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Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6792, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117248


Few live attenuated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are in pre-clinical or clinical development. We seek to attenuate SARS-CoV-2 (isolate WA1/2020) by removing the polybasic insert within the spike protein and the open reading frames (ORFs) 6-8, and by introducing mutations that abolish non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1)-mediated toxicity. The derived virus (WA1-ΔPRRA-ΔORF6-8-Nsp1K164A/H165A) replicates to 100- to 1000-fold-lower titers than the ancestral virus and induces little lung pathology in both K18-human ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic mice and Syrian hamsters. Immunofluorescence and transcriptomic analyses of infected hamsters confirm that three-pronged genetic modifications attenuate the proinflammatory pathways more than the removal of the polybasic cleavage site alone. Finally, intranasal administration of just 100 PFU of the WA1-ΔPRRA-ΔORF6-8-Nsp1K164A/H165A elicits robust antibody responses in Syrian hamsters and protects against SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss and pneumonia. As a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that live but sufficiently attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may be attainable by rational design.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mesocricetus , Antibody Formation , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
J Virol ; 96(17): e0114022, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001778


The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants were first detected in November 2021, and several Omicron lineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.3, BA.4, and BA.5) have since rapidly emerged. Studies characterizing the mechanisms of Omicron variant infection and sensitivity to neutralizing antibodies induced upon vaccination are ongoing by several groups. In the present study, we used pseudoviruses to show that the transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) enhances infection of BA.1, BA.1.1, BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants to a lesser extent than ancestral D614G. We further show that Omicron variants have higher sensitivity to inhibition by soluble angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and the endosomal inhibitor chloroquine compared to D614G. The Omicron variants also more efficiently used ACE2 receptors from 9 out of 10 animal species tested, and unlike the D614G variant, used mouse ACE2 due to the Q493R and Q498R spike substitutions. Finally, neutralization of the Omicron variants by antibodies induced by three doses of Pfizer/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was 7- to 8-fold less potent than the D614G. These results provide insights into the transmissibility and immune evasion capacity of the emerging Omicron variants to curb their ongoing spread. IMPORTANCE The ongoing emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants with an extensive number of spike mutations poses a significant public health and zoonotic concern due to enhanced transmission fitness and escape from neutralizing antibodies. We studied three Omicron lineage variants (BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3) and found that transmembrane serine protease 2 has less influence on Omicron entry into cells than on D614G, and Omicron exhibits greater sensitivity to endosomal entry inhibition compared to D614G. In addition, Omicron displays more efficient usage of diverse animal species ACE2 receptors than D614G. Furthermore, due to Q493R/Q498R substitutions in spike, Omicron, but not D614G, can use the mouse ACE2 receptor. Finally, three doses of Pfizer/BNT162b2 mRNA vaccination elicit high neutralization titers against Omicron variants, although the neutralization titers are still 7- to 8-fold lower those that against D614G. These results may give insights into the transmissibility and immune evasion capacity of the emerging Omicron variants to curb their ongoing spread.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Internalization , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Species Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism