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1.
Front Psychol ; 13: 944049, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933853

ABSTRACT

Conducting emotion analysis and generating users' feedback from social media platforms may help understand their emotional responses to video products, such as a documentary on the lockdown of Wuhan during COVID-19. The results of emotion analysis could be used to make further user recommendations for marketing purposes. In our study, we try to understand how users respond to a documentary through YouTube comments. We chose "The lockdown: One month in Wuhan" YouTube documentary, and applied emotion analysis as well as a machine learning approach to the comments. We first cleaned the data and then introduced an emotion analysis based on the statistical characteristics and lexicon combination. After that, we applied the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling approach to further generate main topics with keywords from the comments and visualized the distribution by visualizing the topics. The result shows trust (22.8%), joy (15.4%), and anticipation (17.6%) are the most prominent emotions dominating the comments. The major three themes, which account for 70% of all comments, are discussing stories about fighting against the virus, medical workers being heroes, and medical workers being respected. Further discussion has been conducted on the changing of different sentiments over time for the ongoing health crisis. This study proves that emotion analysis and LDA topic modeling could be used to generate explanations of users' opinions and feelings about video products, which could support user recommendations in marketing.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335525

ABSTRACT

Background: Currently, rapid and widespread testing is essential to promote early intervention and curb the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detecting novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) is restricted to professional laboratories and well-trained personnel, thus, limiting its widespread use in in resource-limited conditions. Methods: To overcome these challenges, we developed a rapid and convenient assay using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology for the rapid detection SARS-CoV-2, which was named as Visual Detection of RPA-amplified Products (VDAP). The reaction conditions of the VDAP were optimized and selected using pure SARS-CoV-2 RNA standards and the sensitivity and specificity of the VDAP were further determined. Finally, the VDAP was verified on clinical specimens. Results: The VDAP was performed at 37 °C for 15 min, and the result was visible by the naked eye. The limits of detection (LODs) of the VDAP for the target ORF1ab and N genes are 70 and 500 copies, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed with the RNA standard samples of four respiratory viruses or clinical samples of common respiratory viral infections. These results confirmed that the assay was highly specific. Thirty SARS-CoV-2 positive and 30 SARS-CoV-2 negative patient specimens were analyzed. We compared these results to RT-PCR, the overall sensitivity and specificity of the VDAP compared to RT-PCR for detection SARS-CoV-2 were 93.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The VDAP is a simple, highly specific, and convenient assay for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in resource-limited conditions

3.
J Nurs Manag ; 2022 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819919

ABSTRACT

AIM: This study aimed to investigate eHealth literacy about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among older adults during the pandemic. BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic promoted the development of online health care. Higher demand for accessing information from the Internet was seen. METHODS: This was a sequential explanatory mixed-method study, involving a survey of older adults to explore the status and influencing factors of eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19. Semi-structured interviews were used to understand experiences and challenges regarding information retrieval, judgment and utilization. RESULTS: A total of 337 older adults participated in the online questionnaire survey. Overall, older adults had slightly higher scores on eHealth literacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants' location in the past month and current health issues were associated with eHealth literacy. Qualitative data were collected from nine older adults and included that some older adults retrieved health-related information during the pandemic. However, those who used non-smartphones described difficulties in information retrieval. A glut of misinformation has resulted in an 'infodemic', which has not only increased the difficulty of judging information but also posed challenges in information utilization for older adults. CONCLUSION: Improving older adults' eHealth literacy is essential in promoting an improved response to major public health events and in providing better health care for this group in the future. It is essential that government health agencies and health care providers provide evidence-based health information via social media platforms. Further efforts are needed to combine aspects of traditional and online health care services and provide reliable and updated online information and resources for older adults. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Providing evidence to eHealth literacy improvement and health management of older adults in the context of public health events.

4.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806654

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a leading societal concern. eHealth literacy is important in the prevention and control of this pandemic. The purpose of this study is to identify eHealth literacy of Chinese residents about the COVID-19 pandemic and factors influencing eHealth literacy. A total of 15 694 individuals clicked on the link to the questionnaire, and 15 000 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 95.58%. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test, and logistic regression analysis were conducted to analyze participants' level of eHealth literacy about COVID-19 and its influencing factors. The results showed 52.2% of participants had relatively lower eHealth literacy regarding COVID-19 (eHealth literacy score ≤ 48). The scores of the information judgment dimension (3.09 ± 0.71) and information utilization dimension (3.18 ± 0.67) of the eHealth literacy scale were relatively lower. The logistics regression showed that sex, age, education level, level of uncertainty, having people around the respondent diagnosed with COVID-19, relationship with family, and relationship with others were associated to eHealth literacy (χ2 = 969.135, P < .001). The public's eHealth literacy about COVID-19 needs to be improved, especially the ability to judge and utilize online information. Close collaboration among global health agencies, governments, healthcare institutions, and media is needed to provide reliable online information to the public. Interventions to improve eHealth literacy should take into account and accentuate the importance of sex, age, educational background, level of uncertainty, exposure to disease, and social support.

5.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 24(5): 649-674, 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778646

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the world and still afflicts humans. As an effective means of protection, wearing masks has been widely adopted by the general public. The massive use of disposable masks has raised some emerging environmental and bio-safety concerns: improper handling of used masks may transfer the attached pathogens to environmental media; disposable masks mainly consist of polypropylene (PP) fibers which may aggravate the global plastic pollution; and the risks of long-term wearing of masks are elusive. To maximize the utilization and minimize the risks, efforts have been made to improve the performance of masks (e.g., antivirus properties and filtration efficiency), extend their functions (e.g., respiration monitoring and acting as a sampling device), develop new disinfection methods, and recycle masks. Despite that, from the perspective of the life cycle (from production, usage, and discard to disposal), comprehensive solutions are urgently needed to solve the environmental dilemma of disposable masks in both technologies (e.g., efficient use of raw materials, prolonging the service life, and enabling biodegradation) and policies (e.g., stricter industry criteria and garbage sorting).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Pandemics/prevention & control , Plastics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Protein Cell ; 13(12): 920-939, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773029

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes complicated clinical manifestations with variable multi-organ injuries, however, the underlying mechanism, in particular immune responses in different organs, remains elusive. In this study, comprehensive transcriptomic alterations of 14 tissues from rhesus macaque infected with SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed. Compared to normal controls, SARS-CoV-2 infection resulted in dysregulation of genes involving diverse functions in various examined tissues/organs, with drastic transcriptomic changes in cerebral cortex and right ventricle. Intriguingly, cerebral cortex exhibited a hyperinflammatory state evidenced by significant upregulation of inflammation response-related genes. Meanwhile, expressions of coagulation, angiogenesis and fibrosis factors were also up-regulated in cerebral cortex. Based on our findings, neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a receptor of SARS-CoV-2, was significantly elevated in cerebral cortex post infection, accompanied by active immune response releasing inflammatory factors and signal transmission among tissues, which enhanced infection of the central nervous system (CNS) in a positive feedback way, leading to viral encephalitis. Overall, our study depicts a multi-tissue/organ transcriptomic landscapes of rhesus macaque with early infection of SARS-CoV-2, and provides important insights into the mechanistic basis for COVID-19-associated clinical complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114169, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748198

ABSTRACT

Isothermal amplification methods are a promising trend in virus detection because of their superiority in rapidity and sensitivity. However, the generation of false positives and limited multiplexity are major bottlenecks that must be addressed. In this study, we developed a multiplex Argonaute (Ago)-based nucleic acid detection system (MULAN) that integrates rapid isothermal amplification with the multiplex inclusiveness of a single Ago for simultaneous detection of multiple targets such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses. Owing to its high specificity, MULAN can distinguish targets at a single-base resolution for mutant genotyping. Moreover, MULAN also supports portable and visible devices with a limit of detection of five copies per reaction. Validated by SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses and clinical samples of influenza viruses, MULAN showed 100% agreement with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. These results demonstrated that MULAN has great potential to facilitate reliable, easy, and quick point-of-care diagnosis for promoting the control of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Orthomyxoviridae/genetics , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330153

ABSTRACT

Background: It is difficult to select an ovarian stimulation protocol for the patients with poor ovarian reserve (POR) because few oocytes are retrieved in a single controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. The aim of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes of different protocols in POSEIDON Group 3 patients. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients met the POSEIDON Group 3 criteria who underwent assisted reproductive technology at the Reproductive center of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between April 2019 and August 2021 were included. The COS protocols included progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS), GnRH antagonist and GnRH agonist protocols. The live birth rate (LBR) was the primary outcome. The secondary outcome measures were number of oocytes retrieved, duration of gonadotropin (Gn) treatment, amount of Gn administered, fertilization rates, chemical and clinical pregnancy. Results A total of 309 women met the POSEIDON Group 3 criteria were included for analysis. When compared with PPOS group and GnRH antagonist group, anti-Mullerian hormone, antral follicle count and oocytes retrieved were significantly higher in GnRH agonist group (P = 0.021;P < 0.001;P < 0.001);the basal FSH value was significantly lower in GnRH agonist group (P = 0.006);the estradiol values on trigger day and growth hormone utilization rate were significantly increased in GnRH agonist group (P < 0.001;P = 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the outcomes of embryos, without significant difference in 2 pronuclear rate, transplantable embryo rate and high-quality embryo rate among the three groups. There was also no significant difference in pregnancy outcomes, although the clinical pregnancy rate (61% vs.51.2% vs.44.9%) and LBR (33.3% vs.23.3% vs.23.2%) were higher in GnRH agonist group than PPOS and GnRH antagonist groups, but not statistically significant. The chemical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in GnRH agonist group than GnRH antagonist group (80.5% vs. 56.7%, P = 0.008). LH values on trigger day were significantly higher in GnRH antagonist group than the other two groups (P < 0.001). The cycle cancellation rate and miscarriage rate were highest in PPOS group, but without significant difference. Conclusion For patients with POR diagnosed as POSEIDON Group 3, the LBR is comparable among the PPOS, GnRH antagonist and GnRH agonist protocols. Considering the economic cost and the prevalence of COVID-19, it is recommended to use the short COS regimens with fresh embryo transplantation.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315640

ABSTRACT

In order to analyze the impact of COVID-19 on people's lives, activities and the natural environment, this paper investigates the spatial and temporal characteristics of Night Time Light (NTL) radiance and Air Quality Index (AQI) before and during the pandemic in mainland China. Our results show that the monthly average NTL brightness is much lower during the quarantine period than before. This study categorizes NTL into three classes: residential area, transportation and public facilities and commercial centers, with NTL radiance ranges of 5-20, 20-40 and greater than 40 nW/(cm*cm*sr), respectively. We found that the Number Of Pixels (NOP) with NTL detection increased in the residential area and decreased in the commercial centers for most of the provinces after the shutdown, while transportation and public facilities generally stayed the same. More specifically, we examined these factors in Wuhan, where the first confirmed cases were reported, and where the earliest quarantine measures were taken. Observations and analysis of pixels associated with commercial centers were observed to have lower NTL radiance values, indicating a dimming behavior, while residential area pixels recorded increased levels of brightness, after the beginning of the lockdown. The study also discovered a significant decreasing trend in the daily average AQI for the whole country, with cleaner air in most provinces during February and March, compared to January 2020. In conclusion, the outbreak and spread of COVID-19 has had a crucial impact on people's daily lives and activity ranges through the increased implementation of lockdown and quarantine policies. On the other hand, the air quality of China has improved with the reduction of non-essential industries and motor vehicle usage.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325093

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the sub-health status of the medical team members of the aid to Wuhan during the outbreak of the new coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China, to analyze the possible influencing factors that cause the sub-health status, and to provide a theoretical basis for scientifically maintaining and improving the physical and mental health of the medical team members. Methods: : 131 members of the military medical team aiding Wuhan who were treating patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia were selected as subjects in the survey, and a questionnaire on the sub-health influencing factors was designed. After the medical treatment task, the SHMS V1.0 was used for assessment. Results: : The sub-health detection rate of the medical team members was 76.3%, and the overall sub-health rating scale score was (69.11 ± 10.20) points. The scores of the three subscales of physiology, psychology, and society are (71.16 ± 11.30) points, (67.99 ± 13.51) points, and (67.41 ± 12.31) points, respectively. Work pressure, family structure, frustration, and diet may be the influence factors of the sub-health. Conclusion: During the outbreak of the novel coronavirus pneumonia, factors such as high-intensity work, non-nuclear families, low hobbies, and irregular diet may lead to the sub-healthy state of the members of the medical aid team in Wuhan. Reasonable arrangements for work and rest, maintaining harmonious family relations, focusing on the development of interests and hobbies, and healthy and regular diet, will help maintain and improve the health of medical team members, consolidate and maintain the combat effectiveness of medical team members, and complete epidemic prevention and control tasks with high quality and efficiency.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324440

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) swept across the world in early 2020, triggering the lockdowns of several billion people across many countries, including China, Spain, India, the U.K., Italy, France, Germany, and most states of the U.S. The transmission of the virus accelerated rapidly with the most confirmed cases in the U.S., and New York City became an epicenter of the pandemic by the end of March. In response to this national and global emergency, the NSF Spatiotemporal Innovation Center brought together a taskforce of international researchers and assembled implemented strategies to rapidly respond to this crisis, for supporting research, saving lives, and protecting the health of global citizens. This perspective paper presents our collective view on the global health emergency and our effort in collecting, analyzing, and sharing relevant data on global policy and government responses, geospatial indicators of the outbreak and evolving forecasts;in developing research capabilities and mitigation measures with global scientists, promoting collaborative research on outbreak dynamics, and reflecting on the dynamic responses from human societies.

13.
Antiviral Res ; 198: 105254, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654045

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The rapid global emergence of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the importance and urgency for potential drugs to control the pandemic. The functional importance of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in the viral life cycle, combined with structural conservation and absence of closely related homologs in humans, makes it an attractive target for designing antiviral drugs. Nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) are still the most promising broad-spectrum class of viral RdRp inhibitors. In this study, using our previously developed cell-based SARS-CoV-2 RdRp report system, we screened 134 compounds in the Selleckchemicals NAs library. Four candidate compounds, Fludarabine Phosphate, Fludarabine, 6-Thio-20-Deoxyguanosine (6-Thio-dG), and 5-Iodotubercidin, exhibit remarkable potency in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. Among these four compounds, 5-Iodotubercidin exhibited the strongest inhibition upon SARS-CoV-2 RdRp, and was resistant to viral exoribonuclease activity, thus presenting the best antiviral activity against coronavirus from a different genus. Further study showed that the RdRp inhibitory activity of 5-Iodotubercidin is closely related to its capacity to inhibit adenosine kinase (ADK).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tubercidin/analogs & derivatives , Cell Line , Deoxyguanosine/analogs & derivatives , Deoxyguanosine/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , RNA, Viral/biosynthesis , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Thionucleosides/pharmacology , Tubercidin/pharmacology , Vidarabine/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine/pharmacology , Vidarabine Phosphate/analogs & derivatives , Vidarabine Phosphate/pharmacology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261216, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622335

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has resulted in substantial healthcare resource consumption. Since patients' hospital length of stay (LoS) is at stake in the process, an investigation of COVID-19 patients' LoS and its risk factors becomes urgent for a better understanding of regional capabilities to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks. METHODS: First, we obtained retrospective data of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Sichuan province via National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and field surveys, including their demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics and LoS. Then we estimated the relationship between LoS and the possibly determinant factors, including demographic characteristics of confirmed patients, individual treatment behavior, local medical resources and hospital grade. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were applied for single factor and multi-factor survival analysis. RESULTS: From January 16, 2020 to March 4, 2020, 538 human cases of COVID-19 infection were laboratory-confirmed, and were hospitalized for treatment, including 271 (50%) patients aged ≥ 45, 285 (53%) males, and 450 patients (84%) with mild symptoms. The median LoS was 19 (interquartile range (IQR): 14-23, range: 3-41) days. Univariate analysis showed that age and clinical grade were strongly related to LoS (P<0.01). Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the longer LoS was associated with those aged ≥ 45 (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.91), admission to provincial hospital (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54-0.99), and severe illness (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48-0.90). By contrast, the shorter LoS was linked with residential areas with more than 5.5 healthcare workers per 1,000 population (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05-1.65). Neither gender factor nor time interval from illness onset to diagnosis showed significant impact on LoS. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding COVID-19 patients' hospital LoS and its risk factors is critical for governments' efficient allocation of resources in respective regions. In areas with older and more vulnerable population and in want of primary medical resources, early reserving and strengthening of the construction of multi-level medical institutions are strongly suggested to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , China/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Analysis
15.
ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information ; 11(1):13, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1580705

ABSTRACT

Many previous studies have shown that open-source technologies help democratize information and foster collaborations to enable addressing global physical and societal challenges. The outbreak of the novel coronavirus has imposed unprecedented challenges to human society. It affects every aspect of livelihood, including health, environment, transportation, and economy. Open-source technologies provide a new ray of hope to collaboratively tackle the pandemic. The role of open source is not limited to sharing a source code. Rather open-source projects can be adopted as a software development approach to encourage collaboration among researchers. Open collaboration creates a positive impact in society and helps combat the pandemic effectively. Open-source technology integrated with geospatial information allows decision-makers to make strategic and informed decisions. It also assists them in determining the type of intervention needed based on geospatial information. The novelty of this paper is to standardize the open-source workflow for spatiotemporal research. The highlights of the open-source workflow include sharing data, analytical tools, spatiotemporal applications, and results and formalizing open-source software development. The workflow includes (i) developing open-source spatiotemporal applications, (ii) opening and sharing the spatiotemporal resources, and (iii) replicating the research in a plug and play fashion. Open data, open analytical tools and source code, and publicly accessible results form the foundation for this workflow. This paper also presents a case study with the open-source spatiotemporal application development for air quality analysis in California, USA. In addition to the application development, we shared the spatiotemporal data, source code, and research findings through the GitHub repository.

16.
Int J Nurs Pract ; 28(1): e13034, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583544

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study aimed to describe the experiences of nurses and other health care workers who were infected with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: An empirical phenomenological approach was used. Sixteen participants were recruited in Wuhan using purposive and snowball sampling. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted by telephone in February 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed following Colaizzi's method. RESULTS: Two themes emerged: (1) Intense emotional distress since becoming infected. Participants were fearful of spreading the virus to family and overwhelmed by a lack of information, experienced uncertainty and worried about treatment, felt lonely during isolation and reported moral distress about inadequate health care staffing. (2) Coping strategies were needed. They tried their best to address negative psychological reactions using their professional knowledge and gaining support from others and community resources. CONCLUSIONS: Preparedness for catastrophic events and providing timely and accurate information are major considerations in government policy development, related to pandemics and adequacy of health care personnel. Mental health resources and support, both short- and long-term should be anticipated for health care providers to alleviate their fear and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(7): e2104192, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589262

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with impact on skin and hair loss are reported. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is detected in the skin of some patients; however, the detailed pathological features of skin tissues from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 at a molecular level are limited. Especially, the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect skin cells and impact their function is not well understood. A proteome map of COVID-19 skin is established here and the susceptibility of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived skin organoids with hair follicles and nervous system is investigated, to SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is shown that KRT17+ hair follicles can be infected by SARS-CoV-2 and are associated with the impaired development of hair follicles and epidermis. Different types of nervous system cells are also found to be infected, which can lead to neuron death. Findings from the present work provide evidence for the association between COVID-19 and hair loss. hiPSC-derived skin organoids are also presented as an experimental model which can be used to investigate the susceptibility of skin cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help identify various pathological mechanisms and drug screening strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Models, Biological , Organoids/cytology , Skin/cytology , COVID-19/virology , Hair Follicle/virology , Humans , Nervous System/virology , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(1): 155-164, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576042

ABSTRACT

During the SARS period in 2003 and COVID-19 pandemic period in 2020, unexpected severe particulate matter pollution occurred in northern China, although the anthropogenic activities and associated emissions have assumed to be reduced dramatically. This anomalistic increase in PM2.5 pollution raises a question about how source emissions impact the air quality during these pandemic periods. In this study, we investigated the stable Cu and Si isotopic compositions and typical source-specific fingerprints of PM2.5 and its sources. We show that the primary PM2.5 emissions (PM2.5 emitted directly from sources) actually had no reduction but redistribution during these pandemic periods, rather than the previous thought of being greatly reduced. This finding provided critical evidence to interpret the anomalistic PM2.5 increase during the pandemic periods in north China. Our results also suggested that both the energy structure adjustment and stringent regulations on primary emissions should be synergistically implemented in a regional scale for clean air actions in China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Beijing , China , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 352: 109777, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559106

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the differences in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection of patients based on sex and disease severity. METHODS: We used an analytical framework of 382 transcriptional modules and multi-omics analyses to discriminate COVID-19 patients based on sex and disease severity. RESULTS: Male and female patients overexpressed modules related to the innate immune response. The expression of modules related to the adaptive immune response showed lower enrichment levels in males than females. Inflammation modules showed ascending overexpression in male and female patients, while a higher level was observed in severe female patients. Moderate female patients demonstrated significant overexpression to interferon, cytolytic lymphocyte, T & B cells, and erythrocytes modules. Moderate female patients showed a higher adaptive immune response than males matched group. Pathways involved in metabolism dysregulation and Hippo signaling were upregulated in females than in male patients. Females and moderate cases showed higher levels of metabolic dysregulation. CONCLUSIONS: The immune landscape in COVID-19 patients was noticeably different between the sexes, and these differences may highlight disease vulnerability in males. This study suggested that certain treatments that increase or decrease the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 might be necessary for male and female patients at certain disease stages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 741030, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485127

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been raging around the world for more than 1 year. Analysis of previous COVID-19 data is useful to explore its epidemic patterns. Utilizing data mining and machine learning methods for COVID-19 forecasting might provide a better insight into the trends of COVID-19 cases. This study aims to model the COVID-19 cases and perform forecasting of three important indicators of COVID-19 in the United States of America (USA), which are the adjusted percentage of daily admitted hospitalized COVID-19 cases (hospital admission), the number of daily confirmed COVID-19 cases (confirmed cases), and the number of daily death cases caused by COVID-19 (death cases). Materials and Methods: The actual COVID-19 data from March 1, 2020 to August 5, 2021 were obtained from Carnegie Mellon University Delphi Research Group. A novel forecasting algorithm was proposed to model and predict the three indicators. This algorithm is a hybrid of an unsupervised time series anomaly detection technique called matrix profile and an attention-based long short-term memory (LSTM) model. Several classic statistical models and the baseline recurrent neural network (RNN) models were used as the baseline models. All models were evaluated using a repeated holdout training and test strategy. Results: The proposed matrix profile-assisted attention-based LSTM model performed the best among all the compared models, which has the root mean square error (RMSE) = 1.23, 31612.81, 467.17, mean absolute error (MAE) = 0.95, 26259.55, 364.02, and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) = 0.25, 1.06, 0.55, for hospital admission, confirmed cases, and death cases, respectively. Conclusion: The proposed model is more powerful in forecasting COVID-19 cases. It can potentially aid policymakers in making prevention plans and guide health care managers to allocate health care resources reasonably.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , Forecasting , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
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