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1.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 25(5): 295-302, 2022 May 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847419

ABSTRACT

Though the coronavirus disease is still raging in 2021, clinical research on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) did not stop. However, benefiting from advances in lung cancer treatment modality, NSCLC patients have experienced significant improvements in overall survival and quality of life. Currently, research advances on targeted therapy and immunotherapy have together transformed the status of postoperative adjuvant therapy and established a new standard treatment modality for resectable NSCLC. There are equally important research advances in locally advanced and advanced NSCLC, including new treatment modalities, new therapeutic agents, etc., all of which bringing more options for clinical treatment. These therapies will bring changes to NSCLC and will gradually lead to the chronicity of lung cancer in the foreseeable future. Therefore, this paper reviews important studies that will change clinical practice in NSCLC treatment and noteworthy research advances in 2021.
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Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/surgery , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Quality of Life
2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4971-4981, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM), a population bearing the greatest HIV burden in many countries, may also be vulnerable to COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines are essential to containing the pandemic. However, vaccine hesitancy may compromise vaccine coverage. We aimed to understand the uptake of COVID-19 vaccine and factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among HIV-infected MSM in mainland China. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey among HIV-infected MSM was conducted between 13 and 21 February 2021 in mainland China. Variables including demographics, mental health status, HIV characteristics, and knowledge of and attitudes toward COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 vaccine were collected. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyze factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. RESULTS: A total of 1295 participants were included. The median age was 29.3 years (interquartile range [IQR] 25.2-34.0 years). The uptake of COVID-19 vaccine was 8.7%. Two main reasons for receiving vaccines were "regarded vaccination as self-health protection" (67.3%) and "trust in domestic medical technology" (67.3%). Among participants who did not initiate vaccination, concern about side effects (46.4%) and disclosure of HIV infection (38.6%) were top two reasons, and 47.2% had higher vaccine hesitancy. Men who had with high antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.35-0.80), often (0.26, 0.17-0.40) or sometimes (0.46, 0.31-0.67) paid attention to information about the COVID-19 vaccine, preferred domestic vaccines (0.37, 0.24-0.59), thought the pandemic had moderate (0.58, 0.38-0.90) and moderately severe or severe impact (0.54, 0.38-0.78) on immunity, who were waiting for vaccination programs organized at workplace (0.60, 0.44-0.81) and who were unaware of where to get COVID-19 vaccine (0.61, 0.45-0.82) had lower degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Men who were concerned about the efficacy (1.72, 1.16-2.54) and side effects (2.44, 1.78-3.35) had higher degree of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine uptake among HIV-infected MSM is still suboptimal. Understanding influencing factors of vaccine hesitancy among this group and making tailored measures to alleviate hesitancy would help improve the coverage of COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295327

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1,067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.

4.
iScience ; 24(10): 103186, 2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused over 220 million infections and 4.5 million deaths worldwide. Current risk factor cannot fully explain the diversity in disease severity. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of a broad range of patients' laboratory and clinical assessments to investigate the genetic contributions to COVID-19 severity. By performing GWAS analysis, we discovered several concrete associations for laboratory traits and used Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to further investigate the causality of traits on disease severity. Two causal traits, WBC counts and cholesterol levels, were identified based on MR study, and their functional genes are located at genes MHC complex and ApoE, respectively. Our gene-based analysis and GSEA revealed four interferon pathways, including type I interferon receptor binding and SARS coronavirus and innate immunity. We hope that our work will contribute to studying the genetic mechanisms of disease and serve as a useful reference for COVID-19 diagnosis and treatment.

7.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1034, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380915

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has caused numerous infections with diverse clinical symptoms. To identify human genetic variants contributing to the clinical development of COVID-19, we genotyped 1457 (598/859 with severe/mild symptoms) and sequenced 1141 (severe/mild: 474/667) patients of Chinese ancestry. We further incorporated 1401 genotyped and 948 sequenced ancestry-matched population controls, and tested genome-wide association on 1072 severe cases versus 3875 mild or population controls, followed by trans-ethnic meta-analysis with summary statistics of 3199 hospitalized cases and 897,488 population controls from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. We identified three significant signals outside the well-established 3p21.31 locus: an intronic variant in FOXP4-AS1 (rs1853837, odds ratio OR = 1.28, P = 2.51 × 10-10, allele frequencies in Chinese/European AF = 0.345/0.105), a frameshift insertion in ABO (rs8176719, OR = 1.19, P = 8.98 × 10-9, AF = 0.422/0.395) and a Chinese-specific intronic variant in MEF2B (rs74490654, OR = 8.73, P = 1.22 × 10-8, AF = 0.004/0). These findings highlight an important role of the adaptive immunity and the ABO blood-group system in protection from developing severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Introns/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
8.
Cell Discov ; 7(1): 76, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380898

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection causes a broad clinical spectrum of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The development of COVID-19 may be the result of a complex interaction between the microbial, environmental, and host genetic components. To reveal genetic determinants of susceptibility to COVID-19 severity in the Chinese population, we performed a genome-wide association study on 885 severe or critical COVID-19 patients (cases) and 546 mild or moderate patients (controls) from two hospitals, Huoshenshan and Union hospitals at Wuhan city in China. We identified two loci on chromosome 11q23.3 and 11q14.2, which are significantly associated with the COVID-19 severity in the meta-analyses of the two cohorts (index rs1712779: odds ratio [OR] = 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.63 for T allele; P = 1.38 × 10-8; and index rs10831496: OR = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.38-1.98 for A allele; P = 4.04 × 10-8, respectively). The results for rs1712779 were validated in other two small COVID-19 cohorts in the Asian populations (P = 0.029 and 0.031, respectively). Furthermore, we identified significant eQTL associations for REXO2, C11orf71, NNMT, and CADM1 at 11q23.3, and CTSC at 11q14.2, respectively. In conclusion, our findings highlight two loci at 11q23.3 and 11q14.2 conferring susceptibility to the severity of COVID-19, which might provide novel insights into the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of this disease.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13971, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301179

ABSTRACT

To unravel the source of SARS-CoV-2 introduction and the pattern of its spreading and evolution in the United Arab Emirates, we conducted meta-transcriptome sequencing of 1067 nasopharyngeal swab samples collected between May 9th and Jun 29th, 2020 during the first peak of the local COVID-19 epidemic. We identified global clade distribution and eleven novel genetic variants that were almost absent in the rest of the world and that defined five subclades specific to the UAE viral population. Cross-settlement human-to-human transmission was related to the local business activity. Perhaps surprisingly, at least 5% of the population were co-infected by SARS-CoV-2 of multiple clades within the same host. We also discovered an enrichment of cytosine-to-uracil mutation among the viral population collected from the nasopharynx, that is different from the adenosine-to-inosine change previously reported in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples and a previously unidentified upregulation of APOBEC4 expression in nasopharynx among infected patients, indicating the innate immune host response mediated by ADAR and APOBEC gene families could be tissue-specific. The genomic epidemiological and molecular biological knowledge reported here provides new insights for the SARS-CoV-2 evolution and transmission and points out future direction on host-pathogen interaction investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Genomics , Immunity, Innate , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Organ Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
Cell Discov ; 6(1): 83, 2020 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922257

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has accounted for millions of infections and hundreds of thousand deaths worldwide in a short-time period. The patients demonstrate a great diversity in clinical and laboratory manifestations and disease severity. Nonetheless, little is known about the host genetic contribution to the observed interindividual phenotypic variability. Here, we report the first host genetic study in the Chinese population by deeply sequencing and analyzing 332 COVID-19 patients categorized by varying levels of severity from the Shenzhen Third People's Hospital. Upon a total of 22.2 million genetic variants, we conducted both single-variant and gene-based association tests among five severity groups including asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe, and critical ill patients after the correction of potential confounding factors. Pedigree analysis suggested a potential monogenic effect of loss of function variants in GOLGA3 and DPP7 for critically ill and asymptomatic disease demonstration. Genome-wide association study suggests the most significant gene locus associated with severity were located in TMEM189-UBE2V1 that involved in the IL-1 signaling pathway. The p.Val197Met missense variant that affects the stability of the TMPRSS2 protein displays a decreasing allele frequency among the severe patients compared to the mild and the general population. We identified that the HLA-A*11:01, B*51:01, and C*14:02 alleles significantly predispose the worst outcome of the patients. This initial genomic study of Chinese patients provides genetic insights into the phenotypic difference among the COVID-19 patient groups and highlighted genes and variants that may help guide targeted efforts in containing the outbreak. Limitations and advantages of the study were also reviewed to guide future international efforts on elucidating the genetic architecture of host-pathogen interaction for COVID-19 and other infectious and complex diseases.

12.
Asian Biomedicine ; 14(4):169-174, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-860485

ABSTRACT

The rapid global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although COVID-19 is a class B infectious disease, the prevention and control measures used for it in China are commonly used for class A infectious diseases. In the process of the spread of the disease, hospitals will be a key point to influence this pandemic. To prevent and control nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2, methods and measures were formulated from the relevant laws and regulations of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, practical experience of the pandemic, and evidence-based medicine in the hospitals fighting this disease. Thus, this report may provide useful recommendations for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in hospitals and clinics.

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