and follow-up data were analyzed from the SARS-CoV-2 patients outside Wuhan. Results: : A total of 73 moderate patients (38 men, 35 women) were included, with median age of 47.0 (38.5-57.5) years. Among them, only one patient (1.4%) died using active treatment to improve symptoms. The median duration of the four main symptoms cough, fever, chest tightness, and fatigue were about 1-2 weeks;the median duration of the positive nucleic acid test (NAT) results for SARS-CoV-2 was slightly more than 2 weeks;the median hospitalization time was almost four weeks in 72 moderate survivors. The duration of cough and fever was positively correlated with the duration of the positive NAT results. On admission, 50% had lymphopenia;less than 30% had abnormal blood biochemistry findings involving hyperglycemia, liver function and myocardial enzymes. At discharge, the laboratory indexes were substantially improved. Two weeks after discharge, 5.6% survivors experienced a recurrence of the positive NAT results. Conclusions: : Moderate SARS-CoV-2 patients have a good prognosis by the active treatment. After discharge, it is necessary that moderate survivors undergo at least a 2-week collective medical observation in quarantine places, which can identify and treat a proportion of patients with re-positive NAT results and to prevent the spread of the potential sources of infection.

20.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315641

ABSTRACT

High-quality education is one of the keys to achieving a more sustainable world. The recent COVID-19 epidemic has triggered the outbreak of online education, which has enabled both students and teachers to learn and teach at home. Meanwhile, it is now possible to record and research a large amount of learning data using online learning platforms in order to offer better intelligent educational services. Knowledge Tracing (KT), which aims to monitor students' evolving knowledge state, is a fundamental and crucial task to support these intelligent services. Therefore, an increasing amount of research attention has been paid to this emerging area and considerable progress has been made. In this survey, we propose a new taxonomy of existing basic KT models from a technical perspective and provide a comprehensive overview of these models in a systematic manner. In addition, many variants of KT models have been proposed to capture more complete learning process. We then review these variants involved in three phases of the learning process: before, during, and after the student learning, respectively. Moreover, we present several typical applications of KT in different educational scenarios. Finally, we provide some potential directions for future research in this fast-growing field.

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