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1.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 805512, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952702

ABSTRACT

Aims: To explore the public's preference for psychological interventions through a discrete choice experiment and to provide references for formulating psychological intervention policies and establishing psychological intervention procedures in response to public health emergencies. Methods: This study is a discrete choice experiment. Attributes and levels were identified through literature reviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and expert consultations. Experimental design principles were applied to generate choice sets containing different attribute levels and develop a survey instrument. Convenience sampling was conducted nationwide, and 1,045 participants were investigated. A mixed logit model was used to evaluate the public's preferences. Results: All attributes in our study were found to have a significant influence on the public's preferences for psychological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The public's preferences for providers and duration were influenced by the public's levels of education and classifications. Furthermore, the most ideal scenario was found to be a one-on-one psychological intervention provided by family and friends through social network platforms, for which the frequency is twice per week, and the duration of each intervention is 0.5-1 h. Conclusions: The public's preferences for psychological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic are affected by the method, form, frequency, provider, and duration of interventions. Our findings provide references for the formulation of psychological intervention policies and the establishment of psychological intervention procedures in response to public health emergencies.

2.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837495

ABSTRACT

Aims To explore the public's preference for psychological interventions through a discrete choice experiment and to provide references for formulating psychological intervention policies and establishing psychological intervention procedures in response to public health emergencies. Methods This study is a discrete choice experiment. Attributes and levels were identified through literature reviews, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, and expert consultations. Experimental design principles were applied to generate choice sets containing different attribute levels and develop a survey instrument. Convenience sampling was conducted nationwide, and 1,045 participants were investigated. A mixed logit model was used to evaluate the public's preferences. Results All attributes in our study were found to have a significant influence on the public's preferences for psychological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The public's preferences for providers and duration were influenced by the public's levels of education and classifications. Furthermore, the most ideal scenario was found to be a one-on-one psychological intervention provided by family and friends through social network platforms, for which the frequency is twice per week, and the duration of each intervention is 0.5–1 h. Conclusions The public's preferences for psychological interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic are affected by the method, form, frequency, provider, and duration of interventions. Our findings provide references for the formulation of psychological intervention policies and the establishment of psychological intervention procedures in response to public health emergencies.

3.
Cells ; 11(8)2022 04 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785539

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RBDCoV2) has a higher binding affinity to the human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) than the SARS-CoV RBD (RBDCoV). Here, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, binding free energy (BFE) calculations, and interface residue contact network (IRCN) analysis to explore the mechanistic origin of different ACE2-binding affinities of the two RBDs. The results demonstrate that, when compared to the RBDCoV2-ACE2 complex, RBDCoV-ACE2 features enhanced dynamicsand inter-protein positional movements and increased conformational entropy and conformational diversity. Although the inter-protein electrostatic attractive interactions are the primary determinant for the high ACE2-binding affinities of both RBDs, the significantly enhanced electrostatic attractive interactions between ACE2 and RBDCoV2 determine the higher ACE2-binding affinity of RBDCoV2 than of RBDCoV. Comprehensive comparative analyses of the residue BFE components and IRCNs between the two complexes reveal that it is the residue changes at the RBD interface that lead to the overall stronger inter-protein electrostatic attractive force in RBDCoV2-ACE2, which not only tightens the interface packing and suppresses the dynamics of RBDCoV2-ACE2, but also enhances the ACE2-binding affinity of RBDCoV2. Since the RBD residue changes involving gain/loss of the positively/negatively charged residues can greatly enhance the binding affinity, special attention should be paid to the SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying such mutations, particularly those near or at the binding interfaces with the potential to form hydrogen bonds and/or salt bridges with ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS Virus , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327447

ABSTRACT

The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mediates viral entry into host cells through binding to the cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 RBD (RBD CoV2 ) has a higher binding affinity to human ACE2 than its highly homologous SARS-CoV RBD (RBD CoV ), for which the mechanistic reasons still remain to be elucidated. Here, we used the multiple-replica molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) binding free energy calculations, and interface residue contact network (IRCN) analysis approach to explore the mechanistic origin of different ACE2 binding affinities of these two RBDs. The results demonstrate that, when compared to the RBD CoV2 -ACE2 complex, the RBD CoV -ACE2 complex features the enhanced overall structural fluctuations and inter-protein positional movements and increased conformational entropy and diversity. The inter-protein electrostatic attractive interactions are a dominant force in determining the high ACE2 affinities of both RBDs, while the significantly strengthened electrostatic forces of attraction of ACE2 to RBD CoV2 determine the higher ACE2 binding affinity of RBD CoV2 than of RBD CoV . Comprehensive comparative analyses of the residue binding free energy components and IRCNs reveal that, although any RBD residue substitution involved in the charge change can significantly impact the inter-protein electrostatic interaction strength, it is the substitutions at the RBD interface that lead to the overall stronger electrostatic attractive force of RBD CoV2 -ACE2, which in turn not only tightens the interface packing and suppresses the dynamics of RBD CoV2 -ACE2, but also enhances the ACE2 binding affinity of RBD CoV2 compared to that of RBD CoV . Since the RBD residue substitutions involving gain/loss of the positively/negatively charged residues, in particular those near/at the binding interfaces with the potential to form hydrogen bonds and/or salt bridges with ACE2, can greatly enhance the ACE2 binding affinity, the SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying such mutations should be paid special attention to.

5.
Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1587144

ABSTRACT

Studying massive functional/longitudinal data, we adopt a flexible nonlinear dynamic regression method named the Semi-Varying Coefficient Additive Model, in which the response can be a functional/longitudinal variable, and the explanatory variables can be a mixture of functional/longitudinal and scalar variables. With the aid of an initial B-spline approximation, a local linear smoothing is proposed to estimate the unknown functional effects in the model. Existing methods of statistical inference for sparse data and dense data are significantly different. We therefore develop the asymptotic theories of the resultant pilot estimation based local linear estimators (PEBLLE) on a unified framework of sparse, dense and ultra-dense cases of data. Remarkably, we obtain the oracle properties as if other functions were known in advance. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies investigating the finite sample performance of the proposed methodologies confirm our asymptotic results. We further illustrate our methodologies by analyzing COVID-19 data from China.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-297104

ABSTRACT

Background: The utilization of mobile health (m-health) has rapidly expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic, and there is still a lack of relevant clinical data pertaining to chronic low-back pain(CLBP)management. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of m-health based exercise (via guidance plus education) versus exercise (via guidance) during CLBP management. Methods: : Participants (n = 40) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received m-health based exercise (via guidance plus education), whereas the control group received m-health based exercise (via guidance). The exercise prescription video and educational content were sent to participants by the application (app), Ding Talk . Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the baseline’s intervention effects, 6-week follow-up, and 18-week follow-up. We selected function(Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire)and pain intensity (current, mean, and most severe Numeric Rating Scale in the last 2 weeks)as the primary outcomes, changes of negative emotion (depression, anxious), and quality of life as the secondary outcomes. Results: : Time’s significant effect was found in pain, function, and health-related quality of life in both groups, but time did not show significant interaction effects. Participants were able to use m-based education with their anxiety and depression after treatment, but the relief only lasted until Week 6. No differences were found on the aspect of mental health-related quality of life. Conclusion: M-health based exercise (via guidance) is a convenient and effective method to treat CLBP. Additionally, plus education is more helpful in improving treatment adherence than guidance only. However, at the last follow-up(18-week), no significant differences were found between the intervention and control groups. Trial registration: The trial was prospectively registered with the Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Number: ChiCTR2000041459(12/26/2020).

7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(23)2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542551

ABSTRACT

Research, understanding, and prediction of complex systems is an important starting point for human beings to tackle major problems and emergencies such as global warming and COVID-19. Research on innovation ecosystem is an important part of research on complex systems. With the rapid development of sophisticated industries, the rise of innovative countries, and the newly developed innovation theory, innovation ecosystem has become a new explanation and new paradigm for adapting to today's global innovation cooperation network and the scientific development of complex systems, which is also in line with China's concept of building an innovative country and promoting comprehensive innovation and international cooperation with scientific and technological innovation as the core. The Innovative Research Group at Peking University is the most representative scientific and technological innovation team in the frontier field of basic research in China. The characteristics of its organization mechanism and dynamic evolution connotation are consistent with the characteristics and evolution of innovation ecosystem. An excellent innovative research group is regarded as a small innovation ecosystem. We selected the "Environmental Biogeochemistry" Innovation Research Group at Peking University as a typical case in order to understand and analyze the evolution of cooperation among scientific and technological innovation teams, improve the healthy development as well as internal and external governance of this special small innovation ecosystem, promote the expansion of an innovation team cooperation network and the improvement of cooperation quality, promote the linkage supports of funding and management departments, and improve their scientific and technological governance abilities. Through scientometrics, visual analysis of knowledge maps, and an exploratory case study, we study the evolution process and development law of team cooperation. It is found that the main node authors of the cooperation network maintain strong cooperation frequency and centrality, and gradually strengthen with the expansion of the cooperation network and the evolution of time. Driven by the internal cooperative governance of the team and the external governance of the funding and management departments, this group has gradually formed a healthy, orderly, open, and cooperative special innovation ecosystem, which is conducive to the stability and sustainable development of the national innovation ecosystem and the global innovation ecosystem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ecosystem , China , Humans , International Cooperation , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Integr Med Res ; 10: 100796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are several effective complementary and integrative therapies for patients with severe COVID-19. The trial aims to evaluate the efficacy and advantages of the qigong exercise and acupressure rehabilitation program (QARP) for treating patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 128 patients with COVID-19 aged 20 to 80 years were recruited and randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive QARP plus standard therapies or standard therapies alone. QARP consisted of acupressure therapy and qigong exercise (Liu Zi Jue). The primary outcome was measured with the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale, and the secondary outcomes included the modified Borg dyspnea scale (MBS), fatigue Scale-14 (FS-14), patient health questionnaire-9 scale (PHQ-9), duration of respiratory symptoms, and vital signs. RESULTS: In total, 128 patients completed the clinical trial. The QARP group and standard therapies group showed significant improvements in vital signs (except blood pressure) and clinical scales compared with baseline (p<0.05). The QARP group also showed more significant improvement in the mMRC dyspnea scale (-1.8 [-2.1, -1.6], p=0.018) and modified Borg dyspnea scale (-3.7 [95% confidence intervals (CI) -4.3, -3.1], p=0.045). The duration of cough was 14.3 days (95% CI 12.6, 16.1, p=0.046), and the length of hospital stay was 18.5 days (95% CI 17.0, 20.0, p=0.042) in the QARP group, both of which were significantly reduced compared with the standard therapies group (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: QARP plus standard therapies improved lung function and symptoms such as dyspnea and cough in patients with severe COVID-19 and shortened the length of hospital stay. Therefore, QARP may be considered an effective treatment option for patients with severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service Identifier: ChiCTR2000029994.

10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5739, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475293

ABSTRACT

Protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases have the ability to transmit to unaffected cells, thereby templating their own aberrant conformation onto soluble homotypic proteins. Proteopathic seeds can be released into the extracellular space, secreted in association with extracellular vesicles (EV) or exchanged by direct cell-to-cell contact. The extent to which each of these pathways contribute to the prion-like spreading of protein misfolding is unclear. Exchange of cellular cargo by both direct cell contact or via EV depends on receptor-ligand interactions. We hypothesized that enabling these interactions through viral ligands enhances intercellular proteopathic seed transmission. Using different cellular models propagating prions or pathogenic Tau aggregates, we demonstrate that vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein and SARS-CoV-2 spike S increase aggregate induction by cell contact or ligand-decorated EV. Thus, receptor-ligand interactions are important determinants of intercellular aggregate dissemination. Our data raise the possibility that viral infections contribute to proteopathic seed spreading by facilitating intercellular cargo transfer.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Brain/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Endocytosis , Female , Humans , Intravital Microscopy , Male , Middle Aged , Prions/metabolism , Protein Aggregation, Pathological/pathology , Protein Folding , tau Proteins/metabolism
11.
Sustainability ; 13(19):10819, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1444310

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted the life and mental health of many people globally. The objective of this study was to investigate the factors associated with preventive behaviors and mental health among Chinese adults during their home quarantine in the COVID-19 period. An online questionnaire survey was administered in March 2020. The study participants were adults aged between 18 and 70 years old from 31 provinces in China. Of the 3878 participants, 1314 reported moderate levels of anxiety, and the remaining participants reported moderate to severe levels of anxiety. Findings revealed that females aged between 18 and 30 years old who had higher educational qualifications, greater levels of preventive knowledge, trust in the government, and resided in urban and medium-risk areas (R2 = 0.100, F = 27.97, p <0.001) were more likely to exhibit preventive behaviors. In contrast, a higher negative emotional response was generally seen in males who had low levels of preventive knowledge and behaviors, higher risk perception of infection, lower trust in the government, and unhealthy lifestyles (R2 = 0.127, F = 32.33, p <0.001). In addition, the high-risk perception of infection was positively associated with high odds of anxiety (AOR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10–1.24), whereas a greater level of preventive knowledge (AOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.19–0.70) and behaviors (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57–0.84), higher trust in the government’s COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures (AOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.71–0.83), and a healthier lifestyle (AOR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79–0.99) were negatively associated with high odds of anxiety. Results showed that a lower level of anxiety and negative emotional response were associated with better preventive behaviors against COVID-19, which were influenced by preventive knowledge, risk perception, trust in the government’s COVID-19 pandemic mitigation measures, and healthy lifestyle. Findings in this study could help formulate health interventions for vulnerable groups related to gendered vulnerabilities in the COVID-19 environment to improve their mental health and preventive behaviors, especially during the period of a pandemic.

12.
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening ; : 127294, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1351851

ABSTRACT

While the focus of the wide-spread coronavirus is its impacts on people’s lives and economic wellbeing around the world, the pandemic substantially limits people’s available options of physical activities and exacerbates an enduring problem of large urban populations lack accessible green space to fulfill the essential physical and mental health needs. Under the current pandemic situation available green space is further reduced when some parks are closed or open with limited functions to reduce the spread of coronavirus. At the same time, the demand for green space has increased because of the unavailability of other activities. In this essay, we call the attention of urban planners and designers to pocket parks. Studies have shown that the tiny size of pocket parks makes them an easier fit into vacant properties scattered throughout the urban fabric. Therefore, pocket parks can improve health and encourage social cohesion of residents in often underserved high density urban neighborhoods. The potential of pocket parks in providing accessible urban green space to all urban population may have been considered desirable before the coronavirus outbreak and now it should be considered a necessary ‘lifeline’ to improve urban residents’ health during the coronavirus. In addition, with the long-overlooked value of accessible urban green space waken by the global-scale crisis, proper attention and improvement strategy, such as introducing more pocket park could lead to a better future after the COVID-19.

13.
Nano Lett ; 21(14): 5920-5930, 2021 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316697

ABSTRACT

The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection threatens human health. In this study, we used high-pressure homogenization technology not only to efficiently drive the bacterial membrane to produce artificial vesicles but also to force the fusion protein ClyA-receptor binding domain (RBD) to pass through gaps in the bacterial membrane to increase the contact between ClyA-RBD and the membrane. Therefore, the load of ClyA-RBD on the membrane is substantially increased. Using this technology, we constructed a "ring-like" bacterial biomimetic vesicle (BBV) loaded with polymerized RBD (RBD-BBV). RBD-BBVs injected subcutaneously can accumulate in lymph nodes, promote antigen uptake and processing, and elicit SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. In conclusion, we evaluated the potential of this novel bacterial vesicle as a vaccine delivery system and provided a new idea for the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 43(4): 771-780, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315591

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can induce acute inflammatory response like acute lung inflammation (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to severe progression and mortality. Therapeutics for treatment of SARS-CoV-2-triggered respiratory inflammation are urgent to be discovered. Our previous study shows that Salvianolic acid C potently inhibits SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of a Salvia miltiorrhiza compound, Danshensu, in vitro and in vivo, including the mechanism of S protein-mediated virus attachment and entry into target cells. In authentic and pseudo-typed virus assays in vitro, Danshensu displayed a potent antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 with EC50 of 0.97 µM, and potently inhibited the entry of SARS-CoV-2 S protein-pseudo-typed virus (SARS-CoV-2 S) into ACE2-overexpressed HEK-293T cells (IC50 = 0.31 µM) and Vero-E6 cell (IC50 = 4.97 µM). Mice received SARS-CoV-2 S via trachea to induce ALI, while the VSV-G treated mice served as controls. The mice were administered Danshensu (25, 50, 100 mg/kg, i.v., once) or Danshensu (25, 50, 100 mg·kg-1·d-1, oral administration, for 7 days) before SARS-CoV-2 S infection. We showed that SARS-CoV-2 S infection induced severe inflammatory cell infiltration, severely damaged lung tissue structure, highly expressed levels of inflammatory cytokines, and activated TLR4 and hyperphosphorylation of the NF-κB p65; the high expression of angiotensinogen (AGT) and low expression of ACE2 at the mRNA level in the lung tissue were also observed. Both oral and intravenous pretreatment with Danshensu dose-dependently alleviated the pathological alterations in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 S. This study not only establishes a mouse model of pseudo-typed SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2 S) induced ALI, but also demonstrates that Danshensu is a potential treatment for COVID-19 patients to inhibit the lung inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lactates , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(2): 632-644, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070628

ABSTRACT

The variety and widespread of coronavirus in natural reservoir animals is likely to cause epidemics via interspecific transmission, which has attracted much attention due to frequent coronavirus epidemics in recent decades. Birds are natural reservoir of various viruses, but the existence of coronaviruses in wild birds in central China has been barely studied. Some bird coronaviruses belong to the genus of Deltacoronavirus. To explore the diversity of bird deltacoronaviruses in central China, we tested faecal samples from 415 wild birds in Hunan Province, China. By RT-PCR detection, we identified eight samples positive for deltacoronaviruses which were all from common magpies, and in four of them, we successfully amplified complete deltacoronavirus genomes distinct from currently known deltacoronavirus, indicating four novel deltacoronavirus stains (HNU1-1, HNU1-2, HNU2 and HNU3). Comparative analysis on the four genomic sequences showed that these novel magpie deltacoronaviruses shared three different S genes among which the S genes of HNU1-1 and HNU1-2 showed 93.8% amino acid (aa) identity to that of thrush coronavirus HKU12, HNU2 S showed 71.9% aa identity to that of White-eye coronavirus HKU16, and HNU3 S showed 72.4% aa identity to that of sparrow coronavirus HKU17. Recombination analysis showed that frequent recombination events of the S genes occurred among these deltacoronavirus strains. Two novel putative cleavage sites separating the non-structural proteins in the HNU coronaviruses were found. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis showed that the south coast of China might be a potential origin of bird deltacoronaviruses existing in inland China. In summary, these results suggest that common magpie in China carries diverse deltacoronaviruses with novel genomic features, indicating an important source of environmental coronaviruses closed to human communities, which may provide key information for prevention and control of future coronavirus epidemics.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Birds , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus , Phylogeny
16.
Cell ; 184(7): 1895-1913.e19, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062273

ABSTRACT

A dysfunctional immune response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet a detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 196 COVID-19 patients and controls and created a comprehensive immune landscape with 1.46 million cells. The large dataset enabled us to identify that different peripheral immune subtype changes are associated with distinct clinical features, including age, sex, severity, and disease stages of COVID-19. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was found in diverse epithelial and immune cell types, accompanied by dramatic transcriptomic changes within virus-positive cells. Systemic upregulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis of and developing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Megakaryocytes/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China , Cohort Studies , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Single-Cell Analysis , Transcriptome/immunology , Young Adult
17.
JMIR Bioinform Biotech ; 2(1): e25995, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19, caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2, is considered the most threatening respiratory infection in the world, with over 40 million people infected and over 0.934 million related deaths reported worldwide. It is speculated that epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19 may differ across countries or continents. Genomic comparison of 48,635 SARS-CoV-2 genomes has shown that the average number of mutations per sample was 7.23, and most SARS-CoV-2 strains belong to one of 3 clades characterized by geographic and genomic specificity: Europe, Asia, and North America. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from Italy, Sweden, and Congo, that is, 3 different countries in the same meridian (longitude) but with different climate conditions, and from Brazil (as an outgroup country), to analyze similarities or differences in patterns of possible evolutionary pressure signatures in their genomes. METHODS: We obtained data from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data repository by sampling all genomes available on that date. Using HyPhy, we achieved the recombination analysis by genetic algorithm recombination detection method, trimming, removal of the stop codons, and phylogenetic tree and mixed effects model of evolution analyses. We also performed secondary structure prediction analysis for both sequences (mutated and wild-type) and "disorder" and "transmembrane" analyses of the protein. We analyzed both protein structures with an ab initio approach to predict their ontologies and 3D structures. RESULTS: Evolutionary analysis revealed that codon 9628 is under episodic selective pressure for all SARS-CoV-2 strains isolated from the 4 countries, suggesting it is a key site for virus evolution. Codon 9628 encodes the P0DTD3 (Y14_SARS2) uncharacterized protein 14. Further investigation showed that the codon mutation was responsible for helical modification in the secondary structure. The codon was positioned in the more ordered region of the gene (41-59) and near to the area acting as the transmembrane (54-67), suggesting its involvement in the attachment phase of the virus. The predicted protein structures of both wild-type and mutated P0DTD3 confirmed the importance of the codon to define the protein structure. Moreover, ontological analysis of the protein emphasized that the mutation enhances the binding probability. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that RNA secondary structure may be affected and, consequently, the protein product changes T (threonine) to G (glycine) in position 50 of the protein. This position is located close to the predicted transmembrane region. Mutation analysis revealed that the change from G (glycine) to D (aspartic acid) may confer a new function to the protein-binding activity, which in turn may be responsible for attaching the virus to human eukaryotic cells. These findings can help design in vitro experiments and possibly facilitate a vaccine design and successful antiviral strategies.

18.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e24619, 2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has increased challenges associated with health management, especially cancer management. In an effort to provide continuous pharmaceutical care to cancer patients, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) implemented a remote pharmacy service platform based on its already existing web-based hospital app known as Cloud SYSUCC. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, acceptance, and initial impact of the Cloud SYSUCC app during a COVID-19 outbreak in a tertiary cancer hospital in China. METHODS: The total number of online prescriptions and detailed information on the service were obtained during the first 6 months after the remote service platform was successfully set up. The patients' gender, age, residence, primary diagnosis, drug classification, weekly number of prescriptions, and prescribed drugs were analyzed. In addition, a follow-up telephonic survey was conducted to evaluate patients' satisfaction in using the remote prescription service. RESULTS: A total of 1718 prescriptions, including 2022 drugs for 1212 patients, were delivered to 24 provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government of China between February 12, 2020, and August 11, 2020. The majority of patients were female (841/1212, 69.39%), and 90.18% (1093/1212) of them were aged 31-70 years old. The top 3 primary diagnoses for which remote medical prescriptions were made included breast cancer (599/1212, 49.42%), liver cancer (249/1212, 20.54%), and thyroid cancer (125/1212, 10.31%). Of the 1718 prescriptions delivered, 1435 (83.5%) were sent to Guangdong Province and 283 (16.5%) were sent to other provinces in China. Of the 2022 drugs delivered, 1012 (50.05%) were hormonal drugs. The general trend in the use of the remote prescription service declined since the 10th week. A follow-up telephonic survey found that 88% (88/100) of the patients were very satisfied, and 12% (12/100) of the patients were somewhat satisfied with the remote pharmacy service platform. CONCLUSIONS: The remote pharmacy platform Cloud SYSUCC is efficient and convenient for providing continuous pharmaceutical care to patients with cancer during the COVID-19 crisis. The widespread use of this platform can help to reduce person-to-person transmission as well as infection risk for these patients. Further efforts are needed to improve the quality and acceptance of the Cloud SYSUCC platform, as well as to regulate and standardize the management of this novel service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Patient Satisfaction , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
19.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5177

ABSTRACT

A review. The report summarized the diagnosis and treatment protocols with traditional Chinese medicine from 24 provinces and municipalities.

20.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4899

ABSTRACT

A review summarized the clin. application of high frequency traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia.

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