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1.
LANCET ; 399(10342):2212-2225, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1935221

ABSTRACT

Background Vaccination of children and young people against SARS-CoV-2 is recommended in some countries. Scarce data have been published on immune responses induced by COVID-19 vaccines in people younger than 18 years compared with the same data that are available in adults. Methods COV006 is a phase 2, single-blind, randomised, controlled trial of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) in children and adolescents at four trial sites in the UK. Healthy participants aged 6-17 years, who did not have a history of chronic respiratory conditions, laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, or previously received capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (the control), were randomly assigned to four groups (4:1:4:1) to receive two intramuscular doses of 5 x 10(1)degrees viral particles of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or control, 28 days or 84 days apart. Participants, clinical investigators, and the laboratory team were masked to treatment allocation. Study groups were stratified by age, and participants aged 12-17 years were enrolled before those aged 6-11 years. Due to the restrictions in the use of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in people younger than 30 years that were introduced during the study, only participants aged 12-17 years who were randomly assigned to the 28-day interval group had received their vaccinations at the intended interval (day 28). The remaining participants received their second dose at day 112. The primary outcome was assessment of safety and tolerability in the safety population, which included all participants who received at least one dose of the study drug. The secondary outcome was immunogenicity, which was assessed in participants who were seronegative to the nucleocapsid protein at baseline and received both prime and boost vaccine. This study is registered with ISRCTN (15638344). Findings Between Feb 15 and April 2, 2021, 262 participants (150 [57%] participants aged 12-17 years and 112 [43%] aged 6-11 years;due to the change in the UK vaccination policy, the study terminated recruitment of the younger age group before the planned number of participants had been enrolled) were randomly assigned to receive vaccination with two doses of either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=211 [n=105 at day 28 and n=106 at day 84]) or control (n=51 [n=26 at day 28 and n=25 at day 84]). One participant in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 day 28 group in the younger age bracket withdrew their consent before receiving a first dose. Of the participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 169 (80%) of 210 participants reported at least one solicited local or systemic adverse event up to 7 days following the first dose, and 146 (76%) of 193 participants following the second dose. No serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 administration were recorded by the data cutoff date on Oct 28, 2021. Of the participants who received at least one dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, there were 128 unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after vaccination reported by 83 (40%) of 210 participants. One participant aged 6-11 years receiving ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 reported a grade 4 fever of 40.2 degrees C on day 1 following first vaccination, which resolved within 24 h. Pain and tenderness were the most common local solicited adverse events for all the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and capsular group B meningococcal groups following both doses. Of the 242 participants with available serostatus data, 14 (6%) were seropositive at baseline. Serostatus data were not available for 20 (8%) of 262 participants. Among seronegative participants who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and pseudoneutralising antibody titres at day 28 after the second dose were higher in participants aged 12-17 years with a longer interval between doses (geometric means of 73 371 arbitrary units [AU]/mL [95% CI 58 685-91 733] and 299 half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC 50;95% CI 230-390]) compared with those aged 12-17 years who received their vaccines 28 days apart (43 280 AU/mL [95% CI 35 852-52 246] and 150 IC 50 [95% CI 116-194]). Humoral responses were higher in those aged 6-11 years than in those aged 12-17 years receiving their second dose at the same 112-day interval (geometric mean ratios 1.48 [95% CI 1.07-2.07] for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and 2.96 [1.89-4.62] for pseudoneutralising antibody titres). Cellular responses peaked after a first dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 across all age and interval groups and remained above baseline after a second vaccination. Interpretation ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children aged 6-17 years, inducing concentrations of antibody that are similar to those associated with high efficacy in phase 3 studies in adults. No safety concerns were raised in this trial. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(2): 103-107, 2022 Feb 06.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1600048

ABSTRACT

Influenza is an infectious respiratory disease caused by the influenza viruses. Older people, infants and people with underlying medical conditions could have a higher risk of severe influenza symptoms and complications. The co-infection of Coronavirus Diseases 2019 (COVID-19) with influenza viruses could lead to the complication of prevention, diagnosis, control, treatment, and recovery of COVID-19. Influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine overlapped in target populations, vaccination time, and inoculation units. Although there was insufficient evidence on the immunogenicity and safety of co-administration of influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine, World Health Organization and some countries recommended co-administration of inactivated influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine. This review summarized domestic and international vaccination policies and research progress, and put forward corresponding suggestions in order to provide scientific support for the formulation of vaccination strategy on seasonal influenza vaccine and COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Humans , Infant , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Vaccination
4.
Ieee Systems Journal ; : 12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1583804

ABSTRACT

The structured data collected by the Internet of Things can be encrypted for protecting the user's privacy. Range query can be used to get the expected data with some specific attributes among the encrypted data, that is, given the upper and lower limits $(x, y)$ of a certain attribute, the range query will get all the records whose corresponding attribute values are in $(x, y)$. However, in the structured encryption scheme with range query, there is a certain amount of information leakage, which will lead to the so-called inference attacks, i.e., the attacker can obtain the user's attribute values. To hide attribute values and their relationship, this article transformed the problem of the numerical comparison between two attribute values into the problem of the intersection of two sets. By using the Bloom filter, the elements in the attribute value collection are recorded and determined whether the intersection of the two sets is empty. This ensures that our scheme effectively resists inference attacks. Besides, by multiplying the endpoints of the range interval by a large number, we gave an improved scheme to hide the user's search pattern. In the query process, our scheme will not leak the upper and lower limits of the range value and will not leak the relationship between the attribute value and the range interval. This will prevent the attacker from inducing the relationship of attribute values by multiple range queries. Finally, we conducted a simulation evaluation of the scheme by using the published novel coronavirus pneumonia data, and the results show that our scheme has a better performance than the existing schemes.

5.
Journal of Evidence-Based Psychotherapies ; 21(2):3-36, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1552041

ABSTRACT

During this coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, smartphones play an important role in online classes, study, and entertainment. However, excessive use may lead to smartphone addiction (SPA). The incidence of SPA among students has increased with the spread of COVID-19 and threatens to impair home-based students’ learning efficiency and physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest achievements in SPA prevention and treatment, and a theoretical basis for future experimental research and clinical treatment, while considering their applicability during the current pandemic. We researched the core literature in Chinese, English, and Korean databases from 2000 to 2021;3208 articles were identified. After reading the titles, s, and full texts, 53 articles were selected. Research on SPA interventions was relatively limited;we identified six types of prevention and treatment measures: psychotherapies, cognitive training, behavioral intervention, application restriction, social intervention, and complementary and alternative medicine. They can be implemented by students, parents, or online experts. Future research should focus on developing early measures to identify and prevent SPA and enhance students’ change motivation. © 2021, Cluj University Press. All rights reserved.

6.
Fudan University Journal of Medical Sciences ; 48(3):307-312, 2021.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1278561

ABSTRACT

Objective: To understand the current situation of the hesitation of COVID-19 vaccines among Chinese residents, analyze the factors of vaccine hesitancy based on the "3Cs" model, and to provide reference for population intervention. Methods: From Dec 31, 2020 to Jan 11, 2021, a convenience sampling method was adopted to conduct an online survey of residents in 34 provinces, cities and autonomous regions across the country.The survey content included demographic characteristics, vaccine hesitancy, and the dimensions of the "3Cs" (confidence, complacency, and convenience) model.We analyzed the influence of demographic characteristics on vaccine hesitancy by χ2 test.Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effects of "3Cs" variables on vaccine hesitancy. Results: A total of 2 531 respondents were surveyed.Their average age was (33.9±8.9) years old, male to female ratio was 1:1.42, and vaccine hesitating respondents accounted for 44.3%.Logistic regression analysis found that gender (ORfemale=1.33, 95%CI: 1.12-1.58), monthly income (compared with<6 000 yuan, OR>10 000=1.57, 95%CI: 1.25-1.97), healthcare workers(ORno=1.39, 95%CI: 1.12-1.73), and confidence (OR=0.47, 95%CI: 0.40-0.56) and complacency (OR=2.49, 95%CI: 2.10-2.96) in the "3Cs" model showed statistically significant impacts on the hesitation of COVID-19 vaccines. Conclusion: The confidence and complacency dimensions in the "3Cs" model have an impact on the hesitation of COVID-19 vaccines.Future interventions can focus on improving the public's confidence and reducing complacency associated with COVID-19 vaccines to increase the vaccination rate. © 2021, Editorial Department of Fudan University Journal of Medical Sciences. All right reserved.

7.
4th International Conference on Big Data and Internet of Things, BDIOT 2020 ; : 96-101, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-901450

ABSTRACT

The classical compartment model namely SEIR was not designed originally for COVID-19. There are significant numbers of people infected by COVID-19 did not get sick immediately but have become carriers of COVID-19. The patients might have certain length of incubation period. In order to cover the quarantine and asymptomatic variables, the existing SEIR model is extended to a multi-compartment infectious disease model. The contribution presented in this paper is a new model called SEAIRD which caters for the new characteristics of the 2019-nCoV, therefore applicable for the inclusion of asymptomatic population in the simulation. © 2020 ACM.

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