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1.
Informs Journal on Applied Analytics ; 53(1):70-84, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2307528

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred extensive vaccine research worldwide. One crucial part of vaccine development is the phase III clinical trial that assesses the vaccine for safety and efficacy in the prevention of COVID-19. In this work, we enumerate the first successful implementation of using machine learning models to accelerate phase III vaccine trials, working with the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine to predictively select trial sites with naturally high incidence rates ("hotspots"). We develop DELPHI, a novel, accurate, policy-driven machine learning model that serves as the basis of our predictions. During the second half of 2020, the DELPHI-driven site selection identified hotspots with more than 90% accuracy, shortened trial duration by six to eight weeks (approximately 33%), and reduced enrollment by 15,000 (approximately 25%). In turn, this accelerated time to market enabled Janssen's vaccine to receive its emergency use authorization and realize its public health impact earlier than expected. Several geographies identified by DELPHI have since been the first areas to report variants of concern (e.g., Omicron in South Africa), and thus DELPHI's choice of these areas also produced early data on how the vaccine responds to new threats. Johnson & Johnson has also implemented a similar approach across its business including supporting trial site selection for other vaccine programs, modeling surgical procedure demand for its Medical Device unit, and providing guidance on return-to-work programs for its 130,000 employees. Continued application of this methodology can help shorten clinical development and change the economics of drug development by reducing the level of risk and cost associated with investing in novel therapies. This will allow Johnson & Johnson and others to enable more effective delivery of medicines to patients.

2.
Journal of Environmental Sciences ; 125:553-567, 2023.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1882187

ABSTRACT

Based on the online and membrane sampling data of Yuncheng from January 1st to February 12th, 2020, the formation mechanism of haze under the dual influence of Spring Festival and COVID-19 (Corona Virus Disease) was analyzed. Atmospheric capacity, chemical composition, secondary transformation, source apportionment, backward trajectory, pollution space and enterprise distribution were studied. Low wind speed, high humidity and small atmospheric capacity inhibited the diffusion of air pollutants. Four severe pollution processes occurred during the period, and the pollution degree was the highest around the Spring Festival. In light, medium and heavy pollution periods, the proportion of SNA (SO 4 2 ???, NO 3 ??? and NH 4 + ) was 59.6%, 56.0% and 54.9%, respectively, which was the largest components of PM 2.5 ;the [NO 3 ???]/[SO 4 2 ???] ratio was 2.1, 1.5 and 1.7, respectively, indicating that coal source had a great influence;the changes of NOR (nitrogen oxidation ratio, 0.44, 0.45, 0.61) and SOR (sulphur oxidation ratio, 0.40, 0.49, 0.65) indicated the accumulation of secondary aerosols with increasing pollution. The coal combustion, motor vehicle, secondary inorganic sources and industrial sources contributed 36.8%, 26.59%, 11.84% and 8.02% to PM 2.5 masses, respectively. Backward trajectory showed that the influence from the east was greater during the Spring Festival, and the pollutants from the eastern air mass were higher, which would aggravate the pollution. Meteorological and Spring Festival had a great impact on heavy pollution weather. Although some work could not operate due to the impact of the COVID-19 epidemic, the emission of pollutants did not reduce much. ?? 2022 The Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V.

3.
Economic and Political Studies-Eps ; : 38, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1585282

ABSTRACT

In the year 2021, China's economy continues to recover and moves towards policy normalisation. This report identifies features indicating the beginning of China's macroeconomic normalisation, the internal and external pressure it faces, and the supporting policies. Due to the economic recovery and the base effect, China's real GDP growth rate is projected to reach above 8.0% in 2021, and the quarterly growth rate will drop from 18.3% in Q1 to 5.0% in Q4, showing a declining trend. Based on qualitative assessments and statistical forecasts, this report puts forward some policy suggestions.

4.
Proceedings of 2020 Ieee International Conference on Teaching, Assessment, and Learning for Engineering ; : 265-272, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1313985

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on policy development in a Higher Education context and provides a model fur ensuring sustainable educational practice in TNE partnerships under disruptive situations. The focal point of policy initiation and development was the Covid-19 virus outbreak in China and the ensuing impact on program delivery and assessment. The development takes a novel approach by applying a combination of commercial scenario planning and crisis management techniques to create a coherent and prescriptive educational policy for staff operating in a Transnational Education (TNE) partnership based on the fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) faculty model. It demonstrates the application of these management tools and describes how, through careful analysis and planning, disruption to student learning, teaching and assessment can be minimized.

5.
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi ; 50(3): 297-299, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119576
6.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 58(4): 269-274, 2020 Apr 02.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-3049

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological history, clinical manifestations, treatment and the short-term prognosis of 31 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection in children from six provinces (autonomous region) in northern China. Methods: A retrospective analysis of the epidemiological history, clinical symptoms, signs, laboratory examinations, chest imaging, treatment and the short-term prognosis of 31 cases of 2019-nCoV was conducted. The patients were diagnosed between January 25th, 2020 and February 21st, 2020 in 21 hospitals in 17 cities of six provinces (autonomous region) of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxia, Hebei, Henan and Shandong. Results: The age of the 31 children with 2019-nCoV infection was 7 years and 1 month (6 months-17 years). Nine cases (29%) were imported cases. Other 21 cases (68%) had contact with confirmed infected adults. One case (3%) had contact with asymptomatic returnees from Wuhan. Among the 31 children, 28 patients (90%) were family cluster cases. The clinical types were asymptomatic type in 4 cases (13%), mild type in 13 cases (42%), and common type in 14 cases (45%). No severe or critical type existed. The most common symptom was fever (n=20, 65%), including 1 case of high fever, 9 cases of moderate fever, 10 cases of low fever. Fever lasted from 1 day to 9 days. The fever of fifteen cases lasted for ≤3 d, while in other 5 cases lasted >3 d. Other symptoms included cough (n=14, 45%), fatigue (n=3, 10%) and diarrhea (n=3, 10%). Pharyngalgia, runny nose, dizziness, headache and vomiting were rare. In the early stage, the total leukocytes count in peripheral blood decreased in 2 cases (6%), the lymphocytes count decreased in 2 cases (6%), and the platelet count increased in 2 cases (6%).Elevation of C-reactive protein (10%, 3/30), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (19%, 4/21), procalcitonin (4%,1/28), liver enzyme (22%, 6/27) and muscle enzyme (15%, 4/27) occurred in different proportions. Renal function and blood glucose were normal. There were abnormal chest CT changes in 14 cases, including 9 cases with patchy ground glass opacities and nodules, mostly located in the lower lobe of both lungs near the pleural area. After receiving supportive treatment, the viral nucleic acid turned negative in 25 cases within 7-23 days. Among them, 24 children (77%) recovered and were discharged from hospital. No death occurred. Conclusions: In this case series, 2019-nCoV infection in children from six provinces (autonomous region) in northern China are mainly caused by close family contact. Clinical types are asymptomatic, mild and common types. Clinical manifestations and laboratory examination results are nonspecific. Close contact history of epidemiology, nucleic acid detection and chest imaging are important bases for diagnosis of 2019-nCoV infection. After general treatment, the short-term prognosis is good.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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