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1.
Shanghai Journal of Preventive Medicine ; 33(4):335-339, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1924833

ABSTRACT

Objective: To characterize the mortality rate of residents in Minhang District of Shanghai from January to April in 2016-2020, and to determine the change in the epidemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020.

2.
Energy and Built Environment ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1895012

ABSTRACT

Passenger flow plays an important role in the indoor environment and energy consumption of airport terminals. In this paper, field investigations were carried out in four typical airport terminals with different scales and operation states to reveal the characteristics of passenger flow. A prediction model is established to forecast passengers’ distribution in the main areas of an airport terminal based on its flight arrangement. The results indicate the dislocation peaks of passenger numbers in these areas, due to the airport's departure process. The peak time interval is about 30 minutes between the check-in hall and the security check area, and 60-80 minutes between the check-in hall and the departure hall. RD value (i.e., the ratio of the actual passenger number in a certain area to the design value) is used to describe this peak shifting feature. When the annual passenger throughput of an airport terminal reaches or even exceeds its design value, the total peak RD value is normally 0.6-0.8. For the airport affected by COVID-19, the peak RD is only 0.2, which reflects the decline in terminal passenger numbers during the pandemic. This research provides useful insight into the characteristics of passenger flow in airport terminals, and is beneficial for their design and operation.

3.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 118: 110578, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864636

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence suggested that people with severe mental disorders were more vulnerable to the negative effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, few researches investigated the influence of global pandemics on people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical symptoms, psychological distress, and eye-tracking characteristics in CHR individuals and healthy participants. Forty-nine CHR individuals and 50 healthy controls (HC) were assessed by PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), Perceived Stress Scale, 10-item version (PSS-10), and Coronavirus Impact Scale (CIS). Eye movement performances were measured by the tests of fixation stability, free-viewing, and anti-saccade. According to the mean score of CIS, participants were stratified into high-impact (n = 35) and low-impact (n = 64) subgroups. Compared with the HC group, CHR participants reported significantly higher levels of post-traumatic symptoms caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and showed abnormalities in most of the eye movement indexes. Among the altered indexes, the saccade amplitude of fixation stability test (far distractor), the scan path length of free-viewing test, and the accuracy of anti-saccade test were negatively affected by the severity of impact level in the CHR group. Moreover, the altered eye movement indexes were significantly associated with the total scores of CIS, PCL-5, and subscales of the Scale of Prodromal Syndromes (SOPS) among CHR individuals. Overall, our findings suggested the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the eye movement characteristics of CHR individuals. The present study provides valuable information on physiological distress related to the COVID-19 pandemic and sensitive neuropsychological biomarkers that interacted with social and environment stress in the CHR population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Eye-Tracking Technology , Humans , Pandemics , Prodromal Symptoms , Psychotic Disorders/psychology
4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325035

ABSTRACT

In this study, we ascertained the chest CT data of 60 patients admitted to 3 hospitals in Chongqing with confirmed COVID-19. We conducted anatomical and pathological analyses to elucidate the possible reasons for the distribution, morphology, and characteristics of COVID-19 in chest CT. We also shared a semiquantitative scoring of affected lung segments, which was recommended by our local medical association. This scoring system was applied to quantify the severity of the disease. The most frequent imaging findings of COVID-19 were subpleural ground glass opacities and consolidation;there was a significant difference in semiquantitative scores between the early, progressive, and severe stages of the disease. We conclude that the chest CT findings of COVID-19 showed certain characteristics because of the anatomical features of the human body and pathological changes caused by the virus. Therefore, chest CT is a valuable tool for facilitating the diagnosis of COVID-19 and semiquantitative scoring of affected lung segments may further elucidate diagnosis and assessment of disease severity. This will assist healthcare workers in diagnosing COVID-19 and assessing disease severity, facilitate the selection of appropriate treatment options, which is important for reducing the spread of the virus, saving lives, and controlling the pandemic.

5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(8)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356933

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is the leading cause of child morbidity and mortality globally. We aimed to determine the impact of the COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China on 23 January 2020 on the incidence of preterm birth in our institution. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the national COVID-19 mitigation measures implemented in China and the incidence of preterm birth. SETTING: Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Shanghai China. PARTICIPANTS: All singleton deliveries abstracted from electronic medical record between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth rate. RESULTS: Data on 164 107 singleton deliveries were available. COVID-19 mitigation measures were consistently associated with significant reductions in preterm birth in the 2-month, 3-month, 4-month, 5-month time windows after implementation (+2 months, OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.94; +3 months, OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.94; +4 months, OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92; +5 months, OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.93). These reductions in preterm birth were obvious across various degrees of prematurity, but were statistically significant only in moderate-to-late preterm birth (32 complete weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days) subgroup. The preterm birth difference disappeared gradually after various restrictions were removed (7th-12th month of 2020, OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.11). There was no difference in stillbirth rate across the study time window. CONCLUSION: Substantial decreases in preterm birth rates were observed following implementation of the national COVID-19 mitigation measures in China. Further study is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms associated with this observation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Birth Rate , Child , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Pharmacol Res ; 158: 104929, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318939

ABSTRACT

The epidemic of pneumonia (COVID-19) caused by novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been listed as a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization (WHO), and its harm degree is defined as a global "pandemic". At present, the efforts of various countries focus on the rapid diagnosis and isolation of patients, as well as to find a treatment that can combat the most serious impact of the disease. The number of reported COVID-19 virus infections is still increasing. Unfortunately, no drugs or vaccines have been approved for the treatment of human coronaviruses, but there is an urgent need for in-depth research on emerging human infectious coronaviruses. Clarification transmission routes and pathogenic mechanisms, and identification of potential drug treatment targets will promote the development of effective prevention and treatment measures. In the absence of confirmed effective treatments, due to public health emergencies, it is essential to study the possible effects of existing approved antivirals drugs or Chinese herbal medicines for SARS-CoV-2. This review summarizes the epidemiological characteristics, pathogenesis, virus structure and targeting strategies of COVID-19. Meanwhile, this review also focus on the re-purposing of clinically approved drugs and Chinese herbal medicines that may be used to treat COVID-19 and provide new ideas for the discovery of small molecular compounds with potential therapeutic effects on novel COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Huanjing yu Zhiye Yixue = Journal of Environmental & Occupational Medicine ; 38(6):624, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1318592

ABSTRACT

[Background] The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) seriously affects the psychological status of medical staff who directly face the risk of the disease.[Objective] This study investigates the prevalence and related factors of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic.[Methods] From February 13 to March 1, 2020, a network questionnaire survey was conducted among 482 medical staff selected by convenience sampling. A self-designed questionnaire was used to investigate the basic demographic information and COVID-19-related questions. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9(PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7(GAD-7), and Insomnia Severity Index(ISI) were used to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among the medical staff. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed with PHQ-9 score, GAD-7 score, and ISI score as dependent variables. Multivariate logistic regression analysis(forward-conditional method) on depression, anxiety, and insomnia as dependent variables was performed with basic demographic information and COVID-19-related questions as independent variables. [Results] Among the surveyed medical staff, the prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and insomnia were 14.3%, 11.2%, and 23.2%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the prevalence rates among different age, gender, local risk level, and occupation groups and those aiding Hubei Province or not. The medical staff who directly contacted fever or diagnosed patients had more serious depression(b=1.73, 95% CI: 0.79-2.66) and insomnia(b=2.43, 95% CI: 1.48-3.39) and a higher risk of insomnia(OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.21-2.96). The medical staff whose current protective measures cannot prevent infection had more serious depression(b=1.72, 95% CI: 0.65-2.80), anxiety(b=1.75, 95% CI: 0.76-2.75), and insomnia(b=1.73, 95% CI: 0.63-2.82), and had a higher risk of depression(OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.11-3.49), anxiety(OR=3.00, 95% CI: 1.64-5.46), and insomnia(OR=1.79, 95% CI: 1.08-2.96).[Conclusion] During the COVID-19 epidemic, the risks of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among selected medical staff are increased compared with the non-epidemic period. Occupational exposure to high-risk groups and protective measures would significantly affect mental health of medical staff.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 570893, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952214

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has been rapidly spreading globally and has caused worldwide social and economic disruption. Currently, no specific antiviral drugs or clinically effective vaccines are available to prevent and treat COVID-19. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can facilitate syndrome differentiation and treatment according to the clinical manifestations of patients and has demonstrated effectiveness in epidemic prevention and control. In China, TCM intervention has helped to control the epidemic; however, TCM has not been fully recognized worldwide. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology and etiological characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the prevention and treatment measures of COVID-19. Additionally, we describe the application of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19 and the identification of small molecules of TCM that demonstrate anti-coronavirus activity. We also analyze the current problems associated with the recognition of TCM. We hope that, through the contribution of TCM, combined with modern technological research and the support of our international counterparts, COVID-19 can be effectively controlled and treated.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238760, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745057

ABSTRACT

In this study, we ascertained the chest CT data of 60 patients admitted to 3 hospitals in Chongqing with confirmed COVID-19. We conducted anatomical and pathological analyses to elucidate the possible reasons for the distribution, morphology, and characteristics of COVID-19 in chest CT. We also shared a semiquantitative scoring of affected lung segments, which was recommended by our local medical association. This scoring system was applied to quantify the severity of the disease. The most frequent imaging findings of COVID-19 were subpleural ground glass opacities and consolidation; there was a significant difference in semiquantitative scores between the early, progressive, and severe stages of the disease. We conclude that the chest CT findings of COVID-19 showed certain characteristics because of the anatomical features of the human body and pathological changes caused by the virus. Therefore, chest CT is a valuable tool for facilitating the diagnosis of COVID-19 and semiquantitative scoring of affected lung segments may further elucidate diagnosis and assessment of disease severity. This will assist healthcare workers in diagnosing COVID-19 and assessing disease severity, facilitate the selection of appropriate treatment options, which is important for reducing the spread of the virus, saving lives, and controlling the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, Spiral Computed/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, Spiral Computed/methods
10.
Brain Behav Immun ; 88: 17-27, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-270288

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the cause of a worldwide pandemic. The mental status of patients with COVID-19 who have been quarantined and the interactions between their psychological distress and physiological levels of inflammation have yet to be analyzed. Using a mixed-method triangulation design (QUAN + QUAL), this study investigated and compared the mental status and inflammatory markers of 103 patients who, while hospitalized with mild symptoms, tested positive with COVID-19 and 103 matched controls that were COVID-19 negative. The severity of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) was measured via an on-line survey. Using a convenience sampling technique, qualitative data were collected until the point of data saturation. In addition, a semi-structured interview was conducted among five patients with COVID-19. Peripheral inflammatory markers were also collected in patients, both at baseline and within ± three days of completing the on-line survey. Results revealed that COVID-19 patients, when compared to non-COVID controls, manifested higher levels of depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), and post-traumatic stress symptoms (P < 0.001). A gender effect was observed in the score of "Perceived Helplessness", the subscale of PSS-10, with female patients showing higher scores compared to male patients (Z = 2.56, P = 0.010), female (Z = 2.37, P = 0.018) and male controls (Z = 2.87, P = 0.004). Levels of CRP, a peripheral inflammatory indicator, correlated positively with the PHQ-9 total score (R = 0.37, P = 0.003, Spearman's correlation) of patients who presented symptoms of depression. Moreover, the change of CRP level from baseline inversely correlated with the PHQ-9 total score (R = -0.31, P = 0.002), indicative of improvement of depression symptoms. Qualitative analysis revealed similar results with respect to patient reports of negative feelings, including fear, guilt, and helplessness. Stigma and uncertainty of viral disease progression were two main concerns expressed by COVID-19 patients. Our results indicate that significant psychological distress was experienced by hospitalized COVID-19 patients and that levels of depressive features may be related to the inflammation markers in these patients. Thus, we recommend that necessary measures should be provided to address depression and other psychiatric symptoms for COVID-19 patients and attention should be paid to patient perceived stigma and coping strategies when delivering psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/psychology , Inflammation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Sedimentation , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/immunology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Procalcitonin/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/immunology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/immunology
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