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1.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 19(12): 1392-1399, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2077039

ABSTRACT

The new predominant circulating SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron, can robustly escape current vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. Although Omicron has been reported to have milder replication and disease manifestations than some earlier variants, its pathogenicity in different age groups has not been well elucidated. Here, we report that the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.1 sublineage causes elevated infection and lung pathogenesis in juvenile and aged hamsters, with more body weight loss, respiratory tract viral burden, and lung injury in these hamsters than in adult hamsters. Juvenile hamsters show a reduced interferon response against Omicron BA.1 infection, whereas aged hamsters show excessive proinflammatory cytokine expression, delayed viral clearance, and aggravated lung injury. Early inhaled IFN-α2b treatment suppresses Omicron BA.1 infection and lung pathogenesis in juvenile and adult hamsters. Overall, the data suggest that the diverse patterns of the innate immune response affect the disease outcomes of Omicron BA.1 infection in different age groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Interferon-alpha , Lung Injury , Animals , Cricetinae , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/pathology , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Lung Injury/virology , Mesocricetus , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 897784, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022934

ABSTRACT

Based on the epidemic data of COVID-19 in 50 states of the United States (the US) from December 2021 to January 2022, the spatial and temporal clustering characteristics of COVID-19 in the US are explored and analyzed. First, the retrospective spatiotemporal analysis is performed by using SaTScan 9.5, and 17 incidence areas are obtained. Second, the reliability of the results is tested by the circular distribution method in the time latitude and the clustering method in the spatial latitude, and it is confirmed that the retrospective spatiotemporal analysis accurately measures in time and reasonably divides regions according to the characteristics in space. Empirical results show that the first-level clustering area of the epidemic has six states with an average relative risk of 1.28 and the second-level clustering area includes 18 states with an average relative risk of 0.86. At present, the epidemic situation in the US continues to expand. It is necessary to do constructive work in epidemic prevention, reduce the impact of epidemic, and effectively control the spread of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Incidence , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , United States
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