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1.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2041671

ABSTRACT

Systemic racism and discriminatory practices continue to disproportionally expose Black children and families to less than optimal health and economic resources. COVID-19 sheds existing light on how long-standing systemic inequalities affecting Black children and families create racial disparities in accessing material resources. The purpose of this study (N = 704 Black caregivers) is to better understand the relationship between experiences of racial discrimination, access to material resources (i.e., health-promoting resources and economic resources), and Black children's behavioral functioning during the pandemic. Through the application of ordinary least squares regression analysis, we find that inadequate material resources (both health-related risks and economic hardship) during the pandemic were associated with heightened caregiver report that their child was frequently fussy or defiant (externalizing) and frequently anxious or fearful (internalizing). The study found no significant links between caregivers’ experiences of discrimination during the pandemic and children's behavioral functioning. However, we found a significant link between caregivers’ concern for their children's experiences of discrimination and their children's externalizing behaviors. Findings from this study offer an important contribution to understanding how factors rooted in systemic racism—access to material resources—and experiences of discrimination affect Black children's well-being during COVID-19.

2.
Clinical Psychological Science ; : 21677026221083275, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1978741

ABSTRACT

Parents of young children were a subgroup of the population identified early in the pandemic as experiencing significant mental-health symptoms. Using a longitudinal sample of 3,085 parents from across the United States who had a child or children age 0 to 5, in the present study, we identified parental mental-health trajectories from April to November 2020 predicted by pre?COVID-19 cumulative risk and COVID-19-specific risk factors. Both growth-mixture modeling and latent-growth-curve modeling were used to test the relationship between risk factors and parent mental health. Pre?COVID-19 cumulative risk and COVID-19-specific risks of financial strain, decreased employment, and increased family conflict were salient risk factors predicting poor mental-health trajectories across both modeling approaches. These finding have public-health implications because prolonged exposure to mental-health symptoms in parents constitutes a risk factor for child development.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 307: 115173, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been recognized to provide rare insight to advance the scientific understanding of early life adversity, such as material hardship. During the COVID-19 pandemic, material hardship (i.e., difficulty paying for basic needs) in families of young children has had detrimental effects on caregivers' and children's well-being. In addition to the degree of material hardship, the week-to-week and month-to-month unpredictability of hardship status may add to families' stress and worsen well-being. This study examined the magnitude of and mechanisms underlying the effects of material hardship level and unpredictability on the well-being of U.S. households with young children during the pandemic. METHODS: Data were drawn from the RAPID project, a large ongoing national study that used weekly/biweekly online surveys to investigate the pandemic impact on U.S. households with young children. The current study leveraged data from 4621 families who provided at least three responses between April 2020 and October 2021. RESULTS: Findings indicated that racial/ethnic minorities and lower-income households experienced higher levels of material hardship and unpredictability during the pandemic, compared to their White or higher-income counterparts. Levels of pandemic-related material hardship and hardship unpredictability were both significantly associated with worsened well-being among caregivers and children. Finally, the effects of hardship level and unpredictability on well-being outcomes were partially mediated through disrupted family routines. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study highlight that ensuring equal and adequate access to financial resources, as well as promoting financial stability for households with young children are both critical for maintaining functional family dynamics and promoting caregivers' and children's optimal well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Humans , Income , Pandemics , Poverty
4.
Phytomedicine ; 102: 154166, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) showed to be beneficial for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. PURPOSE: This study aimed to systematically assemble the evidence on the efficacy and safety of QFPDD combined with Western medicine treatments (WMT) for COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CSTJ, CBM, Wanfang Data for clinical trials with a control arm until January 13, 2022. Studies matched the selection criteria were included. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included studies were independently conducted by two reviewers. Review Manager 5.4 was used for meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 9 trials including 1108 COVID-19 patients met the selection criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that QFPDD combined with WMT reduced aggravation rate (AR) by 71% [risk ratio (RR) = 0.29, 95% confidence intervals (CI) (0.17, 0.51)], increased effective rate (ER) by 13% [RR = 1.13, 95%CI (1.04, 1.22)], shortened 4.78 days of viral shedding [95%CI (-5.79, -3.77)] and 4.45 days of hospital stay [95%CI (-6.05, -2.86)], also decreased the incidence of adverse events (AE) by 56% [RR = 0.44, 95%CI (0.22, 0.89)]. CONCLUSION: QFPDD combined with WMT might reduce the proportion of severe cases and the incidence of AE, shorten the duration of viral shedding and length of hospital stay. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are required to confirm our findings in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/drug therapy , China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Length of Stay
5.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(10): 195-198, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737616

ABSTRACT

What is already known about this topic?: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes symptoms ranging from mild to severe. Indicators for identifying severe COVID-19 infection have not been well identified, especially for young patients. What is added by this report?: Both neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) [area under curve (AUC): 0.80; the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI): 1.30 (1.13-1.50)] and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) [AUC: 0.87; OR (95% CI): 1.05 (1.01-1.09)] were determined to be indicators for recognition of patients with severe COVID-19 in young patients less than age 40. What are the implications for public health practice?: NLR and PLR are useful indicators for identifying patients with severe COVID-19, especially in young patients less than age 40.

6.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 54: 101091, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704212

ABSTRACT

Extensive evidence links adverse experiences during childhood to a wide range of negative consequences in biological, socioemotional, and cognitive development. Unpredictability is a core element underlying most forms of early adversity; it has been a focus of developmental research for many years and has been receiving increasing attention recently. In this article, we propose a conceptual model to describe how unpredictable and adverse early experiences affect children's neurobiological, behavioral, and psychological development in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We first highlight the critical role of unpredictability in child development by reviewing existing conceptual models of early adversity as they relate to subsequent development across the lifespan. Then, we employ a translational neuroscience framework to summarize the current animal- and human-based evidence on the neurobiological alterations induced by early experience unpredictability. We further argue that the COVID-19 pandemic serves as a global "natural experiment" that provides rare insight to the investigation of the negative developmental consequences of widespread, clustered, and unpredictable adverse events among children. We discuss how the pandemic helps advance the science of unpredictable early adverse experiences. As unpredictability research continues to grow, we highlight several directions for future studies and implications for policymaking and intervention practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosciences , Child Development , Humans , Neurobiology , Pandemics
7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328975

ABSTRACT

Extensive evidence links adverse experiences during childhood to a wide range of negative consequences in biological, socioemotional, and cognitive development. Unpredictability is a core element underlying most forms of early adversity;it has been a focus of developmental research for many years and has been receiving increasing attention recently. In this article, we propose a conceptual model to describe how unpredictable and adverse early experiences affect children’s neurobiological, behavioral, and psychological development in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. We first highlight the critical role of unpredictability in child development by reviewing existing conceptual models of early adversity as they relate to subsequent development across the lifespan. Then, we employ a translational neuroscience framework to summarize the current animal- and human-based evidence on the neurobiological alterations induced by early experience unpredictability. We further argue that the COVID-19 pandemic serves as a global “natural experiment” that provides rare insight to the investigation of the negative developmental consequences of widespread, clustered, and unpredictable adverse events among children. We discuss how the pandemic helps advance the science of unpredictable early adverse experiences. As unpredictability research continues to grow, we highlight several directions for future studies and implications for policymaking and intervention practices.

8.
Chin J Integr Med ; 28(9): 779-784, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633656

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To summarize the measures and rules of Chinese medicine (CM) and provide reference for clinical application in the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: The data source was from CM COVID-19 prevention and treatment programs on government websites and official media websites of the different provinces and cities. The search lasted from December 8, 2019 to March 10, 2020. Main variables were medication frequency and combinations of medicines. Cluster analysis and complex network analysis were used by prevention and treatment stage and by area. RESULTS: Among 27 CM diagnosis and treatment plans, 203 therapeutic prescriptions were enrolled, of which the top 4 herbs were: Radix glycyrrhizae, Semen armeniacae amarum, Herba ephedrae, and Herba agastachis, respectively. The core combinations were Herba ephedrae and Semen armeniacae amarum. Forty-eight preventive formulae were identified. Ten herbs, including Radix Astragali seu hedysari, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix saposhnikoviae, Flos lonicerae, etc. were most frequently used. The core prescription of CM compatibility was Radix astragali seu hedysari, Radix glycyrrhizae, and Radix saposhnikoviae, which is the main component of Yu Ping Feng San. There were 45 prevention and treatment prescriptions in East China; the most used CM was Radix glycyrrhizae, Herba agastachis, Pericarpium citri reticulatae, and Gypsum fibrosum. Fifty prescriptions were identified in North China. According to CM analyses, Herba agastachis, Semen armeniacae amarum, Herba ephedrae, and Poria were most frequently used. CONCLUSIONS: CM for COVID-19 prevention mainly focuses on improving human immunity; for treatment, prescription focuses on clearing the lungs and removing dampness. Prescriptions vary with regions, perhaps due to climatic and environmental differences, which help clinicians to quickly make CM plans and treat patients according to clinical status, further minimizing resource wastage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
9.
J Pediatr Psychol ; 47(2): 158-170, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595422

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study examined how the COVID-19 pandemic differently affected households of children with versus without special healthcare needs. We compared caregivers' and children's emotional well-being (Aim 1), the utilization of preventive healthcare services for young children (Aim 2), and the promotive effects of social support on well-being outcomes (Aim 3) during the pandemic between the two groups. METHODS: Data were drawn from an ongoing, large, longitudinal, and national survey that assessed the pandemic impact on households of young children (0-5). Analyses for Aims 1 and 2 were based on 10,572 households, among which 10.96% had children with special healthcare needs. Analyses for Aim 3 were based on a subsample of 821 families, among which 12.54% had children with special healthcare needs. RESULTS: Caregivers of children with special healthcare needs exhibited more emotional distress and reported higher levels of household children's behavioral problems during the pandemic. The percentages of missed preventive healthcare visits and vaccinations were also higher in families of children with special healthcare needs due to structural barriers. Lastly, emotional social support was indirectly related to children's decreased behavioral problems through caregivers' reduced emotional distress, only among households of children without special healthcare needs. In other words, social support alone was not sufficient in promoting caregivers' and children's better well-being outcomes among households of children with special healthcare needs. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic has caused extensive burdens on families of children with special healthcare needs. Actions from policymakers and early intervention service providers are urgently needed to mitigate these impacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Caregivers , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105290, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318948

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic has been almost controlled in China under a series of policies, including "early diagnosis and early treatment". This study aimed to explore the association between early treatment with Qingfei Paidu decoction (QFPDD) and favorable clinical outcomes. In this retrospective multicenter study, we included 782 patients (males, 56 %; median age 46) with confirmed COVID-19 from 54 hospitals in nine provinces of China, who were divided into four groups according to the treatment initiation time from the first date of onset of symptoms to the date of starting treatment with QFPDD. The primary outcome was time to recovery; days of viral shedding, duration of hospital stay, and course of the disease were also analyzed. Compared with treatment initiated after 3 weeks, early treatment with QFPDD after less than 1 week, 1-2 weeks, or 2-3 weeks had a higher likelihood of recovery, with adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95 % confidence interval [CI]) of 3.81 (2.65-5.48), 2.63 (1.86-3.73), and 1.92 (1.34-2.75), respectively. The median course of the disease decreased from 34 days to 24 days, 21 days, and 18 days when treatment was administered early by a week (P < 0.0001). Treatment within a week was related to a decrease by 1-4 days in the median duration of hospital stay compared with late treatment (P<0.0001). In conclusion, early treatment with QFPDD may serve as an effective strategy in controlling the epidemic, as early treatment with QFPDD was associated with favorable outcomes, including faster recovery, shorter time to viral shedding, and a shorter duration of hospital stay. However, further multicenter, prospective studies with a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the benefits of early treatment with QFPDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Phytomedicine ; 81: 153433, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957350

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies mainly reported the clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infections, but the research on clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of COVID-19 patients with stroke is still rare. METHODS: A multi-center retrospective study was conducted at 11 hospitals in 4 provinces of China, and COVID-19 patients with stroke were enrolled from February 24 to May 4, 2020. We analyzed epidemiological, demographic, and clinical characteristics of cases as well as the laboratory test results, treatment regimens and outcomes, and the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes were compared between severe and nonsevere patients, and by age group, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients [mean age: 66.41 (SD 12.1) years] were enrolled. Among them, 9 (33.3%) were severe patients and 18 (66.7%) were nonsevere patients; 17 (63.0%) were female; 19 (70.4%) were aged 60 years and above. The most common symptoms were fever [19 (70.4%)], fatigue [12 (44.4%)] and cough [11 (40.7%)], respectively. Abnormal laboratory findings of COVID-19 patients with stroke included high levels of C-reactive protein [19 (73.1%)], D-dimer [14 (58.3%)], blood glucose [14 (53.8%)], fibrinogen [13 (50.0%)], and decreased lymphocytes [12 (44.4%)]. Comparing to nonsevere cases with stroke, severe patients with stroke were likely to be older, susceptible to receiving oxygen inhalation, and had more complications (p < 0.05). In addition, there were significant differences in lymphocytes, neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, creatine kinase between the severe cases and nonsevere cases (p < 0.05). The older patients had a decreased platelet count and elevated fibrinogen, compared with the younger (p < 0.05). All patients (100%) received antiviral treatment, 12 (44.4%) received antibiotics treatment, 26 (96.3%) received Traditional Chinese Medicine (Lung cleansing & detoxifying decoction), and oxygen inhalation was in 18 (66.7%). The median duration of hospitalization was 16 days. By May 4, 2020, a total of 26 (96.3%) patients were cured and discharged, and 1 (3.7%) patients died. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 patients with stroke had poor indicators of coagulation system, and severe and older patients might have a higher risk of complications and unfavorable coagulation system. However, the overall treatment outcome is favorable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
12.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1851

ABSTRACT

Background: Few studies have examined the association between treatment given time and clinical outcomes, which is indeed of great importance to clinical manage

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