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1.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5477, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820390

ABSTRACT

Currently, people in crowded indoor spaces are required to wear a variety of personal protective equipment to curb the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing four types of personal protective equipment (unprotected, wearing masks, wearing face shield and wearing medical protective clothing) on human thermal perception and physiological responses in indoor crowded spaces in summer. The experiment was conducted in a climate chamber designed to simulate the indoor crowded spaces. Environmental parameters of climate chamber (air temperature, relative humidity and wind speed), physiological parameters of subjects (wrist skin temperature and pulse rate), and subjective perceptions (thermal sensation and thermal comfort) were collected during the experiment. The experimental results showed that medical protective clothing has the most obvious blocking effect on heat exchange between human and environment. Thermal sensation in state 4 (wearing medical protective clothing) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in other states. The study of physiological parameters showed that the wrist skin temperature and pulse rate under different protection states increased with the increase of room temperature. Through regression analysis, the thermal sensation estimation model of protective personnel in indoor crowded spaces based on wrist skin temperature and pulse rate was established. The adjusted R2 and RMSE of all models were above 82% and less than 1, indicating that the established thermal sensation model had a good prediction effect.

2.
Phytomedicine ; : 154100, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1796222

ABSTRACT

Background A number of studies have shown that gastrointestinal manifestations co-exist with respiratory symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Xuanfei Baidu decoction (XFBD) was recommended by the National Health Commission to treat mild and moderate COVID-19 patients and proved to effectively alleviate intestinal symptoms. However, the exact mechanisms remain elusive. Purpose This study aimed at exploring potential mechanisms of XFBD by utilizing a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis, mimicking the disease conditions of intestinal microecological disorders. Methods The network pharmacology approach was employed to identify the potential targets and pathways of XFBD on the intestinal disorders. Mice with DSS-induced intestinal disorders were utilized to evaluate the protective effect of XFBD in vivo, including body weight, disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length, spleen weight, and serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) level. Colon tissues were used to perform hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, western blot analysis, and transcriptome sequencing. Macrophages, neutrophils and the proportions of T helper cell (Th) 1 and Th2 cells were measured by flow cytometry. Intestinal contents were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Network pharmacology analysis indicated that XFBD inhibited the progression of COVID-19-related intestinal diseases by repressing inflammation. In mice with DSS-induced intestinal inflammation, XFBD treatment significantly reduced weight loss, the spleen index, the disease activity index, TNF-α levels, and colonic tissue damage, and prevented colon shortening. Transcriptomics and flow cytometry results suggested that XFBD remodeled intestinal immunity by downregulating the Th1/Th2 ratio. Western blot analysis showed that XFBD exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by blocking the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Indicator analysis of microbiota showed that 27 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were affected after XFBD administration. Among them, Akkermansia, Muribaculaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were simultaneously negatively correlated with intestinal inflammatory parameters, and Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Eubacterium nodatum, and Turicibacter, which could serve as anti-inflammatory biomarkers in the gut, showed positive correlations with intestinal inflammatory parameters. Conclusions Our data indicate that XFBD treatment attenuated intestinal disorders associated with inhibiting inflammation, remodeling of intestinal immunity, and improving intestinal flora. These findings provide a scientific basis for the clinical use of XFBD and offer a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with intestinal symptoms.

3.
Frontiers in endocrinology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787216

ABSTRACT

Importance The ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 is still affecting our life, but the effects of lockdown measures on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant women remain unclear. Aim To investigate the association between COVID-19 lockdown and GDM. Subjects and Methods Medical records of 140844 pregnant women during 2015-2020 were extracted from 5 hospitals in Guangdong Province, China. Pregnant women who underwent the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23 - 2/24/2020) during pregnancy were defined as the exposed group (N=20472) and pregnant women who underwent the same calendar months during 2015-2019 (1/23 - 2/24) were defined as the unexposed group (N=120372). Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential susceptible exposure window of COVID-19 lockdown on GDM. Cumulative exposure is quantitatively estimated by assigning different weights to response periods with different exposure intensities. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the association between COVID-19 lockdown exposure and GDM. Results The rates of GDM in the exposed and unexposed groups were 15.2% and 12.4%, respectively. The overall analyses showed positive associations (odds ratio, OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.17, 1.27) between lockdown exposure and GDM risk in all pregnant women. More pronounced associations were found in women who underwent the COVID-19 lockdown in their first four months of pregnancy, and the adjusted OR values ranged from 1.24 (95%CI: 1.10, 1.39) in women with 5-8 gestational weeks (GWs) to 1.35 (95%CI: 1.20, 1.52) with < 5 GWs. In addition, we found a positive exposure-response association of cumulative lockdown exposure with the risk of GDM. Conclusions The COVID-19 lockdown was associated with an increased risk of GDM, and the first four months of pregnancy may be the window for sensitive exposure.

4.
Omega ; 110: 102617, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783674

ABSTRACT

This work investigates a new multi-period vaccination planning problem that simultaneously optimizes the total travel distance of vaccination recipients (service level) and the operational cost. An optimal plan determines, for each period, which vaccination sites to open, how many vaccination stations to launch at each site, how to assign recipients from different locations to opened sites, and the replenishment quantity of each site. We formulate this new problem as a bi-objective mixed-integer linear program (MILP). We first propose a weighted-sum and an ϵ -constraint methods, which rely on solving many single-objective MILPs and thus lose efficiency for practical-sized instances. To this end, we further develop a tailored genetic algorithm where an improved assignment strategy and a new dynamic programming method are designed to obtain good feasible solutions. Results from a case study indicate that our methods reduce the operational cost and the total travel distance by up to 9.3% and 36.6%, respectively. Managerial implications suggest enlarging the service capacity of vaccination sites can help improve the performance of the vaccination program. The enhanced performance of our heuristic is due to the newly proposed assignment strategy and dynamic programming method. Our findings demonstrate that vaccination programs during pandemics can significantly benefit from formal methods, drastically improving service levels and decreasing operational costs.

5.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 207: 114169, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748198

ABSTRACT

Isothermal amplification methods are a promising trend in virus detection because of their superiority in rapidity and sensitivity. However, the generation of false positives and limited multiplexity are major bottlenecks that must be addressed. In this study, we developed a multiplex Argonaute (Ago)-based nucleic acid detection system (MULAN) that integrates rapid isothermal amplification with the multiplex inclusiveness of a single Ago for simultaneous detection of multiple targets such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses. Owing to its high specificity, MULAN can distinguish targets at a single-base resolution for mutant genotyping. Moreover, MULAN also supports portable and visible devices with a limit of detection of five copies per reaction. Validated by SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses and clinical samples of influenza viruses, MULAN showed 100% agreement with quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. These results demonstrated that MULAN has great potential to facilitate reliable, easy, and quick point-of-care diagnosis for promoting the control of infectious diseases.

6.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(10): 199-206, 2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737617

ABSTRACT

Introduction: With the large-scale roll-out of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) booster vaccination effort (a vaccine dose given 6 months after completing primary vaccination) in China, we explore when and how China could lift non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 in 2022. Methods: Using a modified susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) mathematical model, we projected the COVID-19 epidemic situation and required medical resources in Guangdong Province, China. Results: If the number of people entering from overseas recovers to 20% of the number in 2019, the epidemic in 2022 could be controlled at a low level by a containment (215 local cases) or suppression strategy (1,397 local cases). A mitigation strategy would lead to 21,722 local cases. A coexistence strategy would lead to a large epidemic with 6,850,083 local cases that would overwhelm Guangdong's medical system. With 50% or 100% recovery of the 2019 level of travelers from overseas, the epidemic could also be controlled with containment or suppression, but enormous resources, including more hotel rooms for border quarantine, will be required. However, coexistence would lead to an uncontrollable epidemic with 12,922,032 local cases. Discussion: With booster vaccinations, the number of travelers from overseas could increase slightly in 2022, but a suppression strategy would need to be maintained to ensure a controllable epidemic.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309634

ABSTRACT

Background: The effects of COVID-19 lockdown measures on maternal and fetal health remain unclear. We examined the associations of COVID-19 lockdown with gestational length and preterm birth (PTB) in a Chinese population. Methods: We obtained medical records of 595396 singleton live infants born between 2015 and 2020 in 5 cities in Guangdong Province, South China. The exposed group (N=101900) included women who experienced the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23-2/24/2020) during pregnancy, while the unexposed group (N=493496) included women who were pregnant during the same calendar months in 2015-2019. Cumulative exposure was calculated based on days exposed to different levels of emergency responses with different weighting. Generalized linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations of lockdown exposure with gestational length and risk of PTB (<37 weeks). Results: The exposed group had a shorter mean gestational length than the unexposed group (38.66 vs 38.74 weeks: adjusted β=-0.06 week [95%CI, -0.07, -0.05 week]). The exposed group also had a higher risk of PTB (5.7% vs 5.3%;adjusted OR=1.08 [95%CI, 1.05, 1.11]). These associations seemed to be stronger when exposure occurred before or during the 23 rd gestational week (GW) than during or after the 24 th GW. Similarly, higher cumulative lockdown exposure was associated with a shorter gestational length and a higher risk of PTB. Conclusions: The COVID-19 lockdown measures were associated with a slightly shorter gestational length and a moderately higher risk of PTB. Early and middle pregnancy periods may be a more susceptible exposure window.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324311

ABSTRACT

With a two-layer contact-dispersion model and data in China, we analyze the cost-effectiveness of three types of antiepidemic measures for COVID-19: regular epidemiological control, local social interaction control, and inter-city travel restriction. We find that: 1) intercity travel restriction has minimal or even negative effect compared to the other two at the national level;2) the time of reaching turning point is independent of the current number of cases, and only related to the enforcement stringency of epidemiological control and social interaction control measures;3) strong enforcement at the early stage is the only opportunity to maximize both antiepidemic effectiveness and cost-effectiveness;4) mediocre stringency of social interaction measures is the worst choice. Subsequently, we cluster countries/regions into four groups based on their control measures and provide situation assessment and policy suggestions for each group.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323703

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had catastrophic consequences globally. Nevertheless, the majority of the global population has not been vaccinated against the disease, and available treatments are limited. FeiDuQing (FDQ), a Chinese medicinal decoction widely used for COVID-19 pneumonia in Xianning City, China, has a cure rate of 98.21%. Therefore, evaluating the role of FDQ in successfully treating patients with COVID-19 is crucial. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, 355 consecutive patients who developed COVID-19 pneumonia between January 15 and February 18, 2020 were included;among them, 213 received FDQ. Data on the demographic characteristics, length of hospitalizations, symptoms at admission and discharge, adverse events, and laboratory parameters were analyzed. Results In contrast to patients who received FDQ, 12 patients who did not receive FDQ (8.45%) developed severe conditions, and one of them died. Furthermore, FDQ treatment was associated with a shortened duration of hospitalization (18.2 vs. 22.1 days, P  < 0.0001), even in elderly patients aged > 60 years (18.0 days vs. 26.1 days, P  < 0.0001). At discharge, three (1.40%) patients treated with FDQ had mild symptoms, whereas 16 (11.19%) patients not treated with FDQ had various symptoms. The cumulative survival rates of patients treated with FDQ and those not treated with FDQ were 79.04% and 32.60%, respectively (hazard ratio: 0.210, 95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.357, P  < 0.001). Additionally, FDQ had no severe adverse effects. Conclusions Our findings suggest that FDQ is a potential therapeutic candidate for fighting COVID-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323531

ABSTRACT

Background: The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection is ongoing and associated with high mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous injection of interferon alpha-2b (IFN alpha-2b) combined with lopinavir/ritonavir ( LPV/r ) in the treatment of COVID-19 infection, compared with that of using LPV/r alone. Methods Patients diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection in Wuhan Red Cross hospital during the period from January 23, 2020 to March 19, 2020 were included. The length of stay, the time to viral clearance and adverse reactions during hospitalization were compared between patients using oral LPV/r and combined therapy of LPV/r and subcutaneous injection of IFN alpha-2b . Results A total of 22 patients were treated with LPV/r alone and 19 with combined therapy with subcutaneous injection of IFN alpha-2b. The average length of hospitalization in the combination group was shorter than that of LPV/r group (16±9.7 vs 23±10.5 days;P =0.028). Moreover, the days of hospitalization in early intervention group decreased from 25±8.5 days to 10±2.9 days compared with delayed intervention group ( P =0.001). Combined therapy with IFN alpha-2b also significantly reduced the duration of detectable virus in the upper respiratory tract. No patient in each group was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) or died during the treatment. There was no significant difference in the adverse effect composition between two groups. Conclusions Subcutaneous injection of IFN alpha-2b combined with LPV/r shortened the length of hospitalization and accelerated viral clearance in COVID-19 patients, which deserves further investigation in clinical practice.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315660

ABSTRACT

Background: It is to be determined whether people infected with SARS-CoV-2 will develop long-term immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and retain long-lasting antibodies after the infection is resolved. This study was to explore the outcomes of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in four groups of individuals in Wuhan, China.MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study on the following four groups who received both COVID-19 IgM/IgG tests and RT-PCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 from February 29, 2020 to April 29, 2020: 1470 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from Leishenshan Hospital, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, and Wuhan No. 7 Hospital, 3832 healthcare providers without COVID-19 diagnosis, 19555 general workers, and 1616 other patients to be admitted to the hospital (N=26473). COVID-19 patients who received IgM/IgG tests <21 days after symptom onset were excluded. Results IgG prevalence was 89.8% (95% CI 88.2-91.3%) in COVID-19 patients, 4.0% (95% CI 3.4-4.7%) in healthcare providers, 4.6 (95% CI 4.3-4.9 %) in general workers, and 1.0% in other patients (p all <0.001 for comparisons with COVID-19 patients). IgG prevalence increased significantly by age among healthcare workers and general workers. Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, presence of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with most disease severity, presence of comorbidities, treatment received, and clinical characteristics. We identified 24 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and multiple COVID-19 antibody tests who lost previously detected IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2ConclusionsIgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in infected people may become undetectable overtime.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315659

ABSTRACT

Whether persistent infections with SARS-CoV-2 exist is still unknown. This study reported a case with COVID-19 who still got positive RT-PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 in his throat swabs about 4 months post symptom onset. This case is potentially the first direct evidence of persistent infection with SARS-CoV-2.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315217

ABSTRACT

Background: Most of humeral shaft fractures in children could be treated satisfactorily by conservative treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the application value of ultrasonography in conservative treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children.Methods : We retrospectively reviewed children admitted to our hospital, for humeral shaft fracture from January 2014 to March 2018. The patients were divided into two groups: ultrasonography group and X-ray group. All patients were instructed to evaluat the prognosis according to the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score at 12 months.Results : A total of 37 children were divided into ultrasonography group, 32 children were divided into X-ray group. There was no significant difference in DASH between the two groups. The mean number of radiation exposures of ultrasonography group was less and ultrasonic examination found radial nerve injury, and using ultrasound reduced the chance of direct or in direct contact with infected peoples. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a non-invasive, non-radioactive test, which could decrease risk of COVID-19 infection and detect the vascular nerve injury caused by fracture. Ultrasonography may be the examination method for follow-up conservative treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children during the epidemic period.

14.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 460, 2022 01 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651070

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant has spread rapidly worldwide. To provide data on its virological profile, we here report the first local transmission of Delta in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of quarantined individuals indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR-positive, were on average ~1000 times greater compared to lineage A/B infections during the first epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. The estimated transmission bottleneck size of the Delta variant was generally narrow, with 1-3 virions in 29 donor-recipient transmission pairs. However, the transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 3 of the 34 substitutions that were identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population-level viral diversity during rapid spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , RNA-Seq/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load/genetics , Viral Load/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Virus Replication/physiology , Virus Shedding/genetics , Virus Shedding/physiology
15.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 5, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625359

ABSTRACT

While COVID-19 diagnosis and prognosis artificial intelligence models exist, very few can be implemented for practical use given their high risk of bias. We aimed to develop a diagnosis model that addresses notable shortcomings of prior studies, integrating it into a fully automated triage pipeline that examines chest radiographs for the presence, severity, and progression of COVID-19 pneumonia. Scans were collected using the DICOM Image Analysis and Archive, a system that communicates with a hospital's image repository. The authors collected over 6,500 non-public chest X-rays comprising diverse COVID-19 severities, along with radiology reports and RT-PCR data. The authors provisioned one internally held-out and two external test sets to assess model generalizability and compare performance to traditional radiologist interpretation. The pipeline was evaluated on a prospective cohort of 80 radiographs, reporting a 95% diagnostic accuracy. The study mitigates bias in AI model development and demonstrates the value of an end-to-end COVID-19 triage platform.

16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e26987, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597573

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often yield suboptimal outcomes, partly because of insufficient targeting of underlying psychological mechanisms (eg, avoidance reinforcement learning). Mindfulness training (MT) has shown efficacy for anxiety; yet, widespread adoption has been limited, partly because of the difficulty in scaling in-person-based delivery. Digital therapeutics are emerging as potentially viable treatments; however, very few have been empirically validated. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to test the efficacy and mechanism of an app-delivered MT that was designed to target a potential mechanism of anxiety (reinforcement learning), based on which previous studies have shown concern regarding feedback and the perpetuation of anxiety through negative reinforcement. METHODS: Individuals with GAD were recruited using social media advertisements and randomized during an in-person visit to receive treatment as usual (n=33) or treatment as usual+app-delivered MT (Unwinding Anxiety; n=32). The latter was composed of 30 modules to be completed over a 2-month period. Associated changes in outcomes were assessed using self-report questionnaires 1 and 2 months after treatment initiation. RESULTS: We randomized 65 participants in this study, and a modified intent-to-treat approach was used for analysis. The median number of modules completed by the MT group was 25.5 (IQR 17) out of 30; 46% (13/28) of the participants completed the program. In addition, the MT group demonstrated a significant reduction in anxiety (GAD-7) compared with the control group at 2 months (67% vs 14%; median change in GAD-7: -8.5 [IQR 6.5] vs -1.0 [IQR 5.0]; P<.001; 95% CI 6-10). Increases in mindfulness at 1 month (nonreactivity subscale) mediated decreases in worry at 2 months (Penn State Worry Questionnaire; P=.02) and decreases in worry at 1 month mediated reductions in anxiety at 2 months (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report on the efficacy and mechanism of an app-delivered MT for GAD. These findings demonstrate the clinical efficacy of MT as a digital therapeutic for individuals with anxiety (number needed to treat=1.6). These results also link recent advances in our mechanistic understanding of anxiety with treatment development, showing that app-delivered MT targets key reinforcement learning pathways, resulting in tangible, clinically meaningful reductions in worry and anxiety. Evidence-based, mechanistically targeted digital therapeutics have the potential to improve health at a population level at a low cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03683472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03683472.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Humans , Treatment Outcome
17.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295289

ABSTRACT

Summary We report the first local transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant in mainland China. All 167 infections could be traced back to the first index case. Daily sequential PCR testing of the quarantined subjects indicated that the viral loads of Delta infections, when they first become PCR+, were on average ∼1000 times greater compared to A/B lineage infections during initial epidemic wave in China in early 2020, suggesting potentially faster viral replication and greater infectiousness of Delta during early infection. We performed high-quality sequencing on samples from 126 individuals. Reliable epidemiological data meant that, for 111 transmission events, the donor and recipient cases were known. The estimated transmission bottleneck size was 1-3 virions with most minor intra-host single nucleotide variants (iSNVs) failing to transmit to the recipients. However, transmission heterogeneity of SARS-CoV-2 was also observed. The transmission of minor iSNVs resulted in at least 4 of the 30 substitutions identified in the outbreak, highlighting the contribution of intra-host variants to population level viral diversity during rapid spread. Disease control activities, such as the frequency of population testing, quarantine during pre-symptomatic infection, and level of virus genomic surveillance should be adjusted in order to account for the increasing prevalence of the Delta variant worldwide.

18.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1535-1539, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540138

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global health emergency. Early detection and intervention are key factors for improving outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-based molecular assays and antibody for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens are the current reference standard for COVID-19 diagnosis. Clinical implications of different specimen types for nucleic acid and antibody testing of COVID-19 in Zhongnan hospital of Wuhan University were analyzed. Compared with health groups, tumor patients had higher rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (+/-) immunoglobulin M (IgM) (+) immunoglobulin G (IgG) (+). The rate of SARS-CoV-2 (-) IgM (+) IgG (-) or SARS-CoV-2 (-) IgM (-) IgG (+) in female was significantly higher than that in male. These results can help governments to take screening measures to prevent the COVID-19 pandemic again.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sex Distribution , Young Adult
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 795, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538063

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of COVID-19 lockdown measures on maternal and fetal health remain unclear. We examined the associations of COVID-19 lockdown with gestational length and preterm birth (PTB) in a Chinese population. METHODS: We obtained medical records of 595,396 singleton live infants born between 2015 and 2020 in 5 cities in Guangdong Province, South China. The exposed group (N = 101,900) included women who experienced the COVID-19 Level I lockdown (1/23-2/24/2020) during pregnancy, while the unexposed group (N = 493,496) included women who were pregnant during the same calendar months in 2015-2019. Cumulative exposure was calculated based on days exposed to different levels of emergency responses with different weighting. Generalized linear regression models were applied to estimate the associations of lockdown exposure with gestational length and risk of PTB (< 37 weeks). RESULTS: The exposed group had a shorter mean gestational length than the unexposed group (38.66 vs 38.74 weeks: adjusted ß = - 0.06 week [95%CI, - 0.07, - 0.05 week]). The exposed group also had a higher risk of PTB (5.7% vs 5.3%; adjusted OR = 1.08 [95%CI, 1.05, 1.11]). These associations seemed to be stronger when exposure occurred before or during the 23rd gestational week (GW) than during or after the 24th GW. Similarly, higher cumulative lockdown exposure was associated with a shorter gestational length and a higher risk of PTB. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 lockdown measures were associated with a slightly shorter gestational length and a moderately higher risk of PTB. Early and middle pregnancy periods may be a more susceptible exposure window.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Maternal Exposure/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Quarantine , Young Adult
20.
Sustainability ; 13(22):12900, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1538515

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at assessing the impacts of the fear of COVID-19 on consumer buying behavior toward dietary supplements. This investigation was a cross-sectional study in which literate adults regardless of gender over the age of 20 were recruited from three pharmacies in three different districts of Wuhan City, China. A total of 598 questionnaires were analyzed after excluding 10 with incomplete information. The current study demonstrated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control had a positive impact on the intention of purchasing dietary supplements. Fear of COVID-19 was related to an enhanced purchase intention toward dietary supplements. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control were significant factors that mediated the association between the fear of COVID-19 and the purchase intention of dietary supplements. This study helps provide practical advice for stakeholders in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industries to tailor appropriate strategies for improving product promotion or healthcare-related interventions.

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