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1.
Gene ; 825: 146443, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814426

ABSTRACT

Both feline coronavirus (FCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 are coronaviruses that infect cats and humans, respectively. However, cats have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and FCoV also had been shown to infect human. To elucidate the relationship between FCoV and SARS-CoV-2, we highlight the main characteristics of the genome, the receptor usage, and the correlation of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike proteins in FCoV and SARS-CoV-2. It is demonstrated that FCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are closely related to the main characteristics of the genome, receptor usage, and RBD of spike proteins with similar furin cleavage sites. In particular, the affinity of the conserved feline angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (fACE2) receptor to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cross-species of coronaviruses between cats and humans or other domesticated animals are also discussed. This review sheds light on cats as potential intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and cross-species transmission or zoonotic infection of FCoV and SARS-CoV-2 between cats and humans was identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus, Feline , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cats , Coronavirus, Feline/genetics , Coronavirus, Feline/metabolism , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
2.
Biosaf Health ; 2022 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814180

ABSTRACT

Like antibody evaluation, using an effective antigen-specific T-cell immunity assessment method in COVID-19 patients, survivors and vaccinees is crucial for understanding the immune persistence, prognosis assessment, and vaccine development for COVID-19. This study evaluated an empirically adjusted enzyme-linked immunospot assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in 175 peripheral blood samples from COVID-19 convalescents and healthy individuals. Results of viral nucleic acid were used as the gold standard of infection confirmation. The SARS-CoV-2 M peptide pool had higher sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 71% for the single peptide pool. For combined peptide pools, the parallel evaluation (at least one of the peptide pools is positive) of total peptide pools (S1&S2&M&N) had higher sensitivity (up to 93%), and the serial evaluation (all peptide pools are positive) of total peptide pools had higher specificity (up to 100%). The result of the serial evaluation was better than that of the parallel evaluation as a whole. The detection efficiency of M and N peptide pool serial evaluation appeared the highest, with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 93%. This T-cell immunity detection assay introduced in this report can achieve high operability and applicability. Therefore, it can be an effective SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular immune function evaluation method.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769226

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents, who had asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe disease, through two visits at months 6 and 12 post-disease onset. The SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, comprising NAb, IgG, and IgM, were assessed by mutually corroborated assays, i.e. neutralization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay (MCLIA). Meanwhile, the T-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins was tested through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and tetramer staining-based flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively. Furthermore, both antibody and T-cell memory levels of the convalescents were positively associated with their disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunities are durable at least until one year after disease onset.

5.
Gene ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755706

ABSTRACT

Both feline coronavirus (FCoV) and SARS-CoV-2 are coronaviruses that infect cats and humans, respectively. However, cats have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, and FCoV also had been shown to infect human. To elucidate the relationship between FCoV and SARS-CoV-2, we highlight the main characteristics of the genome, the receptor usage, and the correlation of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of spike proteins in FCoV and SARS-CoV-2. It is demonstrated that FCoV and SARS-CoV-2 are closely related to the main characteristics of the genome, receptor usage, and RBD of spike proteins with similar furin cleavage sites. In particular, the affinity of the conserved feline angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (fACE2) receptor to the RBD of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that cats are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cross-species of coronaviruses between cats and humans or other domesticated animals are also discussed. This review sheds light on cats as potential intermediate hosts for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and cross-species transmission or zoonotic infection of FCoV and SARS-CoV-2 between cats and humans was identified.

6.
China CDC Wkly ; 4(5): 83-87, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687936

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Similar to antibody detection, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T-cell response evaluation is also pivotal among the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents and the vaccinated populations. Nucleocapsid (N) protein is one of the main structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and can trigger T-cell responses in humans. METHODS: An overlapping peptide pool covering the full length of the N protein was designed, peptides with positive T-cell activating potency in COVID-19 convalescents were screened, and CD8+ T cell epitopes were further identified. The epitope was used to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 convalescents based in intracellular cytokine staining and tetramer staining in flow cytometry. RESULTS: A human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A)*1101-restricted CD8+ T cell epitope, which could stimulate the production of IFN-γ via peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the convalescents was defined, and the tetramer generated with this epitope could detect SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in the PBMCs of the convalescents. The structural investigation eliminated that the epitope was a typical HLA-A*1101-restricted T-cell epitope which was conserved among all the sarbecoviruses. DISCUSSION: The newly identified SARS-CoV-2-derived T-cell epitope was helpful to detect the cellular immunity against different sarbecoviruses including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2. This study provided an evaluation method and also a peptide candidate for the research and development of T-cell based vaccine for the virus.

7.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(49): 1052-1056, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1548010
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1870(2): 140736, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509583

ABSTRACT

We present an integrated analysis of urine and serum proteomics and clinical measurements in asymptomatic, mild/moderate, severe and convalescent cases of COVID-19. We identify the pattern of immune response during COVID-19 infection. The immune response is activated in asymptomatic infection, but is dysregulated in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Our data suggest that the turning point depends on the function of myeloid cells and neutrophils. In addition, immune defects persist into the recovery stage, until 12 months after diagnosis. Moreover, disorders of cholesterol metabolism span the entire progression of the disease, starting from asymptomatic infection and lasting to recovery. Our data suggest that prolonged dysregulation of the immune response and cholesterol metabolism might be the pivotal causative agent of other potential sequelae. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis, which is instructive for the development of early intervention strategies to ameliorate complex disease sequelae.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , Cholesterol/metabolism , Convalescence , Proteomics , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/urine , Case-Control Studies , Cholesterol/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunity , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Hum Immunol ; 83(2): 119-129, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499900

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
10.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(44): 915-917, 2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498481
11.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(6): 1369-1388, 2021 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493010

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak that emerged at the end of 2019 has affected more than 58 million people with more than 1.38 million deaths and has had an incalculable impact on the world . Extensive prevention and treatment measures have been implemented since the pandemic. In this Review, we summarize current understanding on the source, transmission characteristics, and pathogenic mechanism of SARS-CoV-2. We also detail the recent development of diagnostic methods and potential treatment strategies of COVID-19 with focus on the ongoing clinical trials of antibodies, vaccines, and inhibitors for combating the emerging coronavirus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The longitudinal antigen-specific immunity in COVID-19 convalescents is crucial for long-term protection upon individual re-exposure to SARS-CoV-2, and even more pivotal for ultimately achieving population-level immunity. To better understand the features of immune memory in individuals with different disease severities at one year post-disease onset we conducted this cohort study. METHODS: We conducted a systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents, who had asymptomatic, mild, moderate, or severe disease, through two visits at months 6 and 12 post-disease onset. The SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, comprising NAb, IgG, and IgM, were assessed by mutually corroborated assays, i.e. neutralization, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay (MCLIA). Meanwhile, the T-cell memory against SARS-CoV-2 spike, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins was tested through enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), and tetramer staining-based flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset. At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset. Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively. Furthermore, both antibody and T-cell memory levels of the convalescents were positively associated with their disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunities are durable at least until one year after disease onset.

14.
J Virol ; 95(22): e0117321, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371847

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has reignited global interest in animal coronaviruses and their potential for human transmission. While bats are thought to be the wildlife reservoir of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the widespread human coronavirus OC43 is thought to have originated in rodents. Here, we sampled 297 rodents and shrews, representing eight species, from three municipalities of southern China. We report coronavirus prevalences of 23.3% and 0.7% in Guangzhou and Guilin, respectively, with samples from urban areas having significantly higher coronavirus prevalences than those from rural areas. We obtained three coronavirus genome sequences from Rattus norvegicus, including a Betacoronavirus (rat coronavirus [RCoV] GCCDC3), an Alphacoronavirus (RCoV-GCCDC5), and a novel Betacoronavirus (RCoV-GCCDC4). Recombination analysis suggests that there was a potential recombination event involving RCoV-GCCDC4, murine hepatitis virus (MHV), and Longquan Rl rat coronavirus (LRLV). Furthermore, we uncovered a polybasic cleavage site, RARR, in the spike (S) protein of RCoV-GCCDC4, which is dominant in RCoV. These findings provide further information on the potential for interspecies transmission of coronaviruses and demonstrate the value of a One Health approach to virus discovery. IMPORTANCE Surveillance of viruses among rodents in rural and urban areas of South China identified three rodent coronaviruses, RCoV-GCCDC3, RCoV-GCCDC4, and RCoV-GCCDC5, one of which was identified as a novel potentially recombinant coronavirus with a polybasic cleavage site in the spike (S) protein. Through reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) screening of coronaviruses, we found that coronavirus prevalence in urban areas is much higher than that in rural areas. Subsequently, we obtained three coronavirus genome sequences by deep sequencing. After different method-based analyses, we found that RCoV-GCCDC4 was a novel potentially recombinant coronavirus with a polybasic cleavage site in the S protein, dominant in RCoV. This newly identified coronavirus RCoV-GCCDC4 with its potentially recombinant genome and polybasic cleavage site provides a new insight into the evolution of coronaviruses. Furthermore, our results provide further information on the potential for interspecies transmission of coronaviruses and demonstrate the necessity of a One Health approach for zoonotic disease surveillance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Rodentia/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Shrews/virology
15.
Biosafety and Health ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1370453

ABSTRACT

Mink has been identified as an animal with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and also as the only animal with evidence to transmit the virus back to humans. Thus, the surveillance of viruses among high-density farmed minks has a significant meaning for the control of zoonotic emerging diseases in humans. Within anal swabs of minks that died of unknown causes in a mink farm, mink calicivirus (MCV) and mammalian reovirus (MRV) were detected and simultaneously observed within MDCK cell culture from the sample of the same lethal mink. The parallel isolation was successfully performed by utilizing cell lines from different host sources with distinct viral sensitivities, i.e. Mv.1.Lu and Vero-E6 and the two viruses were independently separated. The prevalence of the virus among the minks and its genomic characteristics were investigated through deep sequencing technology. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral genome showed a close relationship of the newly isolated MCV-GCCDC8-2020 with MCV strains belonging to the genus Vesivirus, but with unique mutations derived from the major structural protein (VP1). The reovirus MRV-GCCDC9-2020 isolated from the same mink belongs to serotype 3 mammalian reovirus and genome analysis showed a potential reassortment derived from reoviruses in different species. This study provides a beneficial reference on viral co-infection within disease investigation in farmed minks and raises the concern for the virus surveillance among the high-density fed animal farms.

16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1574-1588, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320287

ABSTRACT

A safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic. Four adenovirus-vectored vaccines expressing spike (S) protein have been approved for use. Here, we generated several recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus (AdC7) vaccines expressing S, receptor-binding domain (RBD), or tandem-repeat dimeric RBD (RBD-tr2). We found vaccination via either intramuscular or intranasal route was highly immunogenic in mice to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses. AdC7-RBD-tr2 showed higher antibody responses compared to either AdC7-S or AdC7-RBD. Intranasal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 additionally induced mucosal immunity with neutralizing activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Either single-dose or two-dose mucosal administration of AdC7-RBD-tr2 protected mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with undetectable subgenomic RNA in lung and relieved lung injury. AdC7-RBD-tr2-elicted sera preserved the neutralizing activity against the circulating variants, especially the Delta variant. These results support AdC7-RBD-tr2 as a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Genetic Vectors/genetics , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Injections, Intramuscular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pan troglodytes/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Vero Cells
17.
Front Med ; 15(4): 507-527, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188167

ABSTRACT

The avian influenza A (H7N9) virus is a zoonotic virus that is closely associated with live poultry markets. It has caused infections in humans in China since 2013. Five waves of the H7N9 influenza epidemic occurred in China between March 2013 and September 2017. H7N9 with low-pathogenicity dominated in the first four waves, whereas highly pathogenic H7N9 influenza emerged in poultry and spread to humans during the fifth wave, causing wide concern. Specialists and officials from China and other countries responded quickly, controlled the epidemic well thus far, and characterized the virus by using new technologies and surveillance tools that were made possible by their preparedness efforts. Here, we review the characteristics of the H7N9 viruses that were identified while controlling the spread of the disease. It was summarized and discussed from the perspectives of molecular epidemiology, clinical features, virulence and pathogenesis, receptor binding, T-cell responses, monoclonal antibody development, vaccine development, and disease burden. These data provide tools for minimizing the future threat of H7N9 and other emerging and re-emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Influenza, Human , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Poultry , SARS-CoV-2
19.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039950

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst public health crisis in a century. However, knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a serological study with serum specimens collected at the acute and the convalescent phases from 104 patients with severe COVID-19 who were part of the first wave of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China. Our findings revealed that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are persistent for at least 6 months in patients with severe COVID-19, despite that IgG levels against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG declined from the acute to the convalescent phase. Moreover, we demonstrate that the level of RBD-IgG is capable of correlating with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activities in COVID-19 serum. In summary, our findings identify the magnitude, functionality, and longevity of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19, which sheds light on the humoral immune response to COVID-19 and would be beneficial for developing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Time Factors
20.
Biosaf Health ; 2(4): 185-186, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947145
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