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2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Both COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccines have been associated with the development of myopericarditis. The objective of this study is to (1) analyse the rates of myopericarditis after COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccination in Hong Kong, (2) compared to the background rates, and (3) compare the rates of myopericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination to those reported in other countries. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study from Hong Kong, China. Patients with positive RT-PCR test for COVID-19 between 1st January 2020 and 30th June 2021 or individuals who received COVID-19 vaccination until 31st August were included. The main exposures were COVID-19 positivity or COVID-19 vaccination. The primary outcome was myopericarditis. RESULTS: This study included 11,441 COVID-19 patients from Hong Kong, four of whom suffered from myopericarditis (rate per million: 326; 95% confidence interval [CI] 127-838). The rate was higher than the pre-COVID-19 background rate in 2019 (rate per million: 5.5, 95% CI 4.1-7.4) with a rate ratio of 55.0 (95% CI 21.4-141). Compared to the background rate, the rate of myopericarditis among vaccinated subjects in Hong Kong was similar (rate per million: 5.5; 95% CI 4.1-7.4) with a rate ratio of 0.93 (95% CI 0.69-1.26). The rates of myocarditis after vaccination in Hong Kong were comparable to those vaccinated in the United States, Israel, and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 infection was associated with significantly higher rate of myopericarditis compared to the vaccine-associated myopericarditis.

3.
Journal of Development Economics ; 145:145, 2020.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1720289

ABSTRACT

This study uses satellite data to detect agricultural straw burning and estimates its impact on air pollution and health in China. We find that straw burning increases particulate matter pollution and causes people to die from cardiorespiratory diseases. We estimate that a 10 g/m3 increase in PM2.5 increases mortality by 3.25%. Middle-aged and old people in rural areas are particularly sensitive to straw burning pollution. Exploratory analysis of China's programs to subsidize straw recycling suggests that extending these programs to all the straw burning regions would bring about a health benefit that is an order of magnitude larger than the cost.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324641

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Investigate clinical and CT manifestations of ordinary coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia. Materials: and methods: Patients with ordinary COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by RT-PCR) and performed initial chest CT were retrospectively enrolled. Fifty-eight patients were assigned to group 1 (<50 years, n=33) and group 2 (50≥years, n=25) on the basis of age. The clinical data, laboratory results, and imaging findings were evaluated. Imaging features were analyzed and compared across the two groups. Results: : On chest CT imaging, 44 (75.9%) patients showed bilateral lung involvement, 14(24.1%) showed unilateral lung involvement, with predominant peripheral distribution (26/58, 44.8%) and mixed distribution (30/58, 51.7%). 445(445/634, 70.2%) lesions occurred in the lung periphery, 189 (29.8%) in the center. There were more lobes involved in group 2(median 4, IQR 3-5) than group 1(median 3, IQR 1.5-4) (P=0.024). Ground glass opacity (GGO) (451/634, 71.1%) and consolidation (157/634, 24.8%) were the main CT findings. Lesions with a maximum diameter greater than 5cm were more common in group 2 (19/25, 76%) than group 1 (12/33, 36.4%) (P=0.003). The CT score of bilateral lungs, right lung, left lung and each lobe in group 2 was significantly higher than those of group 1 (all P < 0.05), except for the middle lobe of the right lung (P=0.979). Conclusions: : Ordinary COVID-19 pneumonia on chest CT generally manifested as multiple GGO and consolidation in the bilateral lung, with predominant peripheral or mixed distribution. Older age might be a risk factor for progression in ordinary COVID-19 pneumonia.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315584

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we investigate the distributed link removal strategy for networked meta-population epidemics. In particular, a deterministic networked susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model is considered to describe the epidemic evolving process. In order to curb the spread of epidemics, we present the spectrum-based optimization problem involving the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue of the matrix constructed by the network topology and transition rates. A modified distributed link removal strategy is developed such that it can be applied to the SIR model with heterogeneous transition rates on weighted digraphs. The proposed approach is implemented to control the COVID-19 pandemic by using the reported infected and recovered data in each state of Germany. The numerical experiment shows that the infected percentage can be significantly reduced by using the distributed link removal strategy.

6.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 41(9): 254-263, 2021 09 22.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638356

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Restrictions to do with the COVID-19 pandemic have had substantial unintended consequences on Canadians' alcohol consumption patterns, including increased emotional distress and its potential impact on alcohol use. This study examines 1) changes in adults' alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; 2) whether drinking more frequently during the pandemic is associated with increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness; and 3) whether gender moderates this relationship. METHODS: Participants were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 2000 adults. Adjusted multinomial regression models were used to assess the association between drinking frequency and increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness. Additional analyses were stratified by gender. RESULTS: About 12% of respondents reported drinking more frequently after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and 25%-40% reported increased emotional distress. Increased feelings of stress (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.35-2.93), loneliness (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.22-2.61) and hopelessness (OR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.21-3.23) were all associated with drinking more frequently during the pandemic. While women respondents reported higher rates of emotional distress, significant associations with increased drinking frequency were only observed among men in gender-stratified analyses. CONCLUSION: Individuals who report increased feelings of stress, loneliness and hopelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic were more likely to report increased drinking frequency; however, these associations were only significant for men in stratified analyses. Understanding how the pandemic is associated with mental health and drinking may inform alcohol control policies and public health interventions to minimize alcohol-related harm.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Hope , Loneliness , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , Sex Factors , Socioeconomic Factors
7.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S286-S287, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601721

ABSTRACT

Background As the SARS-CoV-2 (SCV-2) virus evolves, diagnostics and vaccines against novel strains rely on viral genome sequencing. Researchers have gravitated towards the cost-effective and highly sensitive amplicon-based (e.g. ARTIC) and hybrid capture sequencing (e.g. SARS-CoV-2 NGS Assay) to selectively target the SCV-2 genome. We provide an in silico model to compare these 2 technologies and present data on the high scalability of the Research Use Only (RUO) workflow of the SARS-CoV-2 NGS Assay. Methods In silico work included alignments of 383,656 high-quality genome sequences belonging to variant of concern (VOC) or variant of interest (VOI) isolates (GISAID). We profiled mismatches and sequencing dropouts using the ARTIC V3 primers, SARS-CoV-2 NGS Assay probes (Twist Bioscience) and 11 synthesized viral sequences containing mutations and compared the performance of these assays using clinical samples. Further, the miniaturized hybrid capture workflow was optimized and evaluated to support high-throughput (384-plex). The sequencing data was processed by COVID-DX software. Results We detected 101,432 viruses (27%) with > = 1 mismatch in the last 6 base pairs of the 3’ end of ARTIC primers;of these, 413 had > = 2 mismatches in one primer. In contrast, only 38 viruses (0.01%) had enough mutations ( > = 10) in a hybrid capture probe to have a similar effect on coverage. We observed that mutations in ARTIC primers led to complete dropout of the amplicon for 4/11 isolates and diminished coverage in additional 4. Twist probes showed uniform coverage throughout with little to no dropouts. Both assays detected a wide range of variants (~99.9% coverage at 5X depth) in clinical samples (CT value < 30) collected in NY (Spring 2020-Spring 2021). The distribution of the number of reads and on target rates were more uniform among specimens within amplicon-based sequencing. However, uneven genome coverage and primer dropouts, some in the spike protein, were observed on VOC/VOI and other isolates highlighting limitations of an amplicon-based approach. Conclusion The RUO workflow of the SARS-CoV-2 NGS Assay is a comprehensive and scalable sequencing tool for variant profiling, yields more consistent coverage and smaller dropout rate compared to ARTIC (0.05% vs. 7.7%). Disclosures Danny Antaki, PhD, Twist Bioscience (Employee, Shareholder) Mara Couto-Rodriguez, MS, Biotia (Employee) Kristin Butcher, MS, Twist Bioscience (Employee, Shareholder) Esteban Toro, PhD, Twist Bioscience (Employee) Bryan Höglund, BS, Twist Bioscience (Employee, Shareholder) Xavier O. Jirau Serrano, B.S., Biotia (Employee) Joseph Barrows, MS, Biotia (Employee) Christopher Mason, PhD, Biotia (Board Member, Advisor or Review Panel member, Shareholder) Niamh B. O’Hara, PhD, Biotia (Board Member, Employee, Shareholder) Dorottya Nagy-Szakal, MD PhD, Biotia Inc (Employee, Shareholder)

8.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 41(4): 902-911, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583598

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol access has changed in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study compares the use of two novel purchasing modes (via delivery and in excess/stockpiling) to traditional, in-person purchasing to determine if their use is associated with sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, perceived COVID-19 health risk or consumption frequency. METHODS: We draw on cross-sectional survey data from 2000 residents of the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, ages 19 years and older that were administered online and by telephone. Associations between purchasing modes and sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, perceived COVID-19 health risk or consumption frequency were assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS: About 70% of people who drink purchased in-person, 17% used delivery and 30% purchased in excess/stockpiled. Sociodemographic and psychosocial attributes varied among those at increased odds of using each purchasing mode. Those at higher COVID-19 health risk were at higher odds of getting alcohol delivered. Increased drinking frequency was associated with alcohol delivery and purchasing in excess/stockpiling. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the need for increased public health considerations regarding changes to alcohol regulations. Alcohol delivery and purchasing in excess/stockpiling is positively associated with heavier drinking. Drinkers at higher COVID-19 health risk were more likely to purchase online for delivery, which suggests novel purchasing modes may serve a partial public health function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Consumer Behavior , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Young Adult
9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296597

ABSTRACT

Background: Both COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccines have been associated with the development of myopericarditis. The objective of this study is to 1) analyze the rates of myopericarditis after COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 vaccination in Hong Kong and 2) compare to the background rates, and 3) compare the rates of myopericarditis after COVID-19 vaccination to those reported in other countries. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study from Hong Kong, China. Patients with positive RT-PCR test for COVID-19 between 1st January 2020 and 30th June 2021 or individuals who received COVID-19 vaccination until 31st August were included. The main exposures were COVID-19 positivity or COVID-19 vaccination. The primary outcome was myopericarditis. Results: This study included 11441 COVID-19 patients from Hong Kong, of whom four suffered from myopericarditis (rate per million: 350;95% confidence interval [CI]: 140-900). The rate was higher than the pre-COVID-19 background rate in 2020 (rate per million: 61, 95% CI: 55-67) with a rate ratio of 5.73 (95% CI: 2.23-14.73. Compared to background rates, the rate of myopericarditis among vaccinated subjects in Hong Kong was substantially lower (rate per million: 8.6;95% CI: 6.4-11.6) with a rate ratio of 0.14 (95% CI: 0.10-0.19). The rates of myocarditis after vaccination in Hong Kong are comparable to those vaccinated in the United States, Israel, and the United Kingdom. Conclusions: COVID-19 infection is associated with a higher rate of myopericarditis whereas COVID-19 vaccination is associated with a lower rate of myopericarditis compared to the background.

10.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol ; 43(6): 644-650, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread throughout the world. During treatment, we found that the majority of patients had a decrease in hemoglobin (Hb). Interferon-α2b (IFN-α2b) was the primary suspected drug that was related to Hb reduction. Thus, the study aimed to investigate whether IFN-α2b could induce Hb reduction in severe patients with COVID-19 and its potential mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 50 patients who were admitted to the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University with severe COVID-19 infection were enrolled from February 12th to 24th, 2020. The demographics, baseline characteristics, clinical data, and therapeutic regimen were collected retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups according to the declined use of IFN-α2b on day 14. The Hb levels on admission, day 7, day14, and day 21 were collected and analyzed. The primary endpoint was the level of Hb on day 21. RESULTS: A total of 31 patients in the IFN-stop group and 19 patients in the non-IFN-stop group were reviewed. The age, gender, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, nutritional status, disease severity, complications, and other factors of the patients were compared, no difference was found between the IFN-stop group and the non-IFN-stop group. The Hb levels of all patients significantly decreased on day 7 compared with that on admission (p < .0001). In the IFN-stop group, the Hb level was increased in 7 days after IFN-α2b was stopped (p = .0008), whereas no difference was found between day 14 and day 21 in the non-IFN-stop group (p = .3152). CONCLUSIONS: IFN-α2b was associated with Hb reduction in the treatment of severe patients of COVID-19. Clinicians should be aware of the high incidence of Hb reduction for patients treated by IFN-α2b.


Subject(s)
Anemia/chemically induced , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interferon alpha-2/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Inhalation , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anemia/blood , Anemia/diagnosis , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , China , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Interferon alpha-2/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0135221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526454

ABSTRACT

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model in vivo. The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. In vitro mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects
12.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 5475-5487, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496749

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm (CS) is a significant cause of death in patients with severe coronavirus pneumonia. Excessive immune-inflammatory reaction, many inflammatory cell infiltration, and extreme increase of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines lead to acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This review compares the characters of cytokine storms and immune responses caused by three highly pathogenic and infectious coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and analyzes the possible mechanisms to guide clinical treatment in the future.

13.
Inf Process Manag ; 59(1): 102782, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446740

ABSTRACT

In the early diagnosis of the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), it is of great importance for either distinguishing severe cases from mild cases or predicting the conversion time that mild cases would possibly convert to severe cases. This study investigates both of them in a unified framework by exploring the problems such as slight appearance difference between mild cases and severe cases, the interpretability, the High Dimension and Low Sample Size (HDLSS) data, and the class imbalance. To this end, the proposed framework includes three steps: (1) feature extraction which first conducts the hierarchical segmentation on the chest Computed Tomography (CT) image data and then extracts multi-modality handcrafted features for each segment, aiming at capturing the slight appearance difference from different perspectives; (2) data augmentation which employs the over-sampling technique to augment the number of samples corresponding to the minority classes, aiming at investigating the class imbalance problem; and (3) joint construction of classification and regression by proposing a novel Multi-task Multi-modality Support Vector Machine (MM-SVM) method to solve the issue of the HDLSS data and achieve the interpretability. Experimental analysis on two synthetic and one real COVID-19 data set demonstrated that our proposed framework outperformed six state-of-the-art methods in terms of binary classification and regression performance.

14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 699243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399148

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 has overloaded worldwide medical facilities, leaving some potentially high-risk patients trapped in outpatient clinics without sufficient treatment. However, there is still a lack of a simple and effective tool to identify these patients early. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to develop an early warning model for predicting the death risk of COVID-19. Seventy-five percent of the cases were used to construct the prediction model, and the remaining 25% were used to verify the prediction model based on data immediately available on admission. Results: From March 1, 2020, to April 16, 2020, a total of 4,711 COVID-19 patients were included in our study. The average age was 63.37 ± 16.70 years, of which 1,148 (24.37%) died. Finally, age, SpO2, body temperature (T), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were selected for constructing the model by univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, and a review of the literature. We used five common methods for constructing the model and finally found that the full model had the best specificity and higher accuracy. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of full model in train cohort were, respectively, 0.798 (0.779, 0.816), 0.804, 0.656, and 0.768, and in the validation cohort were, respectively, 0.783 (0.751, 0.815), 0.800, 0.616, and 0.755. Visualization tools of the prediction model included a nomogram and an online dynamic nomogram (https://wanghai.shinyapps.io/dynnomapp/). Conclusion: We developed a prediction model that might aid in the early identification of COVID-19 patients with a high probability of mortality on admission. However, further research is required to determine whether this tool can be applied for outpatient or home-based COVID-19 patients.

15.
Journal of Jiangsu University Medicine Edition ; 30(2):93-97, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1395341

ABSTRACT

People infected with new coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) usually have respiratory symptoms as their typical manifestations. With the increase in the number of infections, studies have found that the prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease is more serious than that of ordinary patients. Some patients have viral infection-related heart damage, which may be related to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection. Appropriate application of myocardial protective drugs may help improve the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
J Hypertens ; 39(8): 1717-1724, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288137

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) may be associated with higher susceptibility of COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes. We compared ACEI/ARB use and COVID-19 positivity in a case-control design, and severity in COVID-19 positive patients. METHODS: Consecutive patients who attended Hong Kong's public hospitals or outpatient clinics between 1 January and 28 July 2020 for COVID-19 real time-PCR (RT-PCR) tests were included. Baseline demographics, past comorbidities, laboratory tests and use of different medications were compared between COVID-19 positive and negative patients. Severe endpoints for COVID-19 positive patients were 28-day mortality, need for intensive care admission or intubation. RESULTS: This study included 213 788 patients (COVID-19 positive: n = 2774 patients; negative: n = 211 014). In total, 162 COVID-19 positive patients (5.83%) met the severity outcome. The use of ACEI/ARB was significantly higher amongst cases than controls (n = 156/2774, 5.62 vs. n = 6708/211014, 3.17%; P < 0.0001). Significant univariate predictors of COVID-19 positivity and severe COVID-19 disease were older age, higher Charlson score, comorbidities, use of ACEI/ARB, antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs and laboratory tests (odds ratio >1, P < 0.05). The relationship between the use of ACEI/ARB and COVID-19 positivity or severe disease remained significant after multivariable adjustment. No significant differences in COVID-19 positivity or disease severity between ACEI and ARB use were observed (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: There was a significant relationship between ACEI/ARB use and COVID-19 positivity and severe disease after adjusting for significant confounders.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence
17.
Intern Med J ; 51(10): 1614-1618, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pathology and imaging tests are frequently requested in the outpatient setting despite historically poor completion rates. The impact of COVID-19 telehealth on test completion rates is unknown. AIMS: To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and telehealth transition on pathology and imaging test request and completion rates in Australian outpatient clinics. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study with historical controls between March-May 2019 and March-May 2020. Pathology and imaging request and completion rates were collected in review consultation patients attending gastroenterology and rheumatology outpatient clinics at a tertiary healthcare system prior and during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic in Melbourne. RESULTS: A total of 1376 patients was included in the study. Pathology tests were requested more frequently in the COVID-19 group (n = 582/684, 85.2%) than the control group (n = 492/692, 71.1%, P < 0.001), but completion rates were lower in the COVID-19 group (n = 443/582, 76.1%) than the control group (n = 426/492 (86.6%), P < 0.001). Imaging tests were requested more frequently in the COVID-19 group (n = 345/682, 50.6%) than the control group (n = 295/692, 42.6%, P = 0.003), with lower rates of completion in the COVID-19 group (n = 229/345, 66.4%) than the control group (n = 247/295, 83.7%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic and telehealth transition have resulted in more frequent pathology and imaging requests but fewer test completion in the outpatients setting. This study has identified new clinical risks associated with the abrupt transition to telehealth during COVID-19 that should be explored in future studies and appropriately mitigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Australia , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(6): 1062-1074, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily causes lung infection, but recent studies have shown that cardiac involvement is associated with a worse prognosis. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias detected by the electrocardiogram and their relationships with adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed and Google were searched for studies that reported on cardiac arrhythmias and/or examined the relationship between arrhythmias and adverse outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty studies with 12,713 participants were included in the systematic review, and 28 studies (n = 12,499) in the meta-analysis. The mean age was 61.3 ± 16.8 years; 39.3% were female. In 25 studies with 7578 patients, the overall prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias was 10.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.4%-12.3%). The most common arrhythmias documented during hospitalization were supraventricular arrhythmias (6.2%, 95% CI: 4.4%-8.1%) followed by ventricular arrhythmias (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.8%-3.1%). The incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was higher among critically ill patients (relative risk [RR]: 12.1, 95% CI: 8.5-17.3) and among non-survivors (RR: 3.8, 95%, CI: 1.7-8.7). Eight studies reported changes in the QT interval. The prevalence of QTc > 500 ms was 12.3% (95% CI: 6.9%-17.8%). ST-segment deviation was reported in eight studies, with a pooled estimate of 8.7% (95% CI: 7.3% to 10.0%). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis showed that QTc prolongation, ST-segment deviation, and various other cardiac arrhythmias were observed in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The presence of cardiac arrhythmias was associated with a worse prognosis.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , COVID-19/complications , Electrocardiography , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
20.
NPJ Digit Med ; 4(1): 66, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174705

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported numerous predictors for adverse outcomes in COVID-19 disease. However, there have been few simple clinical risk scores available for prompt risk stratification. The objective is to develop a simple risk score for predicting severe COVID-19 disease using territory-wide data based on simple clinical and laboratory variables. Consecutive patients admitted to Hong Kong's public hospitals between 1 January and 22 August 2020 and diagnosed with COVID-19, as confirmed by RT-PCR, were included. The primary outcome was composite intensive care unit admission, need for intubation or death with follow-up until 8 September 2020. An external independent cohort from Wuhan was used for model validation. COVID-19 testing was performed in 237,493 patients and 4442 patients (median age 44.8 years old, 95% confidence interval (CI): [28.9, 60.8]); 50% males) were tested positive. Of these, 209 patients (4.8%) met the primary outcome. A risk score including the following components was derived from Cox regression: gender, age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, dementia, liver diseases, gastrointestinal bleeding, cancer, increases in neutrophil count, potassium, urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, bilirubin, D-dimer, high sensitive troponin-I, lactate dehydrogenase, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and C-reactive protein, as well as decreases in lymphocyte count, platelet, hematocrit, albumin, sodium, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, cholesterol, glucose, and base excess. The model based on test results taken on the day of admission demonstrated an excellent predictive value. Incorporation of test results on successive time points did not further improve risk prediction. The derived score system was evaluated with out-of-sample five-cross-validation (AUC: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.82-0.91) and external validation (N = 202, AUC: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.85-0.93). A simple clinical score accurately predicted severe COVID-19 disease, even without including symptoms, blood pressure or oxygen status on presentation, or chest radiograph results.

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