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1.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116615, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1077885

ABSTRACT

To prevent spreads of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), China adopted the lockdown measures in late January 2020, providing a platform to study the response of air quality and atmospheric chemical and physical properties to strict reduced emissions. In this study, the continuous measurements of aerosol light absorption were conducted in Nanjing, east China, from January 3 to March 31, 2020. Our results showed that the contribution of black carbon (BC) to light absorption at the different wavelengths was more than 75% and the rest light absorption was contributed by brown carbon (BrC), which was mainly originated from primary emissions. Secondary BrC absorption, which was mainly produced by photochemical oxidation, constituted a minor fraction (2-7%) of the total absorption. Compared with the sampling in the pre-lockdown, the significant decreases of BC (43%) and secondary BrC absorption (31%) were found during the lockdown period, resulting in a substantial decrease of solar energy absorbance by 36% on a local scale. The control measures also changed the diurnal variations of light absorption. Due to the reduced emissions, the relative fraction of fossil fuel to BC also dropped from 78% in the pre-lockdown to 71% in the lockdown. The concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and NO2 decreased 1.1 µg m-3, 33 µg m-3 and 9.1 ppb whereas O3 concentration increased 9.0 ppb during the COVID-19 lockdown period. The decreased concentrations of BC, PM2.5 and NO2 were mainly contributed by both emission reduction (51-64%) and meteorological conditions (36-49%). Our results highlighted that the balance of control measures in alleviation of particulate matter (PM) and O3 pollution, and meteorology should be seriously considered for improvement of air quality in this urban city of China.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Aerosols/analysis , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Fossil Fuels/analysis , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis
2.
World Scientific Research Journal ; 7(1):358-364, 2021.
Article in English | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1034529

ABSTRACT

Due to the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020, people are very worried about the situation of the epidemic Being able to model the number of cases over time is crucial This model is used to predict numbers of people who may get diseases in the future We construct a model with some unknown parameters and decide those parameters by making the mean square error of the predicted value with actual data The epidemic model is generalized SEIR model and it helps us to match with reality The data we use are from database built by Hopkins University The result shows that disease will finally disappear We can see that the virus increase at a very fast speed at first but begin to decrease from the curve It is because that more people to take actions for protecting themselves This result shows the virus can be defeated if we put effort to stop spreading them

3.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1612

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic seriously threatens general public health services globally This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic

4.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1043

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic carriers were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without developing symptoms, which might be a

5.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-661

ABSTRACT

Background: This study conducted in mainland China was aimed to explore the cognition, psychological state, anxiety and depression level of college students dur

6.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-515

ABSTRACT

Background: The outbreak of a new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) induced pneumonia (NCP) in the central city of Wuhan in China poses a threat to the public health Thi

7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 26: 100510, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-758754

ABSTRACT

Background: Asymptomatic carriers were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) without developing symptoms, which might be a potential source of infection outbreak. Here, we aim to clarify the epidemiologic and influencing factors of asymptomatic carriers in the general population. Methods: In our hospital, all hospital staff have received throat swab RT-PCR test, plasma COVID-19 IgM/IgG antibodies test and chest CT examination. We analyzed the correlation between infection rates and gender, age, job position, work place and COVID-19 knowledge training of the staff. After that, all asymptomatic staff were re-examined weekly for 3 weeks. Findings: A total of 3764 hospital staff were included in this single-center cross-sectional study. Among them, 126 hospital staff had abnormal findings, and the proportion of asymptomatic infection accounted for 0.76% (28/3674). There were 26 staff with IgM+, 73 with IgG+, and 40 with ground glass shadow of chest CT. Of all staff with abnormal findings, the older they are, the more likely they are to be the staff with abnormal results, regardless of their gender. Of 3674 hospital staff, the positive rate of labor staff is obviously higher than that of health care workers (HCWs) and administrative staff (P<0.05). In the course of participating in the treatment of COVID-19, there was no statistically significant difference in positive rates between high-risk departments and low-risk departments (P>0.05). The positive rate of HCWs who participated in the COVID-19 knowledge training was lower than those did not participate in early training (P <0.01). Importantly, it was found that there was no statistical difference between the titers of IgM antibody of asymptomatic infections and confirmed patients with COVID-19 in recovery period (P>0.05). During 3 weeks follow-up, all asymptomatic patients did not present the development of clinical symptoms or radiographic abnormalities after active intervention in isolation point. Interpretation: To ensure the safety of resumption of work, institutions should conduct COVID-19 prevention training for staff and screening for asymptomatic patients, and take quarantine measures as soon as possible in areas with high density of population. Funding: The Key Project for Anti-2019 novel Coronavirus Pneumonia from the Ministry of Science and Technology, China; Wuhan Emergency Technology Project of COVID-19 epidemic, China.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21548, 2020 Aug 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705597

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan in December 2019, has spread in many countries affected people globally. In response to the economic requirement of the nation and meet the need of patient's, a momentous event was going back to work step by step as fighting against COVID-19. Safety in clinical work is of priority as elective surgery in the department of surgery progressing. We used checklists based on our experiences on COVID-19 control and reality of clinical work from February to March in the West China Hospital, involving events of screening patient, chaperonage, and healthcare workers. Checklist summarized the actual clinical nursing work and management practices, hope to provide a reference for the order of surgery during the epidemic prevention and control, and standardize the clinical nursing work of surgery during pandemic.


Subject(s)
Checklist/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vascular Surgical Procedures/organization & administration , Chi-Square Distribution , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital , Occupational Health , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surgery Department, Hospital/organization & administration
10.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(7): 926-931, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548407

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine how long SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA persists in fecal specimens in children with COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospectively, ten children with confirmed COVID-19 in the Jinan Infectious Disease Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University were enrolled between January 23, 2020 to March 9, 2020. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of the children were analyzed. RT-PCR assays were performed to detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in the respiratory tract and fecal specimens in the follow-up after discharge. RESULTS: Among ten patients, five (50%) were asymptomatic and five (50%) showed mild symptoms of respiratory illness. The average age of asymptomatic children was younger than that of symptomatic children (p = 0.03). The decreases in white blood cell (WBC) (p = 0.03) and lymphocyte (p = 0.03) counts were more severe in symptomatic patients than those in asymptomatic patients. During the follow-up examination after discharge, seven out of ten patients contained SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in their fecal specimens, despite all patients showed negative results in respiratory tract specimens. One out of those seven patients relapsed. The median time from onset to being negative results in respiratory tract and fecal specimens was 9 days and 34.43 days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA persists much longer in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract than that in respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feces/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Child , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Time Factors
11.
J Hepatol ; 73(4): 807-816, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-345685

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: Liver enzyme abnormalities are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Whether or not severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to liver damage per se remains unknown. Herein, we reported the clinical characteristics and liver pathological manifestations of COVID-19 patients with liver enzyme abnormalities. Methods: We analyzed 156 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from 2 designated centers in China and compared clinical features between patients with or without elevated aminotransferases. Postmortem liver biopsies were obtained from 2 cases who had elevated aminotransferases. We investigated the patterns of liver impairment by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, TUNEL assay and pathological studies. Results: Sixty-four out of 156 (41.0%) patients with COVID-19 had elevated aminotransferases. The median levels of alanine aminotransferase were 50 U/L vs. 19 U/L, respectively, aspartate aminotransferase were 45.5 U/L vs. 24 U/L, respectively in abnormal and normal aminotransferase groups. Liver enzyme abnormalities were associated with disease severity, as well as a series of laboratory tests including higher alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference, higher gamma-glutamyltransferase, lower albumin, decreased CD4+ T cells and B lymphocytes. Ultrastructural examination identified typical coronavirus particles, characterized by spike structures, in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in 2 COVID-19 cases. SARS-CoV-2-infected hepatocytes displayed conspicuous mitochondrial swelling, endoplasmic reticulum dilatation and glycogen granule decrease. Histologically, massive hepatic apoptosis and some binuclear hepatocytes were observed. Taken together, both ultrastructural and histological evidence indicated a typical lesion of viral infection. Immunohistochemical results showed scarce CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. No obvious eosinophil infiltration, cholestasis, fibrin deposition, granuloma, massive central necrosis, or interface hepatitis were observed. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection in the liver directly contributes to hepatic impairment in patients with COVID-19. Hence, a surveillance of viral clearance in liver and long-term outcome of COVID-19 is required. Lay summary: Liver enzyme abnormalities are common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We reported the clinical characteristics and liver pathological manifestations of COVID-19 patients with elevated liver enzymes. Our findings suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infection of the liver is a crucial factor contributing to hepatic impairment in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase/blood , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Coronavirus Infections , Liver Diseases , Liver , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Correlation of Data , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Liver Diseases/blood , Liver Diseases/diagnosis , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Function Tests/methods , Male , Microscopy, Electron , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4383-4392, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260333

ABSTRACT

The ACE2 gene is a receptor of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) for COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). To analyze the expression profiles and clinical significances for this gene in humans, RNA-seq data representing 27 different tissues were analyzed using NCBI; total RNA was extracted from different tissues of mouse and semi-quantitative reverse transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) was carried out. Immunohistochemistry expression profiles in normal tissues and cancer tissues and TCGA survival analysis in renal and liver cancer were conducted. ACE2 was highly conserved in different species. In normal tissues, ACE2 expression distributions were organ-specific, mainly in the kidney, male testis and female breast, and cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. High level of expression in testis, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal system indicated that SARS-CoV-2 might not only attack the lungs, but also affect other organs, particularly the testes, thus it may severely damage male sexual development for younger male and lead to infertility in an adult male, if he contracted COVID-19. On the other side, high expression of ACE2 was correlated with increased survival rate in renal and liver cancer, indicating that ACE2 is a prognostic marker in both renal cancer and liver cancers. Thus, the ACE2 is a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and has a potential anti-tumor role in cancer. Taken together, this study may not only provide potential clues for further medical pathogenesis of COVID-19 and male fertility, but also indicate the clinical significance of the role of the ACE2 gene in cancer.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Kidney Neoplasms/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adult , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Databases, Genetic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Kidney Neoplasms/mortality , Kidney Neoplasms/pathology , Kidney Neoplasms/virology , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/virology , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mammary Glands, Human/metabolism , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mammary Glands, Human/virology , Mice , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Signal Transduction , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Analysis , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology , Testis/virology
13.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 10(7): 1205-1215, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88716

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability, hypertension, and multiorgan dysfunction. Effective antivirals with safe clinical profile are urgently needed to improve the overall prognosis. In an analysis of a randomly collected cohort of 124 patients with COVID-19, we found that hypercoagulability as indicated by elevated concentrations of D-dimers was associated with disease severity. By virtual screening of a U.S. FDA approved drug library, we identified an anticoagulation agent dipyridamole (DIP) in silico, which suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. In a proof-of-concept trial involving 31 patients with COVID-19, DIP supplementation was associated with significantly decreased concentrations of D-dimers (P < 0.05), increased lymphocyte and platelet recovery in the circulation, and markedly improved clinical outcomes in comparison to the control patients. In particular, all 8 of the DIP-treated severely ill patients showed remarkable improvement: 7 patients (87.5%) achieved clinical cure and were discharged from the hospitals while the remaining 1 patient (12.5%) was in clinical remission.

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