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1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 945865, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974643

ABSTRACT

Stress in poultry can lead to changes in body metabolism and immunity, which can increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, knowledge regarding chicken responses to viral infection under stress is limited. Dexamethasone (Dex) is a synthetic glucocorticoid similar to that secreted by animals under stress conditions, and has been widely used to induce stress in chickens. Herein, we established a stress model in 7-day-old chickens injected with Dex to elucidate the effects of stress on IBV replication in the kidneys. The metabolic changes, immune status and growth of the chickens under stress conditions were comprehensively evaluated. Furthermore, the metabolic profile, weight gain, viral load, serum cholesterol levels, cytokines and peripheral blood lymphocyte ratio were compared in chickens treated with Dex and infected with IBV. An LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics method was used to examine differentially enriched metabolites in the kidneys. A total of 113 metabolites whose abundance was altered after Dex treatment were identified, most of which were lipids and lipid-like molecules. The principal metabolic alterations in chicken kidneys caused by IBV infection included fatty acid, valine, leucine and isoleucine metabolism. Dex treatment before and after IBV infection mainly affected the host's tryptophan, phenylalanine, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism. In addition, Dex led to up-regulation of serum cholesterol levels and renal viral load in chickens, and to the inhibition of weight gain, peripheral blood lymphocytes and IL-6 production. We also confirmed that the exogenous cholesterol in DF-1 cells promoted the replication of IBV. However, whether the increase in viral load in kidney tissue is associated with the up-regulation of cholesterol levels induced by Dex must be demonstrated in future experiments. In conclusion, chick growth and immune function were significantly inhibited by Dex. Host cholesterol metabolism and the response to IBV infection are regulated by Dex. This study provides valuable insights into the molecular regulatory mechanisms in poultry stress, and should support further research on the intrinsic link between cholesterol metabolism and IBV replication under stress conditions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Infectious bronchitis virus , Poultry Diseases , Animals , Chickens , Chromatography, Liquid , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Infectious bronchitis virus/physiology , Kidney , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Weight Gain
2.
Int J Biol Sci ; 18(12): 4768-4780, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954698

ABSTRACT

The pandemic of COVID-19 is the biggest public health crisis in 21st Century. Besides the acute symptoms after infection, patients and society are also being challenged by the long-term health complications associated with COVID-19, commonly known as long COVID. While health professionals work hard to find proper treatments, large amount of knowledge has been accumulated in recent years. In order to deal with long COVID efficiently, it is important for people to keep up with current progresses and take proactive actions on long COVID. For this purpose, this review will first introduce the general background of long COVID, and then discuss its risk factors, diagnostic indicators and management strategies. This review will serve as a useful resource for people to understand and prepare for long COVID that will be with us in the foreseeable future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1940007

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infectious disease that seriously threatens human life. The clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19 include acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiple organ failure. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19, spreads through contaminated droplets. SARS-CoV-2 particles have been detected in the saliva of COVID-19 patients, implying that the virus can infect and damage the oral cavity. The oral manifestations of COVID-19 include xerostomia and gustatory dysfunction. Numerous studies showed that the four structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are its potential pathogenic factors, especially the S protein, which binds to human ACE2 receptors facilitating the entry of the virus into the host cells. Usually, upon entry into the host cell, a pathogen triggers the host’s immune response. However, a mount of multi-omics and immunological analyses revealed that COVID-19 is caused by immune dysregulation. A decrease in the number and phenotypes of immune cells, IFN-1 production and excessive release of certain cytokines have also been reported. In conclusion, this review summarizes the oral manifestations of COVID-19 and multi-omics analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 883642, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938632

ABSTRACT

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) has been prevalent in chicken farms for many years, and its control relies on extensive vaccine administration. The continuous emergence of new variants and the low cross-protection efficiency prompt the development of new vaccines. In this study, we develop a reverse genetics technique based on the classical vaccine strain H120 genome, via in vitro ligation method. Using the H120 genome as the backbone, we constructed the recombinant virus rH120-QX(S) by replacing the H120 S gene with the QX S gene, a prevalent strain in China. Biological characteristics of the rH120-QX(S) virus, such as 50% egg lethal dose (ELD50), 50% egg infectious dose (EID50), dwarf embryo, growth curve, and genetic stability, are measured, which are comparable to the parental virus H120. There are no clinical symptoms and tissue lesions in the trachea and kidney in the rH120-QX(S)-infected specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, demonstrating that this recombinant virus does not confer pathogenicity. Furthermore, protection studies show that there is 100% homologous protection of rH120-QX(S) to the virulent QX strain, as shown by the absence of clinical signs and no lethality. Taken together, our results demonstrate that swapping the S gene onto the H120 genetic backbone is a precise and effective way to produce genetically defined IBV vaccine candidates.

5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 858157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847240

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the current suicidal risk and whether the suicidal risk was associated with a wide range of trauma. The self-administered online questionnaire was adopted to collect suicide risk (SR) such as suicidal ideation, self-harm, suicide attempts, and different trauma information of the adolescents by cluster sampling in Chongqing, China. Multivariable linear regression was presented to assess the association between different risks of trauma and SR scores. Approximately 14.7% of adolescents enrolled reported suicide ideation and more than 10% of adolescents have experienced one kind of trauma during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period. After adjusting for confounding variables, adolescents who suffered family hurt had a higher risk score of SR (beta coefficients (ß) = 0.289, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.115-0.463). A positive association was found among participants from junior and senior school (ß = 0.415, 95% CI = 0.152, 0.768), and the SR score was positively associated with sexism among participants from the university/college (ß = 0.238, 95% CI = 0.042, 0.434). The most potentially obvious trauma that contributed to SR in junior and senior school adolescents might be cyberbullying. Family neglect or abuse might be a detrimental factor in SR for adolescents whether those in junior school or those in university school in China. More interventions, like education related to cyberbullying and family abuse, should be prioritized to reduce the risk of suicide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Students , Suicidal Ideation
6.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 884034, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847188

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), public health worldwide has been greatly threatened. The development of an effective treatment for this infection is crucial and urgent but is hampered by the incomplete understanding of the viral infection mechanisms and the lack of specific antiviral agents. We previously reported that teicoplanin, a glycopeptide antibiotic that has been commonly used in the clinic to treat bacterial infection, significantly restrained the cell entry of Ebola virus, SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV by specifically inhibiting the activity of cathepsin L (CTSL). Here, we found that the cleavage sites of CTSL on the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 were highly conserved among all the variants. The treatment with teicoplanin suppressed the proteolytic activity of CTSL on spike and prevented the cellular infection of different pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 viruses. Teicoplanin potently prevented the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cellular cytoplasm with an IC50 of 2.038 µM for the Wuhan-Hu-1 reference strain and an IC50 of 2.116 µM for the SARS-CoV-2 (D614G) variant. The pre-treatment of teicoplanin also prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in hACE2 mice. In summary, our data reveal that CTSL is required for both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV infection and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of teicoplanin for universal anti-CoVs intervention.

7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 791267, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834396

ABSTRACT

Host cholesterol metabolism remodeling is significantly associated with the spread of human pathogenic coronaviruses, suggesting virus-host relationships could be affected by cholesterol-modifying drugs. Cholesterol has an important role in coronavirus entry, membrane fusion, and pathological syncytia formation, therefore cholesterol metabolic mechanisms may be promising drug targets for coronavirus infections. Moreover, cholesterol and its metabolizing enzymes or corresponding natural products exert antiviral effects which are closely associated with individual viral steps during coronavirus replication. Furthermore, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections are associated with clinically significant low cholesterol levels, suggesting cholesterol could function as a potential marker for monitoring viral infection status. Therefore, weaponizing cholesterol dysregulation against viral infection could be an effective antiviral strategy. In this review, we comprehensively review the literature to clarify how coronaviruses exploit host cholesterol metabolism to accommodate viral replication requirements and interfere with host immune responses. We also focus on targeting cholesterol homeostasis to interfere with critical steps during coronavirus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cholesterol/metabolism , Humans , Virus Replication
8.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 9(11): e2103982, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680237

ABSTRACT

Currently, the incidence of acute liver injury (ALI) is increasing year by year, and infection with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can also induce ALI, but there are still no targeted therapeutic drugs. ZnO-NiO particles is mainly used to clean up reactive oxygen species (ROS) in industrial wastewater, and it is insoluble in water. Its excellent properties are discovered and improved by adding shuttle-based bonds to make it more water-soluble. ZnO-NiO@COOH particles are synthetically applied to treat ALI. The p-n junction in ZnO-NiO@COOH increases the surface area and active sites, thereby creating large numbers of oxygen vacancies, which can quickly adsorb ROS. The content in tissues and serum levels of L-glutathione (GSH) and the GSH/oxidized GSH ratio are measured to assess the capacity of ZnO-NiO@COOH particles to absorb ROS. The ZnO-NiO@COOH particles significantly reduce the expression levels of inflammatory factors (i.e., IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α), macrophage infiltration, and granulocyte activation. ZnO-NiO@COOH rapidly adsorb ROS in a short period of time to block the generation of inflammatory storms and gain time for the follow-up treatment of ALI, which has important clinical significance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Zinc Oxide , Glutathione , Humans , Liver , Nickel/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Water , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
9.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 10(1): 33-42, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the improvements in laboratory testing procedures and the quality and safety management for large-scale population screening for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Because of epidemic prevention and control needs in Hebei Province, on January 7, 2021, the Health Commission of Zhejiang Province sent a medical team to Hebei Province, to carry out SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid testing. Screening for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test was performed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Practical tests and repeated process optimization were adopted to explore the optimal solution for improving laboratory testing procedures and the quality of and safety management for large-scale population screening for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The Zhejiang medical team completed 250,000 pooled SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid samples in 24 days in Shijiazhuang, with a peak daily testing capacity of 40,246 samples testing. There were no false-negative or false-positive results, and no laboratory personnel was infected with SARS-CoV-2. Significant achievements have been made in SARS-CoV-2 prevention and control. CONCLUSIONS: This report summarizes the effort of the medical team regarding their management of the quality and safety of laboratory tests and proposes corresponding empirical recommendations to provide a reference for future large-scale population screening SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Laboratories
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436029

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the levels of health literacy among different groups is essential for better public health interventions targeting specific subgroups of the population. Additionally, this article explores the prevalence and influencing factors of the health literacy levels of different age groups during the COVID-19 epidemic. Methods: Multistage stratified cluster random sampling and the Probability Proportion to Size (PPS) method were used to select permanent residents aged 15-69 in Chongqing (54,706) for the questionnaire survey. The survey period is from July 2019 and July 2020. Single-factor analysis and logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between demographics, socioeconomic factors, other independent covariates, and health literacy. Results: The health literacy levels of residents declined with age, and there were significant differences in health literacy levels between age groups (χ2 = 3332.884, P < 0.05). As far as the factors affecting health literacy level are concerned, high education and high income are the protective factors for health literacy level for residents of all ages. For adolescents (OR = 1.383, 95% CI: 1.217-1.571), young adults (OR = 1.232, 95% CI = 1.117-1.358), and middle-aged people (OR = 1.096, 95% CI = 1.017-1.182), residence in rural areas was a protective factor. In terms of the dimensions of health literacy, in particular, elderly health literacy in 2020 in Scientific Health Concepts, Safety and First Aid, Basic Medical Care decreased significantly compared with 2019. Conclusions: For adolescents, young adults, middle-aged people, to solve the problem of urban and rural health quality gap, we should not only use the geographical division, but also consider the social population and socio-economic differences. For the elderly, the following four dimensions of health literacy need to be paid more attention than those of other age: Basic Knowledge and Concepts, Scientific Health Concepts, Safety and First Aid, and Basic Medical Care. A lack of knowledge on the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases is the main reason for the recent decline in health literacy. And the health literacy among residents in major public health emergencies is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Adolescent , Aged , China/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
11.
Electrophoresis ; 42(14-15): 1411-1418, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272178

ABSTRACT

During the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, chlorine-containing disinfectants have been widely used in nucleic acid amplification testing laboratories. Whether the use of disinfectants affect the results of viral nucleic acid amplification is unknown. We examined the impact of different hypochlorous acid (HOCl) concentrations on the quantitative results of SARS-CoV-2 by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also explored the mechanisms and models of action of chlorine-containing disinfectants that affected the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The results showed that different HOCl concentrations and different action times had an impact on the SARS-CoV-2 results. High concentrations of ambient HOCl have a greater impact than low concentrations, and this effect will increase with the extension of the action time and with the increase in ambient humidity. Compared with the enzymes or the extracted RNA required for RT-PCR, the impact of HOCl on the SARS-CoV-2 detection is more likely to be caused by damage to primers and probes in the PCR system. The false negative result still existed after changing the ambient disinfectant to ethanol but not peracetic acid. The use of HOCl in the environment will have an unpredictable impact on the nucleic acid test results of SARS-CoV-2. In order to reduce the possibility of false negative of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and prevent the spread of epidemic disease, environmental disinfectants should be used at the beginning and end of the experiment rather than during the experimental operation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Disinfectants/chemistry , Hypochlorous Acid/chemistry , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Humidity , Hypochlorous Acid/analysis , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1008690, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105832

ABSTRACT

Cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) are generally triggered by stress-induced translation arrest for storing mRNAs. Recently, it has been shown that SGs exert anti-viral functions due to their involvement in protein synthesis shut off and recruitment of innate immune signaling intermediates. The largest RNA viruses, coronaviruses, impose great threat to public safety and animal health; however, the significance of SGs in coronavirus infection is largely unknown. Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) is the first identified coronavirus in 1930s and has been prevalent in poultry farm for many years. In this study, we provided evidence that IBV overcomes the host antiviral response by inhibiting SGs formation via the virus-encoded endoribonuclease nsp15. By immunofluorescence analysis, we observed that IBV infection not only did not trigger SGs formation in approximately 80% of the infected cells, but also impaired the formation of SGs triggered by heat shock, sodium arsenite, or NaCl stimuli. We further demonstrated that the intrinsic endoribonuclease activity of nsp15 was responsible for the interference of SGs formation. In fact, nsp15-defective recombinant IBV (rIBV-nsp15-H238A) greatly induced the formation of SGs, along with accumulation of dsRNA and activation of PKR, whereas wild type IBV failed to do so. Consequently, infection with rIBV-nsp15-H238A strongly triggered transcription of IFN-ß which in turn greatly affected rIBV-nsp15-H238A replication. Further analysis showed that SGs function as an antiviral hub, as demonstrated by the attenuated IRF3-IFN response and increased production of IBV in SG-defective cells. Additional evidence includes the aggregation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and signaling intermediates to the IBV-induced SGs. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the endoribonuclease nsp15 of IBV interferes with the formation of antiviral hub SGs by regulating the accumulation of viral dsRNA and by antagonizing the activation of PKR, eventually ensuring productive virus replication. We further demonstrated that nsp15s from PEDV, TGEV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 harbor the conserved function to interfere with the formation of chemically-induced SGs. Thus, we speculate that coronaviruses employ similar nsp15-mediated mechanisms to antagonize the host anti-viral SGs formation to ensure efficient virus replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Cytoplasmic Granules/metabolism , Endoribonucleases/immunology , Endoribonucleases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/immunology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus/immunology , Cytoplasmic Granules/immunology , Cytoplasmic Granules/virology , Humans , Interferon-beta/immunology , Interferon-beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Virus Replication/physiology
14.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4899

ABSTRACT

A review summarized the clin. application of high frequency traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of new coronavirus pneumonia.

15.
J Community Health ; 46(2): 278-285, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess perceptions of risk and related factors concerning COVID-19 epidemic among residents in Chongqing city, China. METHODS: With convenience sampling, a web questionnaire survey was conducted among 476 residents living in Chongqing on February 13rd to 14th in 2020, when citizens just started to get back to work. RESULTS: Residents' estimated perceived risks were (4.63 ± 0.57), (4.19 ± 0.76), (3.23 ± 0.91) and (2.29 ± 0.96) for the infectivity, pathogenicity, lethality and self-rated infection possibility of COVID-19, respectively. Females (OR = 4.234), people with income ≥ 2000 yuan (2000-4999 yuan: OR = 5.052, 5000-9999 yuan: OR = 4.301, ≥ 10,000 yuan: OR = 23.459), the married status (OR = 1.811), the divorced status, widows or widowers (OR = 3.038), people living with families including children (OR = 5.085) or chronic patients (OR = 2.423) had a higher perceived risk level, as well as people who used free media websites (OR = 1.756), community workers (OR = 4.064) or community information platforms (OR = 2.235) as main media information sources. The perceived risk increased by 4.9% for every one-year increase of age. People who used WeChat contacts (OR = 0.196) as the main media information source, reported a lower perceived risk. CONCLUSION: Residents reported a high level of risk perception towards COVID-19 in Chongqing and it was impacted by the population demographic characteristics. Media information sources, including community information platforms and community workers may cause the increase of public risk perceptions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Social Perception , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Chin. Trad. Herbal Drugs ; 5(51): 1153-1158, 20200312.
Article in Chinese | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-52363

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, there has been a sharp increase in the number of confirmed cases of pneumonia caused by the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in China, which has caused great concern around the world. In face of severe epidemic, no specific drugs have been found in clinical practice. However, some Chinese medicine compounds have shown obvious clinical efficacy, and it is feasible to find and develop natural drugs for the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia from these compounds. In this paper, based on the recommends of new type of coronavirus infection pneumonia diagnosis and treatment scheme (trial version 6), the use frequency of Chinese herbal medicines was calculated. The antiviral reports of high frequency Chinese herbal medicines were reviewed, in order to provide the reference for screening the active components against SARS-CoV-2 from traditional Chinese medicine.

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