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1.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 12, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1610608

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses an imminent threat to humanity, especially for those who have comorbidities. Evidence of COVID-19 and COPD comorbidities is accumulating. However, data revealing the molecular mechanism of COVID-19 and COPD comorbid diseases is limited. Methods: We got COVID-19/COPD -related genes from different databases by restricted screening conditions (top500), respectively, and then supplemented with COVID-19/COPD-associated genes (FDR<0.05, ;LogFC;≥1) from clinical sample data sets. By taking the intersection, 42 co-morbid host factors for COVID-19 and COPD were finally obtained. On the basis of shared host factors, we conducted a series of bioinformatics analysis, including protein-protein interaction analysis, gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis, transcription factor-gene interaction network analysis, gene-microRNA co-regulatory network analysis, tissue-specific enrichment analysis and candidate drug prediction. Results: We revealed the comorbidity mechanism of COVID-19 and COPD from the perspective of host factor interaction, obtained the top ten gene and 3 modules with different biological functions. Furthermore, we have obtained the signaling pathways and concluded that dexamethasone, estradiol, progesterone, and nitric oxide shows effective interventions. Conclusion: This study revealed host factor interaction networks for COVID-19 and COPD, which could confirm the potential drugs for treating the comorbidity, ultimately, enhancing the management of the respiratory disease.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 754241, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528844

ABSTRACT

Background: The risk of co-epidemic between COVID-19 and influenza is very high, so it is urgent to find a treatment strategy for the co-infection. Previous studies have shown that phillyrin can not only inhibit the replication of the two viruses, but also has a good anti-inflammatory effect, which is expected to become a candidate compound against COVID-19 and influenza. Objective: To explore the possibility of phillyrin as a candidate compound for the treatment of COVID-19 and influenza co-infection and to speculate its potential regulatory mechanism. Methods: We used a series of bioinformatics network pharmacology methods to understand and characterize the pharmacological targets, biological functions, and therapeutic mechanisms of phillyrin in COVID-19 and influenza co-infection and discover its therapeutic potential. Results: We revealed potential targets, biological processes, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, and upstream pathway activity of phillyrin against COVID-19 and influenza co-infection. We constructed protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and identified 50 hub genes, such as MMP9, IL-2, VEGFA, AKT, and HIF-1A. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the treatment of phillyrin for COVID-19 and influenza co-infection was associated with immune balance and regulation of hypoxia-cytokine storm, including HIF-1 signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, Ras signaling pathway, and T cell receptor signaling pathway. Conclusion: For the first time, we uncovered the potential targets and biological pathways of phillyrin for COVID-19 and influenza co-infection. These findings should solve the urgent problem of co-infection of COVID-19 and influenza that the world will face in the future, but clinical drug trials are needed for verification in the future.

3.
Protein & cell ; : 1-21, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1479283

ABSTRACT

A fundamental challenge that arises in biomedicine is the need to characterize compounds in a relevant cellular context in order to reveal potential on-target or off-target effects. Recently, the fast accumulation of gene transcriptional profiling data provides us an unprecedented opportunity to explore the protein targets of chemical compounds from the perspective of cell transcriptomics and RNA biology. Here, we propose a novel Siamese spectral-based graph convolutional network (SSGCN) model for inferring the protein targets of chemical compounds from gene transcriptional profiles. Although the gene signature of a compound perturbation only provides indirect clues of the interacting targets, and the biological networks under different experiment conditions further complicate the situation, the SSGCN model was successfully trained to learn from known compound-target pairs by uncovering the hidden correlations between compound perturbation profiles and gene knockdown profiles. On a benchmark set and a large time-split validation dataset, the model achieved higher target inference accuracy as compared to previous methods such as Connectivity Map. Further experimental validations of prediction results highlight the practical usefulness of SSGCN in either inferring the interacting targets of compound, or reversely, in finding novel inhibitors of a given target of interest. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13238-021-00885-0.

4.
Front Chem ; 9: 740702, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468326

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 have caused a worldwide public health crisis. Designing small molecule inhibitors targeting SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction is considered as a potential strategy for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2. But to date, only a few compounds have been reported as SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction inhibitors. In this study, we described the virtual screening and experimental validation of two novel inhibitors (DC-RA016 and DC-RA052) against SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction. The NanoBiT assays and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assays demonstrated their capabilities of blocking SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction and directly binding to both S-RBD and ACE2. Moreover, the pseudovirus assay revealed that these two compounds possessed significant antiviral activity (about 50% inhibition rate at maximum non-cytotoxic concentration). These results indicate that the compounds DC-RA016 and DC-RA052 are promising inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD/ACE2 interaction and deserve to be further developed.

5.
Front Psychol ; 12: 752131, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450840

ABSTRACT

Due to the spread of the epidemic around the world, online learning has received greater attention. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is an important factor for students to achieve academic success. This study investigated the gender differences in SRL and three sub-constructs of SRL in the context of online learning, that is the preparatory, performance, and appraisal phases. A total of 400 high school students (males = 125, females = 275) from China participated in this study. In order to identify whether there were gender differences in their self-regulated online learning (SROL), independent sample t-test was performed. The results showed that there were significant gender differences in the SROL (t = -3.334, p = 0.001 < 0.01, d = -0.410) and the three sub-constructs of SROL (preparatory: t = -0.702, p = 0.008 < 0.01, d = 0.018; performance: t = -3.801, p = 0.000 < 0.01, d = 0.456; appraisal: t = -3.120, p = 0.002 < 0.01, d = 0.361). The findings indicated that females performed better than males in all three dimensions of learners' online self-regulated learning.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 707287, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359191

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an international public health crisis, and the number of cases with dengue co-infection has raised concerns. Unfortunately, treatment options are currently limited or even unavailable. Thus, the aim of our study was to explore the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets for co-infection. Methods: To further understand the mechanisms underlying co-infection, we used a series of bioinformatics analyses to build host factor interaction networks and elucidate biological process and molecular function categories, pathway activity, tissue-specific enrichment, and potential therapeutic agents. Results: We explored the pathologic mechanisms of COVID-19 and dengue co-infection, including predisposing genes, significant pathways, biological functions, and possible drugs for intervention. In total, 460 shared host factors were collected; among them, CCL4 and AhR targets were important. To further analyze biological functions, we created a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and performed Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) analysis. In addition, common signaling pathways were acquired, and the toll-like receptor and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways exerted a significant effect on the interaction. Upregulated genes were identified based on the activity score of dysregulated genes, such as IL-1, Hippo, and TNF-α. We also conducted tissue-specific enrichment analysis and found ICAM-1 and CCL2 to be highly expressed in the lung. Finally, candidate drugs were screened, including resveratrol, genistein, and dexamethasone. Conclusions: This study probes host factor interaction networks for COVID-19 and dengue and provides potential drugs for clinical practice. Although the findings need to be verified, they contribute to the treatment of co-infection and the management of respiratory disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Computational Biology/methods , Dengue/drug therapy , Dengue/pathology , Protein Interaction Maps/physiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chemokine CCL2/metabolism , Coinfection , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genistein/therapeutic use , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Resveratrol/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4876, 2021 08 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356557

ABSTRACT

While the printed circuit board (PCB) has been widely considered as the building block of integrated electronics, the world is switching to pursue new ways of merging integrated electronic circuits with textiles to create flexible and wearable devices. Herein, as an alternative for PCB, we described a non-printed integrated-circuit textile (NIT) for biomedical and theranostic application via a weaving method. All the devices are built as fibers or interlaced nodes and woven into a deformable textile integrated circuit. Built on an electrochemical gating principle, the fiber-woven-type transistors exhibit superior bending or stretching robustness, and were woven as a textile logical computing module to distinguish different emergencies. A fiber-type sweat sensor was woven with strain and light sensors fibers for simultaneously monitoring body health and the environment. With a photo-rechargeable energy textile based on a detailed power consumption analysis, the woven circuit textile is completely self-powered and capable of both wireless biomedical monitoring and early warning. The NIT could be used as a 24/7 private AI "nurse" for routine healthcare, diabetes monitoring, or emergencies such as hypoglycemia, metabolic alkalosis, and even COVID-19 patient care, a potential future on-body AI hardware and possibly a forerunner to fabric-like computers.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Precision Medicine/instrumentation , Textiles , Wearable Electronic Devices , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Equipment Design , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Precision Medicine/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sweat/physiology
10.
J Psychosoc Oncol Res Pract ; 2(3): e35, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288204

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19 pandemic, how can cancer patients adjust their psychological status? In this article, some questions and suggestions are given to share. I listed some of negative emotions could happen on cancer patients and showed their harm and gave suggestions accordingly, especially in how to keep cancer patients in a healthy attitude during the difficult time.

11.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 631206, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285326

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a worldwide public health crisis. The causative pathogen is severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Novel therapeutic agents are desperately needed. Because of the frequent mutations in the virus and its ability to cause cytokine storms, targeting the viral proteins has some drawbacks. Targeting cellular factors or pivotal inflammatory pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2 may produce a broader range of therapies. Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) might be beneficial against SARS-CoV-2 because of its anti-inflammatory and antiviral characteristics and possible ability to regulate crucial host factors. However, the mechanism underlying how GA regulates host factors remains to be determined. Methods: In our report, we conducted a bioinformatics analysis to identify possible GA targets, biological functions, protein-protein interactions, transcription-factor-gene interactions, transcription-factor-miRNA coregulatory networks, and the signaling pathways of GA against COVID-19. Results: Protein-protein interactions and network analysis showed that ICAM1, MMP9, TLR2, and SOCS3 had higher degree values, which may be key targets of GA for COVID-19. GO analysis indicated that the response to reactive oxygen species was significantly enriched. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the IL-17, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN signals, complement system, and growth factor receptor signaling are the main pathways. The interactions of TF genes and miRNA with common targets and the activity of TFs were also recognized. Conclusions: GA may inhibit COVID-19 through its anti-oxidant, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory effects, and its ability to activate the immune system, and targeted therapy for those pathways is a predominant strategy to inhibit the cytokine storms triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

12.
Brief Bioinform ; 22(6)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical consequences of SARS-CoV-2 and DENGUE virus co-infection are not promising. However, their treatment options are currently unavailable. Current studies have shown that quercetin is both resistant to COVID-19 and DENGUE; this study aimed to evaluate the possible functional roles and underlying mechanisms of action of quercetin as a potential molecular candidate against COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection. METHODS: We used a series of bioinformatics analyses to understand and characterize the biological functions, pharmacological targets and therapeutic mechanisms of quercetin in COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection. RESULTS: We revealed the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and DENGUE, including pathological mechanisms, key inflammatory pathways and possible methods of intervention, 60 overlapping targets related to the co-infection and the drug were identified, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) was constructed and TNFα, CCL-2 and CXCL8 could become potential drug targets. Furthermore, we disclosed the signaling pathways, biological functions and upstream pathway activity of quercetin in COVID-19 and DENGUE. The analysis indicated that quercetin could inhibit cytokines release, alleviate excessive immune responses and eliminate inflammation, through NF-κB, IL-17 and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to reveal quercetin as a pharmacological drug for COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection. COVID-19 and DENGUE co-infection remain a potential threat to the world's public health system. Therefore, we need innovative thinking to provide admissible evidence for quercetin as a potential molecule drug for the treatment of COVID-19 and DENGUE, but the findings have not been verified in actual patients, so further clinical drug trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Dengue Virus/chemistry , Dengue/drug therapy , Quercetin/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chemokine CCL2/chemistry , Chemokine CCL2/drug effects , Chemokine CCL2/genetics , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/genetics , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/complications , Dengue/genetics , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Humans , Interleukin-17/genetics , Interleukin-8/chemistry , Interleukin-8/drug effects , Interleukin-8/genetics , NF-kappa B/drug effects , NF-kappa B/genetics , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/genetics
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 741-754, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196488

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses highly pathogenic to humans. Some CoVs are known to cause respiratory and intestinal diseases, posing a threat to the global public health. Against this backdrop, it is of critical importance to develop safe and effective vaccines against these CoVs. This review discusses human vaccine candidates in any stage of development and explores the viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and immunology associated with CoV vaccine development. At present, there are many obstacles and challenges to vaccine research and development, including the lack of knowledge about virus transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response, absence of the most appropriate animal models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cricetulus , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit , Vaccines, Synthetic/biosynthesis , Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle/biosynthesis
14.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 5(6): 509-521, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189229

ABSTRACT

Common lung diseases are first diagnosed using chest X-rays. Here, we show that a fully automated deep-learning pipeline for the standardization of chest X-ray images, for the visualization of lesions and for disease diagnosis can identify viral pneumonia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and assess its severity, and can also discriminate between viral pneumonia caused by COVID-19 and other types of pneumonia. The deep-learning system was developed using a heterogeneous multicentre dataset of 145,202 images, and tested retrospectively and prospectively with thousands of additional images across four patient cohorts and multiple countries. The system generalized across settings, discriminating between viral pneumonia, other types of pneumonia and the absence of disease with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of 0.94-0.98; between severe and non-severe COVID-19 with an AUC of 0.87; and between COVID-19 pneumonia and other viral or non-viral pneumonia with AUCs of 0.87-0.97. In an independent set of 440 chest X-rays, the system performed comparably to senior radiologists and improved the performance of junior radiologists. Automated deep-learning systems for the assessment of pneumonia could facilitate early intervention and provide support for clinical decision-making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Databases, Factual , Deep Learning , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index
15.
Nurs Open ; 8(5): 2866-2876, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171114

ABSTRACT

AIM: To explore the mediating role of post-traumatic growth and perceived professional benefits between resilience and intent to stay among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in managing COVID-19. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey. METHODS: In May 2020, the study recruited a convenience sample of 200 Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in managing COVID-19. A set of self-rating questionnaires was used to measure resilience, post-traumatic growth, perceived professional benefits and intent to stay. Structural equation modelling was performed with 5,000 bootstrap samples using AMOS 23.0. RESULTS: The final model provided a good fit for the data. Resilience had the strongest direct effect on intent to stay. Perceived professional benefits partially mediated the association between resilience and intent to stay. Overall, the serial multiple mediations of post-traumatic growth and perceived professional benefits in the relationship between resilience and intent to stay was statistically significant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
China CDC Wkly ; 3(10): 199-206, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116445

ABSTRACT

Summary: What is already known about this topic? The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic potentially affected prenatal care quality and maternal and fetal outcomes globally.What is added by this report? During COVID-19 pandemic period, the rates of caesarean sections (CS) and preterm birth for uninfected pregnant women increased slightly in areas that were relatively severely impacted by the pandemic in China. The overall number of prenatal examinations did not dramatically decrease, while the eligible examinations significantly decreased in Hubei Province.What are the implications for public health practice? Routine prenatal examinations had been well maintained during the pandemic period in China. In the future, in-time prenatal examinations should be provided to improve the quality of screening and management of high-risk pregnancy under pandemic-affected circumstances. Psychological counseling and transfer treatment channels should be strengthened for pregnant women during lockdown period.

17.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5367

ABSTRACT

A review. Objective: To study the medication rules of "Feire" syndrome in "Wen" disease ancient books by TCM inheritance support system, in order to provide experience for the treatment of acute infectious diseases with "Feire" syndrome. Methods: "Feire" syndrome related prescriptions were collected from 30 ancient books as Shiretiaobian, Wenbingtiaobian and Shibinglun, etc. Then database was established based on these prescriptions, to put in the TCM inheritance supportsystem. Then drug usage frequency, association rule, core combination and new prescription analyze were used to study these prescriptions for different "Feire" syndrome. Results: A total of 107 "Feire" syndrome prescriptions were collected from 16 related ancient books. 66 herbs were included in 21 "Fengrefanfei" prescriptions, 47 herbs were included in 19 "Zaoreshangfei" prescriptions, 80 herbs were included in 25 "Feireyongsheng" prescriptions, 54 herbs were included in 27 "Shireyunfei" prescriptions, and 53 herbs were included in 15 "Redubifei" prescriptions. Conclusions: The high-frequency herbs for "Fengrefanfei" syndrome are Menthae Haplocalycis Herba, Forsythiae Fructus and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, etc. The high-frequency herbs for "Zaoreshangfei" syndrome are Armeniacae Semen Amarum 1Eriobotryae Folium 1Ophiopogonis Radix and Mori Folium. The high-frequency herbs for "Feireyongsheng" syndrome are Gypsum Fibrosum "Forsythiae Fructus" Mori Cortex and Lycii Cortex. The high-frequency herbs for "Shireyunfei" are Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex, Moslae Herba, Talcum, Tetrapanacis Medulla, etc. The high-frequency herbs for "Redubifei" syndrome are Forsythiae Fructus, Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba, Arctii Fructus, Scrophulariae Radix and so on. Ten core herb combinations were mined and five new prescriptions were extracted All herbs and prescriptions reflect the characteristics of "Qingfeire" and "Cunjinye" under the principle of syndrome differentiation of "Weiqiyingxue", as well as "Zhibianfangbian".

18.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 304, 2020 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934264

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reach pandemic proportions globally. For patients with symptoms of fever and cough accompanied by rapid lung damage progression, COVID-19 needs to be distinguished from interstitial lung disease (ILD) attributed to connective tissue disease (CTD), especially dermatomyositis (DM)/clinical amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD). CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a woman observed with fever, cough, and rapid lung damage during the epidemic. The patient had a suspicious epidemiological history, and her chest CT scans showed lung damage similar to that caused by COVID-19, but anti-Ro52 antibody was strongly positive. She was diagnosed with CADM associated RP-ILD and died 1 month later. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 epidemic, it is critical to carefully assess patients with CTD related ILD, especially RP-ILD associated with CADM. Repeated nucleic acid tests for COVID-19 are necessary to achieve accurate case diagnosis. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest is presently deemed an inefficient technique to distinguishing between COVID-19 and CADM associated RP-ILD. The characteristic rashes of dermatomyositis require careful observation and can often provide diagnostic clues. For patients with CADM, a high titers of anti-Ro52 antibody may be related to the pathogenesis of RP-ILD, suggesting a poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dermatomyositis/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 92(4): 424-432, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827679

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are by far the largest group of known positive-sense RNA viruses having an extensive range of natural hosts. In the past few decades, newly evolved Coronaviruses have posed a global threat to public health. The immune response is essential to control and eliminate CoV infections, however, maladjusted immune responses may result in immunopathology and impaired pulmonary gas exchange. Gaining a deeper understanding of the interaction between Coronaviruses and the innate immune systems of the hosts may shed light on the development and persistence of inflammation in the lungs and hopefully can reduce the risk of lung inflammation caused by CoVs. In this review, we provide an update on CoV infections and relevant diseases, particularly the host defense against CoV-induced inflammation of lung tissue, as well as the role of the innate immune system in the pathogenesis and clinical treatment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/immunology , Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
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