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2.
Am J Prev Med ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2027840

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Events during 2019 and 2020, such as the outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use‒associated lung injury;manufacturer product withdrawals;federal regulations;and coronavirus disease 2019, potentially affected the retail availability of ENDS in the U.S. Measuring changes in ENDS availability informs the understanding of the ENDS marketplace and contextualizes sales trends. METHODS: Joinpoint regression was used to estimate slope changes in the number of available ENDS in 2019 and 2020 and considered correspondence with tobacco marketplace events. Availability, the weekly number of unique universal product codes with nonzero sales, was derived from NielsenIQ scanner data. U.S. ENDS availability was modeled overall and by subproduct and flavor category within subproduct: mint, menthol, tobacco flavored, and undetermined. RESULTS: ENDS availability increased by 66% from January 2019 to December 2020. Availability decreased by 43% among prefilled cartridges and increased by 511% among disposables, both led by flavored varieties. During January 2020-February 2020, prefilled cartridge availability decreased by 23.71 universal product codes per week. During July 2020-August 2020, disposable availability increased by 27.90 universal product codes per week, led by flavored products. CONCLUSIONS: ENDS availability increased during 2019 through 2020, led by a rise in flavored disposables. Multiple slope changes in ENDS availability occurred, many coinciding with tobacco marketplace events. The slope of ENDS explicitly prioritized for federal enforcement (i.e., flavored prefilled cartridges) notably decreased in early 2020 and, soon thereafter, the slope of ENDS not explicitly prioritized for enforcement (e.g., flavored disposables) notably increased, suggesting an association with U.S. Food and Drug Administration's prioritized enforcement guidance.

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2027501

ABSTRACT

Children are the future of the world, but their health and future are facing great uncertainty because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In order to improve the management of children with COVID-19, an international, multidisciplinary panel of experts developed a rapid advice guideline at the beginning of the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. After publishing the first version of the rapid advice guideline, the panel has updated the guideline by including additional stakeholders in the panel and a comprehensive search of the latest evidence. All recommendations were supported by systematic reviews and graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Expert judgment was used to develop good practice statements supplementary to the graded evidence-based recommendations. The updated guideline comprises nine recommendations and one good practice statement. It focuses on the key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: identification of prognostic factors for death or pediatric intensive care unit admission;the use of remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids and antipyretics, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure;breastfeeding;vaccination;and the management of pediatric mental health. CONCLUSION: This updated evidence-based guideline intends to provide clinicians, pediatricians, patients and other stakeholders with evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Larger studies with longer follow-up to determine the effectiveness and safety of systemic glucocorticoids, IVIG, noninvasive ventilation, and the vaccines for COVID-19 in children and adolescents are encouraged. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Several clinical practice guidelines for children with COVID-19 have been developed, but only few of them have been recently updated. • We developed an evidence-based guideline at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak and have now updated it based on the results of a comprehensive search of the latest evidence. WHAT IS NEW: • The updated guideline provides key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: identification of prognostic factors for death or pediatric intensive care unit admission;the use of remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids and antipyretics, intravenous immunoglobulin for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure;breastfeeding;vaccination;and the management of pediatric mental health.

4.
American Journal Of Translational Research ; 14(8):5719-5729, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027183

ABSTRACT

Patients with major psychiatric disorders (MPD) that include schizophrenia (SCH), bipolar disorder (BP), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are at increased risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in MPD patients have not been fully evaluated. This study aimed to investigate adverse events (AEs)/side effects and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in MPD patients. This retrospective study included 2034 patients with SCH, BP, or MDD who voluntarily received either BBIBP-CorV or Sinovac COVID-19 vaccines, and 2034 matched healthy controls. The incidence of AEs/side effects and the efficacy of COIVD-19 vaccinations among the two groups were compared. The risk ratio (RR) of side effects in patients with MPD was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.68) after the first dose and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.99) following the second dose, suggesting a significantly lower risk in the MPD group versus healthy controls. The RRs of AEs did not differ between patients and controls. Notably, fully vaccinated patients exhibited a decreased risk of influenza with or without fever compared with controls (RR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.31-0.46;RR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.17-0.30;respectively). Further subgroup comparisons revealed a significantly lower risk of influenza with fever in MDD (RR=0.13, 95% CI: 0.08-0.21) and SCH (RR=0.24, 95% CI: 0.17-0.34) than BP (RR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.69-1.06) compared to controls. We conclude that the benefit-risk ratio of COVID-19 vaccination was more favorable in SCH or MDD versus BP when compared with controls. These data indicate that COVID-19 vaccines are safe and protective in patients with MPD from COVID-19.

5.
Frontiers in Physics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022847

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, the outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) became a grave global public health emergency. At that time, there was a lack of information about this virus. Nowadays, social media has become the main source for the public to obtain information, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, in order to know about the public of information demand after the outbreak, the research collects the data of hot search on Sina-microblog from 1 January 2020 to 30 December 2020, and then conducts data mining by combining text processing with topic models. Then we show the topics mined in the knowledge map. The results show that with the outbreak of the COVID-19, people's attention to the topics related to the epidemic reaches the maximum in a short time, and then decreases with fluctuation, but does not disappear immediately. Some topics fluctuate violently due to the emergence of special events. The results conformed to the four-stage crisis model in the emergency management. We analyze the role of social media in four stages for this. The findings of this study could help the government and emergency agencies to better understand the main aspects, which the public's concern about COVID-19, and accelerate public opinion guidance and emotional reassurance.

6.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2022791

ABSTRACT

Persistent infection and prolonged shedding of human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) in children have been reported, and the role of HBoV1 as a sole causative pathogen in acute respiratory infection (ARI) is yet to be established. While the reported prevalence of HBoV infection varies due to different detection methods and sampling criteria, determining the viral and bacterial etiology of HBoV infection using multiplex real-time PCR is yet to be reported. Herein, we aimed to further explore the pathogenicity of HBoV in patients with ARI by screening the viral and bacterial infections in children with ARI in Qingdao and comparing the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and etiological results. Human bocavirus was identified in 28.1% of the samples, and further sequencing analysis of the detected HBoV confirmed 96.4% as HBoV1. The rate of HBoV as a single viral infection was 75%, and the rate of coinfection with bacteria was 66.1%, suggesting the need for continued monitoring of HBoV in children with ARIs. Clinical characterization suggested that HBoV infection may affect the function of organs, such as the liver, kidney, and heart, and the blood acid–base balance. Additionally, it is essential to promote awareness about the importance of disinfection and sterilization of the hospital environment and standardizing operations. The interactions between HBoV and other pathogens remain to be investigated in further detail in the future. Copyright © 2022 Wang, Guan, Liu, Zhang, Sun, Liu, Shi, Su, Liang, Hao, Wang and Liu.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13:917141, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2022706

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 can cause various systemic diseases such as acute pneumonia with cytokine storm. Constituted of necroptosis, pyroptosis, and ferroptosis, regulated necrosis constitutes the cell death patterns under the low apoptosis condition commonly observed in COVID-19. Regulated necrosis is involved in the release of cytokines like TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-6 and cell contents such as alarmins, PAMPs, and DAMPs, leading to more severe inflammation. Uncontrolled regulated necrosis may explain the poor prognosis and cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. In this review, the pathophysiology and mechanism of regulated necrosis with the double-edged sword effect in COVID-19 are thoroughly discussed in detail. Furthermore, this review also focuses on the biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets of the regulated necrosis pathway in COVID-19, providing practical guidance to judge the severity, prognosis, and clinical treatment of COVID-19 and guiding the development of clinical anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs.

8.
JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting ; 27:27, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Generation Health (GH) was a 10-week family-based lifestyle program designed to promote a healthy lifestyle for families with children who are off the healthy weight trajectory in British Columbia, Canada. GH used a blended delivery format which consisted of 10 weekly in-person sessions and self-guided lessons and activities on a web portal. The blended GH was adapted to be delivered virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Currently, the effectiveness of the virtual GH compared with the blended GH remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: 1) to compare the effectiveness of virtual GH delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic with the blended GH delivered prior to the COVID-19 pandemic in changing child physical activity, sedentary, dietary behaviors, screen time behaviors and parental support related behaviors for child physical activity and healthy eating;2) to explore virtual GH program engagement and satisfaction. METHODS: This study used a single arm pre-post design. The blended GH (n=102) was delivered from January 2019 to February 2020, and the virtual GH (n=90) was delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic from April 2020 to March 2021. Families with children between the ages of 8-12 years old and a BMI >=85th percentile for age and sex were recruited. Participants completed pre-and post-intervention questionnaires to assess the child's physical activity, dietary, sedentary, screen time and parent support behaviors. Intervention feedback was evaluated by interviews. Repeated measure ANOVA was used to evaluate the difference between the virtual and blended GH over time. Qualitative interviews were analyzed using thematic analyses. RESULTS: Both the virtual and blended GH improved child MVPA (F(1,380)=18.37, p<.00001, etap2=.07) and reduced screen time (F(1,380)= 9.17, p=.003, etap2=.06 ). However, participants in the virtual GH reported significantly greater vegetable intake than in blended GH at 10-week follow-up (F(1,380)=15.19, p<.001, etap2 =.004). . Parents in both virtual and blended GH showed significant improvements in support behaviors for child physical activity (F(1,380)=5.55, p<.02, etap2 =.002) and healthy eating (F(1,380)=3.91, p<.001, etap2=.01), as well as self-regulation of parent support for child physical activity (F(1,380)=49.20, p<.0001, etap2=.16) and healthy eating (F(1,380)=91.13, p<.0001, etap2) =.28). Families in both the virtual and blended GH were satisfied with the program delivery. There were no significant differences in attendance for the weekly in-person (77%) or group video chat sessions (76%) for the blended and virtual GH, respectively (p>.05). However, portal usage was significantly greater in the virtual GH (50 [55.82] minutes) compared with blended GH (17 [15.3] minutes) (p<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study suggested that virtual GH was as effective in improving child lifestyle behaviors and parental support-related behaviors as the blended program. Virtual GH has the potential to improve the flexibility and scalability of family-based childhood obesity management interventions. Clinicaltrial:

9.
PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] ; 17(8):e0273691, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is spreading rapidly worldwide, and the population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, especially those with cancer. Hence, our study aims to design a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical characteristics and prognoses of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The protocol is prepared following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The literature will be searched in Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane Library, LitCovid, and CNKI for potentially eligible articles. The quality of the articles will be used in the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) and Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Statistical analysis will be performed through RevMan 5 software. This review protocol has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022306866). DISCUSSION: To clarify whether COVID-19 affects the clinical symptoms and prognoses of lung cancer patients. Further study is needed to establish the best evidence-based for the management of lung cancer patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The definitive conclusion will be important to physicians effectively manage lung cancer patients with COVID-19.

10.
Statistical Science ; 37(2):162-182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021407

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 has been instrumental in tracking the spread and evolution of the virus during the pandemic. The availability of SARS-CoV-2 molecular sequences isolated from infected individuals, coupled with phylodynamic methods, have provided insights into the origin of the virus, its evolutionary rate, the timing of introductions, the patterns of transmission, and the rise of novel variants that have spread through populations. Despite enormous global efforts of governments, laboratories, and researchers to collect and sequence molecular data, many challenges remain in analyzing and interpreting the data collected. Here, we describe the models and methods currently used to monitor the spread of SARS-CoV-2, discuss long-standing and new statistical challenges, and propose a method for tracking the rise of novel variants during the epidemic.

11.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2017917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, public health measures, including stay-at-home orders, were widely instituted in the United States (US) by March 2020. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of these measures on continuity of care among older adults living with chronic diseases. METHODS: Beginning in June 2020, participants of the national Women's Health Initiative (WHI) (N=64,061) were surveyed on the impact of the pandemic on various aspects of their health and well-being since March 2020, including access to care appointments, medications, and caregivers. Responses received by November 2020 (response rate=77.6%) were tabulated and stratified by prevalent chronic diseases, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESULTS: Among 49,695 respondents (mean age=83.6 years), 70.2% had a history of hypertension, 21.8% had diabetes, and 18.9% had CVD. Half of respondents reported being very concerned about the pandemic and 24.5% decided against seeking medical care to avoid COVID-19 exposure. A quarter reported difficulties with getting routine care and 45.5% had in-person appointments converted to telemedicine formats;many reported cancelled (27.8%) or rescheduled (37.7%) appointments. Among those taking prescribed medication (88.0%), 9.7% reported changing their method of obtaining medications. Those living with and without chronic diseases generally reported similar changes in care and medication access. CONCLUSIONS: Early in the pandemic, many older women avoided medical care or adapted to new ways of receiving care and medications. Therefore, optimizing alternative services, like telemedicine, should be prioritized to ensure that older women continue to receive quality care during public health emergencies.

12.
Leisure Studies ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2017127

ABSTRACT

Multispecies leisure has recently become an area of attention. Pet-keeping is one of the popular leisure activities today. This study aims to explore the relationship between pet attachment and life satisfaction, with particular focus on the mediating effect of the leisure seriousness and rewards on the relationship mentioned above. A total of 275 responses were collected at a pet exhibition. SEM and SPSS were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that pet attachment is positively related to pet owners’ life satisfaction. The effects of leisure seriousness, personal reward, and social reward were shown to mediate the relationship between pet attachment and life satisfaction. The pet-keeping practices during the COVID-19 pandemic are provided based the serious leisure perspective. © 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

14.
Acs Nano ; 08:08, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016546

ABSTRACT

Natural ligand-receptor interactions that play pivotal roles in biological events are ideal models for design and assembly of artificial recognition molecules. Herein, aiming at the structural characteristics of the spike trimer and infection mechanism of SARS-CoV-2, we have designed a DNA framework-guided spatial-patterned neutralizing aptamer trimer for SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. The ~5.8 nm tetrahedral DNA framework affords precise spatial organization and matched valence as four neutralizing aptamers (MATCH-4), which matches with nanometer precision the topmost surface of SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer, enhancing the interaction between MATCH-4 and spike trimer. Moreover, the DNA framework provides a dimensionally complementary nanoscale barrier to prevent the spike trimer-ACE2 interaction and the conformational transition, thereby inhibiting SARS-CoV-2-host cell fusion and infection. As a result, the spatial- and valence-matched MATCH-4 ensures improved binding affinity and neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and its varied mutant strains, particularly the current Omicron variant, that are evasive of the majority of existing neutralizing antibodies. In addition, because neutralizing aptamers specific to other targets can be evolved and assembled, the present design has the potential to inhibit other wide-range and emerging pathogens.

15.
2021 2nd International Conference on Machine Learning and Computer Application, ICMLCA 2021 ; : 724-729, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2011083

ABSTRACT

Currently, a number of wearable electronic devices available on the market can monitor potential hazards. However, previous research and development of these devices are too focused upon assorted functions rather than the actual performance of tracking danger, making this crucial function for humans waiting for improvement. Herein, we proposed integrating techniques of sensor data analysis and anomalous sound recognition and designing a safety and health system for wearable devices named Danger Tracker. The physiological data collected by the sensor will be sent to a server and eventually stored in a database. Data transmitted every three minutes will be sent immediately in case of an emergency health condition, after which alerts will be sent to users and their respective emergency contacts. Taking into consideration emergencies or threats to life are often accompanied by abnormal sounds, the microphone in a wearable device will, when trusted, collect audio information from the environment, including calls, moans, and threats that contain preset words. The device combines blood pressure and heart rate data in order to determine what the user encounters and will immediately notify the preset contact. Through the timely handling of emergencies, the system is able to ensure the safety of various groups of individuals. If the recipient of the health information is modified to a medical institution, timely feedback of abnormal conditions will significantly reduce the pressure of medical care and improve the overall efficiency of the hospitals during the current COVID-19 pandemic. © VDE VERLAG GMBH · Berlin · Offenbach.

16.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience ; 16, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009889

ABSTRACT

Infant and young child electrophysiology studies have provided information regarding the maturation of face-encoding neural processes. A limitation of previous research is that very few studies have examined face-encoding processes in children 12–48 months of age, a developmental period characterized by rapid changes in the ability to encode facial information. The present study sought to fill this gap in the literature via a longitudinal study examining the maturation of a primary node in the face-encoding network—the left and right fusiform gyrus (FFG). Whole-brain magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were obtained from 25 infants with typical development at 4–12 months, and with follow-up MEG exams every ∼12 months until 3–4 years old. Children were presented with color images of Face stimuli and visual noise images (matched on spatial frequency, color distribution, and outer contour) that served as Non-Face stimuli. Using distributed source modeling, left and right face-sensitive FFG evoked waveforms were obtained from each child at each visit, with face-sensitive activity identified via examining the difference between the Non-Face and Face FFG timecourses. Before 24 months of age (Visits 1 and 2) the face-sensitive FFG M290 response was the dominant response, observed in the left and right FFG ∼250–450 ms post-stimulus. By 3–4 years old (Visit 4), the left and right face-sensitive FFG response occurred at a latency consistent with a face-sensitive M170 response ∼100–250 ms post-stimulus. Face-sensitive left and right FFG peak latencies decreased as a function of age (with age explaining greater than 70% of the variance in face-sensitive FFG latency), and with an adult-like FFG latency observed at 3–4 years old. Study findings thus showed face-sensitive FFG maturational changes across the first 4 years of life. Whereas a face-sensitive M290 response was observed under 2 years of age, by 3–4 years old, an adult-like face-sensitive M170 response was observed bilaterally. Future studies evaluating the maturation of face-sensitive FFG activity in infants at risk for neurodevelopmental disorders are of interest, with the present findings suggesting age-specific face-sensitive neural markers of a priori interest.

17.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 81:388, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008828

ABSTRACT

Background: BAT1806/BIIB800 is a proposed biosimilar to reference tocili-zumab (TCZ). A Phase III randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial was conducted as part of a biosimilar development programme. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and immu-nogenicity of BAT1806/BIIB800 in comparison with EU-sourced TCZ in subjects with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis with inadequate response to meth-otrexate (MTX). Methods: The study was conducted at 55 centres in China and Europe, between June 2018 and January 2021. Eligible subjects were randomised in a 2:1:1 ratio to one of three treatment groups: (1) BAT1806/BIIB800 up to Week 48, (2) TCZ up to Week 48, or (3) TCZ up to Week 24, followed by BAT1806/BIIB800 from Week 24 to Week 48, administered intravenously every 4 weeks at a dose of 8mg/kg. The primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects achieving an ACR20 response at timepoints pre-specifed to meet the requirements of different Regulatory Agencies: Week 12, for EMA;Week 24, for FDA and NMPA. Equivalence margins applied to differences in ACR20 response rates in the BAT1806/BIIB800 and TCZ treatment groups were pre-specifed as follows: +/-14.5% for EMA (95% confdence interval (CI));-12.0%,15% for FDA (90% CI);+/-13.6% for NMPA (95% CI). Secondary endpoints included pharmacokinetics, safety and immunogenicity. The ICH E9(R1) estimands framework including intercurrent events (related or unrelated to the COVID19 pandemic) was implemented for the ACR20 evaluation. A logistic regression model including 'region' (China and Eastern Europe) and 'previous biologic or targeted synthetic DMARD use' (Yes/No) as captured in Interactive Web Response System as stratifcation factors was utilised to assess equivalence for the primary endpoint. The difference in response rates was estimated and corresponding confdence intervals were derived to assess equivalence for the primary endpoint. This presents results up to Week 24. Results: In total, 621 subjects were randomised to receive BAT1806/BIIB800 (N=312), TCZ (N=155), or TCZ followed by BAT1806/BIIB800 (N=154). The groups were comparable in terms of baseline demographics and disease characteristics, including age, gender, disease activity and disease duration. The estimated proportions of subjects achieving an ACR20 response in the BAT1806/BIIB800 vs. the TCZ groups, respectively, were 68.97% vs. 64.82% at Week 12 and 69.89% vs. 67.94% at Week 24. The estimated difference between ACR response rates was 4.15% (95% CI-3.63, 11.93) at week 12, and 1.94% (90% CI-4.04, 7.92;95% CI-5.18, 9.07) at Week 24. The CIs for the estimated differences between the treatment groups were within the pre-defned equivalence margins (Figure 1). The treatment groups were comparable in terms of serum trough levels, incidence of TEAEs and ADA/NAb positivity (Table 1). Conclusion: BAT1806/BIIB800 has demonstrated equivalent efficacy at Week 12 and Week 24 and a similar PK, safety and immunogenicity profile as reference tocilizumab up to Week 24.

18.
Comput Biol Med ; 149:106065, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007625

ABSTRACT

Aiming at detecting COVID-19 effectively, a multiscale class residual attention (MCRA) network is proposed via chest X-ray (CXR) image classification. First, to overcome the data shortage and improve the robustness of our network, a pixel-level image mixing of local regions was introduced to achieve data augmentation and reduce noise. Secondly, multi-scale fusion strategy was adopted to extract global contextual information at different scales and enhance semantic representation. Last but not least, class residual attention was employed to generate spatial attention for each class, which can avoid inter-class interference and enhance related features to further improve the COVID-19 detection. Experimental results show that our network achieves superior diagnostic performance on COVIDx dataset, and its accuracy, PPV, sensitivity, specificity and F1-score are 97.71%, 96.76%, 96.56%, 98.96% and 96.64%, respectively;moreover, the heat maps can endow our deep model with somewhat interpretability.

19.
Infectious Diseases and Therapy ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007310

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This study explored circulating pneumoproteins in the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of COVID-19 by meta-analysis. Methods: We searched five databases and other sources until December 16, 2021. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were the overall outcomes. RevMan 5.3, Stata 16, and Meta-DiSc 1.4 were utilized for pooled analysis. Results: A total of 2432 subjects from 26 studies were included. Patients with COVID-19 had higher circulating KL-6, SP-D, and SP-A levels (SMD 1.34, 95% CI [0.60, 2.08];SMD 1.74, 95% CI [0.64, 2.84];SMD 3.42, 95% CI [1.31, 5.53], respectively) than healthy individuals. Circulating SP-D levels were not significantly different in survivors and non-survivors (SMD − 0.19, 95% CI [− 0.78, 0.40]). Circulating KL-6, SP-D, and RAGE levels in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 were significantly lower (SMD − 0.93, 95% CI [− 1.22, − 0.65];SMD − 1.32, 95% CI [− 2.34, − 0.29];SMD − 1.17, 95% CI [− 2.06, − 0.28], respectively) than in patients with severe COVID-19. Subgroup analysis suggested that country and total number may be related to the heterogeneity when analyzing SP-D in patients with mild to moderate vs. severe COVID-19. The meta-analysis of diagnostic accuracy including KL-6 for severity, KL-6 for mortality, and SP-D for severity demonstrated that they all had limited diagnostic value. Conclusion: Therefore, circulating pneumoproteins (KL-6, SP-D, and RAGEs) reflect the diagnosis, severity, and prognosis of COVID-19, and follow-up studies are still needed.

20.
Environmental Toxicology ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2007115

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, widespread utilization of disinfectants has led to a tremendous increase in the generation of disinfection byproducts worldwide. Bromoacetic acid (BAA), one of the common disinfection byproducts in the environment, has triggered public concern because of its adverse effects on urinary system in mammals. Nevertheless, the BAA-induced nephrotoxicity and potential mechanism in birds still remains obscure. According to the detected content in the Taihu Lake Basin, the model of BAA exposure in chicken was established at doses of 0, 3, 300, 3000 μg/L for 4 weeks. Our results indicated that BAA exposure caused kidney swelling and structural disarrangement. BAA led to disorder in renal function (CRE, BUN, UA) and increased apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2, caspase3). BAA suppressed the expression of mitochondrial biogenesis genes (PGC-1α, Nrf1, TFAM) and OXPHOS complex I genes (ND1, ND2, ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, ND6). Subsequently, BAA destroyed the expression of Nrf2 antioxidant reaction genes (Nrf2, Keap1, HO-1, NQO1, GCLM, GCLC). Furthermore, renal oxidative damage led to disorder in uric acid metabolism genes (Mrp2, Mrp4, Bcrp, OAT1, OAT2, OAT3) and exacerbated destruction in renal function. Overall, our study provided insights into the potential mechanism of BAA-induced nephrotoxicity, which were important for the clinical monitoring and prevention of BAA.

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