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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 794167, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775955

ABSTRACT

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a non-invasive technique to stimulate human brain, has been widely used in stroke treatment for its capability of regulating synaptic plasticity and promoting cortical functional reconstruction. As shown in previous studies, the high electric field (E-field) intensity around the lesion helps in the recovery of brain function, thus the spatial location and angle of coil truly matter for the significant correlation with therapeutic effect of TMS. But, the error caused by coil placement in current clinical setting is still non-negligible and a more precise coil positioning method needs to be proposed. In this study, two kinds of real brain stroke models of ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were established by inserting relative lesions into three human head models. A coil position optimization algorithm, based on the genetic algorithm (GA), was developed to search the spatial location and rotation angle of the coil in four 4 × 4 cm search domains around the lesion. It maximized the average intensity of the E-field in the voxel of interest (VOI). In this way, maximum 17.48% higher E-field intensity than that of clinical TMS stimulation was obtained. Besides, our method also shows the potential to avoid unnecessary exposure to the non-target regions. The proposed algorithm was verified to provide an optimal position after nine iterations and displayed good robustness for coil location optimization between different stroke models. To conclude, the optimized spatial location and rotation angle of the coil for TMS stroke treatment could be obtained through our algorithm, reducing the intensity and duration of human electromagnetic exposure and presenting a significant therapeutic potential of TMS for stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Algorithms , Brain/physiology , Humans , Stroke/therapy , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/methods
2.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1051-1056, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medicines for the treatment of 2019-novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections are urgently needed. However, drug screening using live 2019-nCoV requires high-level biosafety facilities, which imposes an obstacle for those institutions without such facilities or 2019-nCoV. This study aims to repurpose the clinically approved drugs for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a 2019-nCoV-related coronavirus model. METHODS: A 2019-nCoV-related pangolin coronavirus GX_P2V/pangolin/2017/Guangxi was described. Whether GX_P2V uses angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as the cell receptor was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of ACE2. The pangolin coronavirus model was used to identify drug candidates for treating 2019-nCoV infection. Two libraries of 2406 clinically approved drugs were screened for their ability to inhibit cytopathic effects on Vero E6 cells by GX_P2V infection. The anti-viral activities and anti-viral mechanisms of potential drugs were further investigated. Viral yields of RNAs and infectious particles were quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and plaque assay, respectively. RESULTS: The spike protein of coronavirus GX_P2V shares 92.2% amino acid identity with that of 2019-nCoV isolate Wuhan-hu-1, and uses ACE2 as the receptor for infection just like 2019-nCoV. Three drugs, including cepharanthine (CEP), selamectin, and mefloquine hydrochloride, exhibited complete inhibition of cytopathic effects in cell culture at 10 µmol/L. CEP demonstrated the most potent inhibition of GX_P2V infection, with a concentration for 50% of maximal effect [EC50] of 0.98 µmol/L. The viral RNA yield in cells treated with 10 µmol/L CEP was 15,393-fold lower than in cells without CEP treatment ([6.48 ±â€Š0.02] × 10vs. 1.00 ±â€Š0.12, t = 150.38, P < 0.001) at 72 h post-infection (p.i.). Plaque assays found no production of live viruses in media containing 10 µmol/L CEP at 48 h p.i. Furthermore, we found CEP had potent anti-viral activities against both viral entry (0.46 ±â€Š0.12, vs.1.00 ±â€Š0.37, t = 2.42, P < 0.05) and viral replication ([6.18 ±â€Š0.95] × 10vs. 1.00 ±â€Š0.43, t = 3.98, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our pangolin coronavirus GX_P2V is a workable model for 2019-nCoV research. CEP, selamectin, and mefloquine hydrochloride are potential drugs for treating 2019-nCoV infection. Our results strongly suggest that CEP is a wide-spectrum inhibitor of pan-betacoronavirus, and further study of CEP for treatment of 2019-nCoV infection is warranted.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cell Line , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Approval , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24432, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585772

ABSTRACT

Despite the initial success of some drugs and vaccines targeting COVID-19, understanding the mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 disease pathogenesis remains crucial for the development of further approaches to treatment. Some patients with severe Covid-19 experience a cytokine storm and display evidence of inflammasome activation leading to increased levels of IL-1ß and IL-18; however, other reports have suggested reduced inflammatory responses to Sars-Cov-2. In this study we have examined the effects of the Sars-Cov-2 envelope (E) protein, a virulence factor in coronaviruses, on inflammasome activation and pulmonary inflammation. In cultured macrophages the E protein suppressed inflammasome priming and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Similarly, in mice transfected with E protein and treated with poly(I:C) to simulate the effects of viral RNA, the E protein, in an NLRP3-dependent fashion, reduced expression of pro-IL-1ß, levels of IL-1ß and IL-18 in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, and macrophage infiltration in the lung. To simulate the effects of more advanced infection, macrophages were treated with both LPS and poly(I:C). In this setting the E protein increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in both murine and human macrophages. Thus, the Sars-Cov-2 E protein may initially suppress the host NLRP3 inflammasome response to viral RNA while potentially increasing NLRP3 inflammasome responses in the later stages of infection. Targeting the Sars-Cov-2 E protein especially in the early stages of infection may represent a novel approach to Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Down-Regulation/drug effects , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Humans , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages/cytology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 670889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399185

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the coronavirus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus 2; ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; S protein, spiked glycoprotein; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2; WHO, World Health Organization. Purpose: Although the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has been viably controlled in China, a new normal in healthcare strategies has become standard in China and worldwide. We conducted a questionnaire study to disseminate the experience from China in terms of urology outpatient prevention and control measures under standardized prevention policies against COVID-19. Participants and Methods: From May 3, 2020 to June 25, 2020, we conducted an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire study, focused on the status of and experiences with outpatient urology prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic. The targeted respondents were urologists in mainland China, covering all levels of hospitals and clinics. Results: A total of 216 (97%) valid responses were collected. We found that 183 (85%) respondents were from outside of Hubei province in China. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight (73%) respondents believed that SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in urine, and that protection against urine exposure was needed. Over 80% of respondents recommended WeChat application or similar online video meetings for virtual outpatient consultations. The suggested flowcharts and recommendations to prevent new cases were easy to understand and approved by most physicians, which could provide reference for outpatient prevention and control. We still need to make adequate preparations under the new normal of the COVID-19 Epidemic, especially for those suspected of being infected. Conclusions: Although the scientific validation of the questionnaire is limited, it provides a first snapshot of the experiences relating to the prevention and control measures in urology clinics in China, and can inform future policies in this field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Urology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1378-1386, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352117

ABSTRACT

Antiviral therapies targeting the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently required. We studied an already-approved botanical drug cepharanthine (CEP) in a cell culture model of GX_P2V, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related virus. RNA-sequencing results showed the virus perturbed the expression of multiple genes including those associated with cellular stress responses such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated heat shock response, of which heat shock response-related genes and pathways were at the core. CEP was potent to reverse most dysregulated genes and pathways in infected cells including ER stress/unfolded protein response and HSF1-mediated heat shock response. Additionally, single-cell transcriptomes also confirmed that genes of cellular stress responses and autophagy pathways were enriched in several peripheral blood mononuclear cells populations from COVID-19 patients. In summary, this study uncovered the transcriptome of a SARS-CoV-2-related coronavirus infection model and anti-viral activities of CEP, providing evidence for CEP as a promising therapeutic option for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Transcriptome , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Homeostasis , Humans , Vero Cells
6.
Gut ; 70(7): 1253-1265, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166535

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the oral microbiome, gut microbiome and serum lipid profiles in patients with active COVID-19 and recovered patients; evaluate the potential of the microbiome as a non-invasive biomarker for COVID-19; and explore correlations between the microbiome and lipid profile. DESIGN: We collected and sequenced 392 tongue-coating samples, 172 faecal samples and 155 serum samples from Central China and East China. We characterised microbiome and lipid molecules, constructed microbial classifiers in discovery cohort and verified their diagnostic potential in 74 confirmed patients (CPs) from East China and 37 suspected patients (SPs) with IgG positivity. RESULTS: Oral and faecal microbial diversity was significantly decreased in CPs versus healthy controls (HCs). Compared with HCs, butyric acid-producing bacteria were decreased and lipopolysaccharide-producing bacteria were increased in CPs in oral cavity. The classifiers based on 8 optimal oral microbial markers (7 faecal microbial markers) achieved good diagnostic efficiency in different cohorts. Importantly, diagnostic efficacy reached 87.24% in the cross-regional cohort. Moreover, the classifiers successfully diagnosed SPs with IgG antibody positivity as CPs, and diagnostic efficacy reached 92.11% (98.01% of faecal microbiome). Compared with CPs, 47 lipid molecules, including sphingomyelin (SM)(d40:4), SM(d38:5) and monoglyceride(33:5), were depleted, and 122 lipid molecules, including phosphatidylcholine(36:4p), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)(16:0p/20:5) and diglyceride(20:1/18:2), were enriched in confirmed patients recovery. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to characterise the oral microbiome in COVID-19, and oral microbiomes and lipid alterations in recovered patients, to explore their correlations and to report the successful establishment and validation of a diagnostic model for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Lipids/blood , Mouth/microbiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Lipidomics , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(2): 1378-1386, 2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015212

ABSTRACT

Antiviral therapies targeting the pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are urgently required. We studied an already-approved botanical drug cepharanthine (CEP) in a cell culture model of GX_P2V, a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related virus. RNA-sequencing results showed the virus perturbed the expression of multiple genes including those associated with cellular stress responses such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-mediated heat shock response, of which heat shock response-related genes and pathways were at the core. CEP was potent to reverse most dysregulated genes and pathways in infected cells including ER stress/unfolded protein response and HSF1-mediated heat shock response. Additionally, single-cell transcriptomes also confirmed that genes of cellular stress responses and autophagy pathways were enriched in several peripheral blood mononuclear cells populations from COVID-19 patients. In summary, this study uncovered the transcriptome of a SARS-CoV-2-related coronavirus infection model and anti-viral activities of CEP, providing evidence for CEP as a promising therapeutic option for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Transcriptome , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Homeostasis , Humans , Vero Cells
8.
Glob Adv Health Med ; 9: 2164956120977437, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963145

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 Pandemic has catalyzed the use of tele-medicine technologies in health care, especially in cancer. The recent relaxation of guidelines has enabled rapid expansion of these platforms many have been seeking for years. We review the advantages and challenges of delivering integrative oncology care using telemedicine. The article concludes with recommendations for areas that need to be addressed so that future practice can consider a hybrid model.

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