Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 19 de 19
Filter
1.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586912

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has had a serious impact on the world. In this study, small RNAs from the blood of COVID-19 patients with moderate or severe symptoms were extracted for high-throughput sequencing and analysis. Interestingly, the levels of a special group of tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) were found to be dramatically upregulated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms. In particular, the 3'CCA tsRNAs from Gly-tRNA were highly consistent with the inflammation indicator C-reactive protein (CRP). In addition, we found that the majority of significantly changed microRNAs (miRNAs) were associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors, which may lead to the induction of proinflammatory cytokine and immune responses. This study found that SARS-CoV-2 infection caused significant changes in the levels of stress-associated small RNAs in patient blood and their potential functions. Our research revealed that the cells of COVID-19 patients undergo tremendous stress and respond, which can be reflected or regulated by sncRNAs, thus providing potential thought for therapeutic intervention in COVID-19 by modulating small RNA levels or activities.

2.
Multimedia Tools and Applications ; : 1-20, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564874

ABSTRACT

Wearing a mask is an important way of preventing COVID-19 transmission and infection. German researchers found that wearing masks can effectively reduce the infection rate of COVID-19 by 40%. However, the detection of face mask-wearing in the real world is affected by factors such as light, occlusion, and multi-object. The detection effect is poor, and the wearing of cotton masks, sponge masks, scarves and other items greatly reduces the personal protection effect. Therefore, this paper proposes a new algorithm for mask detection and classification that fuses transfer learning and deep learning. Firstly, this paper proposes a new algorithm for face mask detection that integrates transfer learning and Efficient-Yolov3, using EfficientNet as the backbone feature extraction network, and choosing CIoU as the loss function to reduce the number of network parameters and improve the accuracy of mask detection. Secondly, this paper divides the mask into two categories of qualified masks (N95 masks, disposable medical masks) and unqualified masks (cotton masks, sponge masks, scarves, etc.), creates a mask classification data set, and proposes a new mask classification algorithm that the combines transfer learning and MobileNet, enhances the generalization of the model and solves the problem of small data size and easy overfitting. Experiments on the public face mask detection data set show that the proposed algorithm has a better performance than existing algorithms. In addition, experiments are performed on the created mask classification data set. The mask classification accuracy of the proposed algorithm is 97.84%, which is better than other algorithms.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0135221, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526454

ABSTRACT

The emerging new lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have marked a new phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the recognition mechanisms of potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs) against the spike protein is pivotal for developing new vaccines and antibody drugs. Here, we isolated several monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (S-RBD) from the B cell receptor repertoires of a SARS-CoV-2 convalescent. Among these MAbs, the antibody nCoV617 demonstrates the most potent neutralizing activity against authentic SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies against the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) transgenic mouse model in vivo. The crystal structure of S-RBD in complex with nCoV617 reveals that nCoV617 mainly binds to the back of the "ridge" of RBD and shares limited binding residues with ACE2. Under the background of the S-trimer model, it potentially binds to both "up" and "down" conformations of S-RBD. In vitro mutagenesis assays show that mutant residues found in the emerging new lineage B.1.1.7 of SARS-CoV-2 do not affect nCoV617 binding to the S-RBD. These results provide a new human-sourced neutralizing antibody against the S-RBD and assist vaccine development. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is a respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a serious threat to global health and the economy, so it is necessary to find safe and effective antibody drugs and treatments. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is responsible for binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. It contains a variety of dominant neutralizing epitopes and is an important antigen for the development of new coronavirus antibodies. The significance of our research lies in the determination of new epitopes, the discovery of antibodies against RBD, and the evaluation of the antibodies' neutralizing effect. The identified antibodies here may be drug candidates for the development of clinical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Binding Sites/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Viral Load/drug effects
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 706380, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502327

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to establish and validate the nomograms to predict the mortality risk of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using routine clinical indicators. This retrospective study included a development cohort enrolled 2,119 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and a validation cohort included 1,504 patients with COVID-19. The demographics, clinical manifestations, vital signs, and laboratory tests of the patients at admission and outcome of in-hospital death were recorded. The independent factors associated with death were identified by a forward stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis and used to construct the two prognostic nomograms. The nomogram 1 was a full model to include nine factors identified in the multivariate logistic regression and nomogram 2 was built by selecting four factors from nine to perform as a reduced model. The nomogram 1 and nomogram 2 showed better performance in discrimination and calibration than the Multilobular infiltration, hypo-Lymphocytosis, Bacterial coinfection, Smoking history, hyper-Tension and Age (MuLBSTA) score in training. In validation, nomogram 1 performed better than nomogram 2 for calibration. We recommend the application of nomogram 1 in general hospitals which provide robust prognostic performance though more cumbersome; nomogram 2 in the out-patient, emergency department, and mobile cabin hospitals, which depend on less laboratory examinations to make the assessment more convenient. Both the nomograms can help the clinicians to identify the patients at risk of death with routine clinical indicators at admission, which may reduce the overall mortality of COVID-19.

5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 721, 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463229

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) presented technical standards for interpretation and reporting of constitutional copy-number variants in 2019 (the standards). Although ClinGen developed a web-based CNV classification calculator based on scoring metrics, it can only track and tally points that have been assigned based on observed evidence. Here, we developed AutoCNV (a semiautomatic automated CNV interpretation system) based on the standards, which can automatically generate predictions on 18 and 16 criteria for copy number loss and gain, respectively. RESULTS: We assessed the performance of AutoCNV using 72 CNVs evaluated by external independent reviewers and 20 illustrative case examples. Using AutoCNV, it showed that 100 % (72/72) and 95 % (19/20) of CNVs were consistent with the reviewers' and ClinGen-verified classifications, respectively. AutoCNV only required an average of less than 5 milliseconds to obtain the result for one CNV with automated scoring. We also applied AutoCNV for the interpretation of CNVs from the ClinVar database and the dbVar database. We also developed a web-based version of AutoCNV (wAutoCNV). CONCLUSIONS: AutoCNV may serve to assist users in conducting in-depth CNV interpretation, to accelerate and facilitate the interpretation process of CNVs and to improve the consistency and reliability of CNV interpretation.


Subject(s)
DNA Copy Number Variations , Genomics , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 783, 2021 Aug 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads rapidly among people and causes a pandemic. It is of great clinical significance to identify COVID-19 patients with high risk of death. METHODS: A total of 2169 adult COVID-19 patients were enrolled from Wuhan, China, from February 10th to April 15th, 2020. Difference analyses of medical records were performed between severe and non-severe groups, as well as between survivors and non-survivors. In addition, we developed a decision tree model to predict death outcome in severe patients. RESULTS: Of the 2169 COVID-19 patients, the median age was 61 years and male patients accounted for 48%. A total of 646 patients were diagnosed as severe illness, and 75 patients died. An older median age and a higher proportion of male patients were found in severe group or non-survivors compared to their counterparts. Significant differences in clinical characteristics and laboratory examinations were found between severe and non-severe groups, as well as between survivors and non-survivors. A decision tree, including three biomarkers, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein and lactic dehydrogenase, was developed to predict death outcome in severe patients. This model performed well both in training and test datasets. The accuracy of this model were 0.98 in both datasets. CONCLUSION: We performed a comprehensive analysis of COVID-19 patients from the outbreak in Wuhan, China, and proposed a simple and clinically operable decision tree to help clinicians rapidly identify COVID-19 patients at high risk of death, to whom priority treatment and intensive care should be given.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Decision Trees , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 580989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285284

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged around December 2019 and have become a global epidemic disease currently. Specific antibodies against SAS-COV-2 could be detected in COVID-19 patients' serum or plasma, but the clinical values of these antibodies as well as the effects of clinical drugs on humoral responses have not been fully demonstrated. In this study, 112 plasma samples were collected from 36 patients diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The IgG and IgM antibodies against receptor binding domain (RBD) and spike protein subunit 1 (S1) of SAS-COV-2 were detected by ELISA. We found that COVID-19 patients generated specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 after infection, and the levels of anti-RBD IgG within 2 to 3 weeks from onset were negatively associated with the time of positive-to-negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid. Patients with severe symptoms had higher levels of anti-RBD IgG in 2 to 3 weeks from onset. The use of chloroquine did not significantly influence the patients' antibody titer but reduced C-reaction protein (CRP) level. Using anti-viral drugs (lopinavir/ritonavir or arbidol) reduced antibody titer and peripheral lymphocyte count. While glucocorticoid therapy developed lower levels of peripheral lymphocyte count and higher levels of CRP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase(α-HBDH), total bilirubin (TBIL), direct bilirubin (DBIL). From these results, we suggested that the anti-RBD IgG may provide an early protection of host humoral responses against SAS-COV-2 infection within 2 to 3 weeks from onset, and clinical treatment with different drugs displayed distinct roles in humoral and inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 655604, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282393

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Diabetes is a risk factor for poor COVID-19 prognosis. The analysis of related prognostic factors in diabetic patients with COVID-19 would be helpful for further treatment of such patients. Methods: This retrospective study involved 3623 patients with COVID-19 (325 with diabetes). Clinical characteristics and laboratory tests were collected and compared between the diabetic group and the non-diabetic group. Binary logistic regression analysis was applied to explore risk factors associated in diabetic patients with COVID-19. A prediction model was built based on these risk factors. Results: The risk factors for higher mortality in diabetic patients with COVID-19 were dyspnea, lung disease, cardiovascular diseases, neutrophil, PLT count, and CKMB. Similarly, dyspnea, cardiovascular diseases, neutrophil, PLT count, and CKMB were risk factors related to the severity of diabetes with COVID-19. Based on these factors, a risk score was built to predict the severity of disease in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Patients with a score of 7 or higher had an odds ratio of 7.616. Conclusions: Dyspnea is a critical clinical manifestation that is closely related to the severity of disease in diabetic patients with COVID-19. Attention should also be paid to the neutrophil, PLT count and CKMB levels after admission.

9.
Am J Chin Med ; 49(5): 1017-1044, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263932

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic calls for effective control and prevention. Chinese medicine (CM) has developed systematic theories and approaches for infectious disease prevention over 2000 years. Here, we review and analyze Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) used in infectious disease prevention from ancient pestilences to modern epidemics and pandemics to share cumulative preventive medical experience. A total of 829 formulas, including 329 herbs from 189 ancient books, 131 formulas with 152 herbs, and 13 Chinese patent medicines (CPM) from 30 official Chinese prevention programs used in ancient epidemics, SARS, influenza and COVID-19 prevention, were reviewed and analyzed. Preventive CHM mainly has four functions and can be taken orally or applied externally. CHM that kill pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Cyrtomium Fortunei J. Sm[Guanzhong]) were commonly used externally for disinfection in ancient prevention while CHM tonifying Qi (Astragali Radix [Huangq], Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma [Gancao]) are used for modern prevention. Taking CHM that expel pathogens (Realgar [Xionghuang], Lonicerae Japonicae Flos[Jinyinhua]) and CHM eliminating dampness (Atractylodis Rhizoma [Cangzhu], Pogostemonis Herba[Guanghuoxiang]) have been commonly used from ancient times to COVID-19. Damp toxins are a common characteristic of infectious diseases such as SARS and COVID-19. Thus, taking CHM expelling damp toxins and tonifying Qi are the main methods for SARS and COVID-19 prevention. CHM with different approaches have been widely used in infectious disease prevention from ancient times to the present. Multiple CM prevention methods may provide new perspectives for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Compounding , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pandemics
10.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 163, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to better understand the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), for that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. This paper was to differentiate COVID-19 from other respiratory infectious diseases such as avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) and influenza A (H1N1) virus infections. METHODS: We included patients who had been hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed infection by SARS-CoV-2 (n = 83), H7N9 (n = 36), H1N1 (n = 44) viruses. Clinical presentation, chest CT features, and progression of patients were compared. We used the Logistic regression model to explore the possible risk factors. RESULTS: Both COVID-19 and H7N9 patients had a longer duration of hospitalization than H1N1 patients (P < 0.01), a higher complication rate, and more severe cases than H1N1 patients. H7N9 patients had higher hospitalization-fatality ratio than COVID-19 patients (P = 0.01). H7N9 patients had similar patterns of lymphopenia, neutrophilia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and those seen in H1N1 patients, which were all significantly different from patients with COVID-19 (P < 0.01). Either H7N9 or H1N1 patients had more obvious symptoms, like fever, fatigue, yellow sputum, and myalgia than COVID-19 patients (P < 0.01). The mean duration of viral shedding was 9.5 days for SARS-CoV-2 vs 9.9 days for H7N9 (P = 0.78). For severe cases, the meantime from illness onset to severity was 8.0 days for COVID-19 vs 5.2 days for H7N9 (P < 0.01), the comorbidity of chronic heart disease was more common in the COVID-19 patients than H7N9 (P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that chronic heart disease was a possible risk factor (OR > 1) for COVID-19, compared with H1N1 and H7N9. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of severe cases were higher for H7N9 and SARS-CoV-2 infections, compared with H1N1. The meantime from illness onset to severity was shorter for H7N9. Chronic heart disease was a possible risk factor for COVID-19.The comparison may provide the rationale for strategies of isolation and treatment of infected patients in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/pathogenicity , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/mortality , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Shedding , Young Adult
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 847-852, 2020 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-750608

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 fecal/perianal swab nucleic acid-positive patients in our hospital and evaluated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-seven patients in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 17, 2020 to March 2, 2020 with fecal/perianal swab samples were selected as subjects and the results of real-time fluorescence reverse transcriptase-PCR SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection of fecal/perianal swabs were used to divide subjects into positive and negative groups. RESULTS: Fecal/perianal swabs of 53.61% (52/97) patients were positive including 31 males (59.62%) and 21 females (40.38%). The negative group had more females than males (P = 0.001). The distribution of case classification based on the most severe condition observed after admission was different between groups: five (5.15%) critical type patients were all from the positive group (P = 0.029). There was no statistical difference in clinical manifestations between the groups. In the positive group, the mean nucleic acid-negative conversion time was 14.13 ± 8.61 days, which was significantly later than the negative group (6.98 ± 5.16 days; P < 0.001). In the positive group, 92% (48/52) had nucleic acid-negative conversion with a mean nucleic acid-negative conversion time of 22.58 ± 10.30 days. Among them, 41 (78.85%) cases were delayed compared with pharynx/nasal swab nucleic acid-negative conversion time. CONCLUSIONS: The positive rate of fecal/perianal swab nucleic acid in male patients was higher than that in female patients. Fecal/perianal swab nucleic acid positive may be an indicator of critical conditions in those with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(10): e23547, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734169

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and risk factors for discerning the critical and predicting the outcome of patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) department and general infection department of TaiKang Tongji (Wuhan) Hospital from February 10 to March 27, 2020, were included. Data on clinical features, complications, laboratory parameters, chest CT, nutrient requirement, and electrolyte imbalance were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 123 (50 critical and 73 non-critical) patients were enrolled. 65% of patients with comorbidities, hypertension (45.5%), diabetes (21.9%), 36.5% of patients had more than one comorbidity. The proportion of lymphocytes in critical patients was significantly lower than that of non-critical patients. The proportion of patients with increased NLR, PLR, IL-6, CRP levels, and chest CT score was significantly higher in the critical than that of non-critical patients. The logistic regression analysis identified low lymphocyte count, high NLR, PLR, IL-6, CRP levels, and CT score as independent factors for discerning critical cases and high NLR, PLR, IL-6, and CT score could predict poor clinical outcome. Furthermore, we identified patients who needed nutrition support (HR 16.99) and with correction of electrolyte imbalance (HR 18.24) via intravenous injection were more likely to have a poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The potential risk factors of lower lymphocyte count, high levels of NLR, PLR, IL-6, CRP, chest CT score, and the statue of nutrient requirement or electrolyte imbalance could assist clinicians in discerning critical cases and predict the poor outcome in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Radiography, Thoracic , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Trials ; 21(1): 622, 2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 (caused by SARS-Cov-2) is very serious, and no effective antiviral treatment has yet been confirmed. The adage "old drug, new trick" in this context may suggest the important therapeutic potential of existing drugs. We found that the lopinavir/ritonavir treatment recommended in the fifth edition of the Treatment Plan of China can only help to improve a minority of throat-swab nucleic-acid results (3/15) in hospitals. Our previous use of chloroquine to treat patients with COVID-19 infection showed an improvement in more throat-swab nucleic-acid results (5/10) than the use of lopinavir/ritonavir. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective, open-label, randomized controlled, multicenter clinical study. The study consists of three phases: a screening period, a treatment period of no more than 10 days, and a follow-up period for each participant. Participants with COVID-19 infection who are eligible for selection for the study will be randomly allocated to the trial group or the control group. The control group will be given lopinavir/ritonavir treatment for no more than 10 days. The trial group will be given chloroquine phosphate treatment for no more than 10 days. The primary outcome is the clinical recovery time at no more than 28 days after the completion of therapy and follow-up. The secondary outcomes include the rate of treatment success after the completion of therapy and follow-up, the time of treatment success after no more than 28 days, the rate of serious adverse events during the completion of therapy and follow-up, and the time to return to normal temperature (calculated from the onset of illness) during the completion of therapy and follow-up. Comparisons will be performed using two-sided tests with a statistical significance level of 5%. DISCUSSION: This experiment should reveal the efficacy and safety of using chloroquine versus lopinavir/ritonavir for patients with mild/general COVID-19 infection. If the new treatment including chloroquine shows a higher rate of throat-swab SARS-CoV-2 real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negativity and is safe, it could be tested as a future COVID-19 treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ID: ChiCTR2000029741 . Registered on 11 February 2020.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Ritonavir/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 58, 2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-427304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A cluster of pneumonia cases were reported by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was eventually identified, and became the COVID-19 epidemic that affected public health and life. We investigated the psychological status and behavior changes of the general public in China from January 30 to February 3, 2020. METHODS: Respondents were recruited via social media (WeChat) and completed an online questionnaire. We used the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Symptom Checklist-90 to evaluate psychological status. We also investigated respondents' behavior changes. Quantitative data were analyzed by t-tests or analysis of variance, and classified data were analyzed with chi-square tests. RESULTS: In total, 608 valid questionnaires were obtained. More respondents had state anxiety than trait anxiety (15.8% vs 4.0%). Depression was found among 27.1% of respondents and 7.7% had psychological abnormalities. About 10.1% of respondents suffered from phobia. Our analysis of the relationship between subgroup characteristics and psychological status showed that age, gender, knowledge about COVID-19, degree of worry about epidemiological infection, and confidence about overcoming the outbreak significantly influenced psychological status. Around 93.3% of respondents avoided going to public places and almost all respondents reduced Spring Festival-related activities. At least 70.9% of respondents chose to take three or more preventive measures to avoid infection. The three most commonly used prevention measures were making fewer trips outside and avoiding contact (98.0%), wearing a mask (83.7%), and hand hygiene (82.4%). CONCLUSIONS: We need to pay more attention to public psychological stress, especially among young people, as they are likely to experience anxiety, depression, and psychological abnormalities. Different psychological interventions could be formulated according to the psychological characteristics of different gender and age groups. The majority of respondents followed specific behaviors required by the authorities, but it will take time to observe the effects of these behaviors on the epidemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Phobic Disorders/epidemiology , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381022

ABSTRACT

Background: An outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infections began in Wuhan, China, and quickly spread to the entire country. We sought to delineate the time features of clinical symptoms, virological conversion, and chest radiological abnormalities in individuals infected with this virus in Zhuhai, China. Methods: In this retrospective study, we assessed 85 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the Fifth Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, from the 17th of January to the 11th of February 2020. Outcomes were followed up until the 24th of February 2020. Results: The median age of the 85 patients with COVID-19 was 43 years (range, 1-80); 56.5% (48/85) were female. The median time from the last known contact to the first SARS-CoV-2 positive test result was 8 days (0-18). The time to throat swab negativity for SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 5 to 36 days after illness onset. Patients with abnormal chest imaging findings on admission were older than those with normal imaging findings (median age, 50 [3-80] vs. 37 [1-69], P = 0.031). Among patients with lung changes on admission, the risk of lesions was 13.8 times greater in the left lower lobe than in the right middle lobe. Most lung lesions appeared within 2 weeks of onset (median 4-5 days). The overall rates of lesions in the right upper/middle/lower lobe and left upper/lower lobe were 47.1, 30.6, 62.4% as well as 49.4 and 63.5%, respectively. Conclusions: The incubation period of SARS-CoV-2 may be longer than 14 days; thus, medical surveillance after contact is required for longer than this. The predominant sites of lung lesions are both lower lungs, whereas the lowest risk region is the right middle lobe.

17.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(4): 779-792, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-298629

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hubei province, the epidemic scale has increased rapidly, and no effective antiviral drug therapy has been identified yet. This study aimed to evaluate the adjuvant efficacy of Natural Herbal Medicine (NHM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of COVID-19. We performed a retrospective, 1:1 matched, case-control study of the first cohort of hospitalized COVID-19-confirmed cases (January 17, 2020 to January 28, 2020). A total of 22 of the 36 confirmed patients were included in this study, split into two groups of 11: the NHM group (NHM combined standard Western medicine treatment) and control group (standard Western medicine treatment alone). All patients received appropriate supportive care and regular clinical and laboratory monitoring. Main evaluation indicators included improvement of clinical symptoms such as fever, cough and diarrhea after hospitalization; pathogen nucleic acid test result of respiratory tract and fecal specimens of the patient after hospitalization, and change of chest CT examination after hospitalization. The duration of fever in the NHM group ([Formula: see text] days) was significantly shorter than that in the control group ([Formula: see text] days) ([Formula: see text]). During the whole hospitalization period, the number of cases with diarrhea in the NHM group (two cases) was less than that in the control group (eight cases) ([Formula: see text]). Compared with the control group ([Formula: see text]), the duration for improvement (DI) of chest CT in the NHM group ([Formula: see text]) was significantly shorter ([Formula: see text]). Our results suggest that NHM could improve the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 patients and may be effective in treating COVID-19; thus, a larger, prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial should be conducted to further evaluate the adjuvant efficacy of NHM in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , China , Cohort Studies , Combined Modality Therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Infect ; 81(1): e1-e5, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China. We aimed to compare arbidol and lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) treatment for patients with COVID-19 with LPV/r only. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included adults (age≥18years) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 without Invasive ventilation, diagnosed between Jan 17, 2020, and Feb 13, 2020. Patients, diagnosed after Jan 17, 2020, were given oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group for 5-21 days. The primary endpoint was a negative conversion rate of coronavirus from the date of COVID-19 diagnosis(day7, day14), and assessed whether the pneumonia was progressing or improving by chest CT (day7). RESULTS: We analyzed 16 patients who received oral arbidol and LPV/r in the combination group and 17 who oral LPV/r only in the monotherapy group, and both initiated after diagnosis. Baseline clinical, laboratory, and chest CT characteristics were similar between groups. The SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected for 12(75%) of 16 patients' nasopharyngeal specimens in the combination group after seven days, compared with 6 (35%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). After 14 days, 15 (94%) of 16 and 9 (52·9%) of 17, respectively, SARS-CoV-2 could not be detected (p < 0·05). The chest CT scans were improving for 11(69%) of 16 patients in the combination group after seven days, compared with 5(29%) of 17 in the monotherapy group (p < 0·05). CONCLUSION: In patients with COVID-19, the apparent favorable clinical response with arbidol and LPV/r supports further LPV/r only.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Indoles/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adult , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Drug Combinations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Indoles/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...