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2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191639

ABSTRACT

Critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by severe cytokine storms, a hyperinflammatory condition intimately related to the development of fatal outcomes. Why some individuals seem particularly vulnerable to severe cytokine storms is still unknown. Primary immunodeficiency (PID)-related genes are inherited factors that dysregulate host inflammatory responses to infection, especially hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH)-related genes, established as contributors to the development of excessive cytokine storms. We analyzed the association between PID gene variants with severe cytokine storms in COVID-19. We conducted whole-exome sequencing in 233 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and identified four PID gene (UNC13D, AP3B1, RNF168, DHX58) variants were significantly enriched in COVID-19 patients experiencing severe cytokine storms. The total percentage of COVID-19 patients with variants in UNC13D or AP3B1, two typical HLH genes, was dramatically higher in high-level cytokine group than in low-level group (33.3 vs. 5.7%, P < 0.001). Germline variants in UNC13D and AP3B1 were associated with the development of severe cytokine storms, fatal outcomes in COVID-19. These findings advance the understanding of individual susceptibility to severe cytokine storms and help optimize the current management of COVID-19.

3.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound (LUS) and lung ultrasound score (LUSS) have been successfully used to diagnose neonatal pneumonia, assess the lesion distribution, and quantify the aeration loss. The present study design determines the diagnostic value of LUSS in the semi-quantitative assessment of pneumonia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) neonates. METHODS: Eleven COVID-19 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 infection and 11 age- and gender-matched controls were retrospectively studied. LUSS was acquired by assessing the lesions and aeration loss in 12 lung regions per subject. RESULTS: Most of the COVID-19 newborns presented with mild and atypical symptoms, mainly involving respiratory and digestive systems. In the COVID-19 group, a total of 132 regions of the lung were examined, 83 regions (62.8%) of which were detected abnormalities by LUS. Compared with controls, COVID-19 neonates showed sparse or confluent B-lines (83 regions), disappearing A-lines (83 regions), abnormal pleural lines (29 regions), and subpleural consolidations (2 regions). The LUSS was significantly higher in the COVID-19 group. In total, 49 regions (37%) were normal, 73 regions (55%) scored 1, and 10 regions (8%) scored 2 by LUSS. All the lesions were bilateral, with multiple regions involved. The majority of the lesions were located in the bilateral inferior and posterior regions. LUS detected abnormalities in three COVID-19 neonates with normal radiological performance. The intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility of LUSS was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: LUS is a noninvasive, convenient, and sensitive method to assess neonatal COVID-19 pneumonia, and can be used as an alternative to the use of diagnostic radiography. LUSS provides valuable semi-quantitative information on the lesion distribution and severity.

4.
Sustainability ; 13(5):2848, 2021.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1129782

ABSTRACT

Consumers’ eating habits are gradually changing In the next few decades, this shift will not be solely dictated by individuals’ decisions but by the need to feed an ever-increasing population in the face of global resources’ impoverishment Novel superfoods rich in nutrients and produced with sustainable methods, including microalgae, maybe a solution However, their unusual aspect, the palatability, and the lack of knowledge by most people could be obstacles to adoption This study aims at encouraging the use of microalgae as food, highlighting the importance that design plays in the transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns Through practice-based design research, characterized by empirical experiments, a survey, an engaging workshop, and the development of a fully-functional open-source product, the authors conceptualize a theoretical framework within which similar product-service systems could thrive This real-world experimentation is of interest for academics, professionals, makers in the field of design, etc It suggests that multidisciplinarity, education, and replicability are the keys to addressing this topic and paves the way for further technical and humanistic research

6.
J Bus Ethics ; : 1-28, 2021 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092699

ABSTRACT

We examine corporate philanthropic decisions in response to the local spread of COVID-19. From a strategic perspective, firms may proactively undertake philanthropic efforts to limit the spread of the pandemic and avoid a degraded business environment. From the perspective of non-trivial costs, increased economic uncertainty can raise concerns about business survival and lead to conservative philanthropic strategies. Following the proverb "prosperity makes friends, adversity tries them," at the provincial level, our results support the second perspective. Specifically, when the spread of the pandemic worsens in a province, local firms are less likely to make COVID-19-related donations in terms of likelihood and amount. Investors also react negatively, not only to the local spread of COVID-19 but also to COVID-19-related philanthropic donations. At the organizational level, our evidence indicates that there is at least some level of cost-benefit analysis underlying corporate philanthropic decisions. Specifically, corporate philanthropic donations, especially those made to the local business environment, are significantly affected by organizational-level factors, such as pre-existing resource availability and motives to acquire political and reputational resources. Overall, our multilevel study presents a comprehensive picture of corporate philanthropic decisions amid the COVID-19 crisis.

7.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(1): 58-61, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084697

ABSTRACT

Over 85 590 000 individuals have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although there have been an increasing number of reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), it is unclear why infected children show milder symptoms than adults. A retrospective case study was performed at two designated hospitals for COVID-19. Patients (56 children and 63 adults) with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild pneumonia were randomly enrolled in this study. The median age of the children was 7.0 years, and 51.79% of them were boys. The median age of the adults was 57 years, and 47.62% were men. The most common symptoms were fever, cough, sputum and diarrhoea. There were no significant differences in symptoms between children and adult patients. In terms of immunological indices on admission, adult patients displayed typical leukopenia and markedly higher levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 than child patients. The elevation of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 in adults induced more extensive lung injury. The effective and non-aggressive immune response successfully resisted SARS-CoV-2 invasion and maintained mild symptoms in child patients. The correlation of higher IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 with the lung injury might be evidence that preventing excessive cytokine production can avoid further lung damage in these patients.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Immunity , Leukopenia/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-3575

ABSTRACT

A review At present, the diagnosis and treatment of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has entered a critical period The treatment of complex and changeable disease requires the cooperation of doctors, nurses and pharmacists Therefore, from the perspective of pharmaceutical service, this article introduced some important aspects to improve the treatment of COVID-19, including the formulation of pharmaceutical care standards, prescription and medical order review, remote pharmaceutical care for COVID-19, pharmaceutical care for COVID-19 patients in the hospital and science popularization of COVID-19 As an important part of the prevention and control of epidemic disease, clin pharmacy service has played an active role in ensuring the safety and effectiveness of patients′ medication, thereby making contribution to the effective control of the epidemic

9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243195, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953970

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current worldwide pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a serious threat to global public health, and the mortality rate of critical ill patients remains high. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that early predict the progression of COVID-19 from severe to critical illness. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients with severe or critical ill COVID-19 who were consecutively admitted to the Zhongfaxincheng campus of Tongji Hospital (Wuhan, China) from February 8 to 18, 2020. Baseline variables, data at hospital admission and during hospital stay, as well as clinical outcomes were collected from electronic medical records system. The primary endpoint was the development of critical illness. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify independent factors that were associated with the progression from severe to critical illness. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients were included in the analysis; of them 119 were diagnosed as severe cases and 16 as critical ill cases at hospital admission. During hospital stay, 19 more severe cases progressed to critical illness. For all enrolled patients, longer duration from diagnosis to admission (odds ratio [OR] 1.108, 95% CI 1.022-1.202; P = 0.013), pulse oxygen saturation at admission <93% (OR 5.775, 95% CI 1.257-26.535; P = 0.024), higher neutrophil count (OR 1.495, 95% CI 1.177-1.899; P = 0.001) and higher creatine kinase-MB level at admission (OR 2.449, 95% CI 1.089-5.511; P = 0.030) were associated with a higher risk, whereas higher lymphocyte count at admission (OR 0.149, 95% CI 0.026-0.852; P = 0.032) was associated with a lower risk of critical illness development. For the subgroup of severe cases at hospital admission, the above factors except creatine kinase-MB level were also found to have similar correlation with critical illness development. CONCLUSIONS: Higher neutrophil count and lower lymphocyte count at admission were early independent predictors of progression to critical illness in severe COVID-19 patients.

11.
12.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-836

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak originated from a seafood market in Wuhan, China The virus, also known as SARS

13.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 34(10): e23554, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To compare the diagnostic efficacy between two different real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid detection and provide references for laboratories. METHODS: Throat swab samples from 18 hospitalized patients were clinically diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 100 hospitalized patients without COVID-19 were collected. SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid was detected in throat swab samples with RT-PCR test kits from Sansure Biotech Inc (Hunan, China) and Shanghai BioGerm Medical Biotechnology Co., Ltd.(Shanghai, China). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and kappa value were analyzed, and three parallel tests were performed with three weakly positive samples. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and kappa value of the Sansure PCR kit were 0.833, 1.000, 1.000, 0.971, and 0.894, respectively, and the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and kappa value of the BioGerm PCR kit were 0.944, 1.000, 1.000, 0.990, and 0.966, respectively. For the three parallel tests, the coefficient of variation value of the BioGerm PCR kit in all three samples was the smallest for both the ORF1ab and N gene. CONCLUSION: The detection efficacy of the BioGerm PCR kit for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection was relatively higher than that of the Sansure PCR kit.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Humans , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards
14.
Applied Mathematical Modelling ; 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-778402

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has grown up to be a pandemic within a short span of time To investigate transmission dynamics and then determine control methodology, we took epidemic in Wuhan as a study case Unfortunately, to our best knowledge, the existing models are based on the common assumption that the total population follows a homogeneous spatial distribution, which is not the case for the prevalence occurred both in the community and in hospital due to the difference in the contact rate To solve this problem, we propose a novel epidemic model called SEIR-HC, which is a model with two different social circles (i e , individuals in hospital and community) Using the model alongside the exclusive optimization algorithm, the spread process of COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan city is reproduced and then the propagation characteristics and unknown data are estimated The basic reproduction number of COVID-19 is estimated to be 7 9, which is far higher than that of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Furthermore, the control measures implemented in Wuhan are assessed and the control methodology of COVID-19 is discussed to provide guidance for limiting the epidemic spread

15.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 41, 2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-745023

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of a rapidly spreading illness, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), affecting more than seventeen million people around the world. Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for clinicians caring for patients are needed. In the early stage, we have issued "A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)"; now there are many direct evidences emerged and may change some of previous recommendations and it is ripe for develop an evidence-based guideline. We formed a working group of clinical experts and methodologists. The steering group members proposed 29 questions that are relevant to the management of COVID-19 covering the following areas: chemoprophylaxis, diagnosis, treatments, and discharge management. We searched the literature for direct evidence on the management of COVID-19, and assessed its certainty generated recommendations using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Recommendations were either strong or weak, or in the form of ungraded consensus-based statement. Finally, we issued 34 statements. Among them, 6 were strong recommendations for, 14 were weak recommendations for, 3 were weak recommendations against and 11 were ungraded consensus-based statement. They covered topics of chemoprophylaxis (including agents and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) agents), diagnosis (including clinical manifestations, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respiratory tract specimens, IgM and IgG antibody tests, chest computed tomography, chest x-ray, and CT features of asymptomatic infections), treatments (including lopinavir-ritonavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, interferon, remdesivir, combination of antiviral drugs, hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, interleukin-6 inhibitors, interleukin-1 inhibitors, glucocorticoid, qingfei paidu decoction, lianhua qingwen granules/capsules, convalescent plasma, lung transplantation, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)), and discharge management (including discharge criteria and management plan in patients whose RT-PCR retesting shows SARS-CoV-2 positive after discharge). We also created two figures of these recommendations for the implementation purpose. We hope these recommendations can help support healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Chemoprevention/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Evidence-Based Medicine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Discharge/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids are now recommended in many treatment guidelines, although supporting evidence is limited to 1 randomized controlled clinical trial (RECOVERY). OBJECTIVE: To identify whether corticosteroids were beneficial to COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A total of 1514 severe and 249 critical hospitalized COVID-19 patients from 2 medical centers in Wuhan, China. Multivariable Cox models, Cox model with time-varying exposure and propensity score analysis (inverse-probability-of-treatment-weighting [IPTW] and propensity score matching [PSM]) were used to estimate the association of corticosteroid use with risk of in-hospital mortality in severe and critical cases. RESULTS: Corticosteroids were administered in 531 (35.1%) severe and 159 (63.9%) critical patients. Compared to the non-corticosteroid group, systemic corticosteroid use was not associated with beneficial effect in reducing in-hospital mortality in either severe cases (HR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.08-2.89; P = 0.023), or critical cases (HR = 2.07; 95% CI, 1.08-3.98; P = 0.028). Findings were similar in time-varying Cox analysis. For patients with severe COVID-19 at admission, corticosteroid use was not associated with improved or harmful outcome in either PSM or IPTW analysis. For critical COVID-19 patients at admission, results were consistent with multivariable Cox model analysis. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroid use was not associated with beneficial effect in reducing in-hospital mortality for severe or critical cases in Wuhan. Absence of the beneficial effect in our study in contrast to that observed in the RECOVERY clinical trial may be due to biases in observational data, in particular prescription by indication bias, differences in clinical characteristics of patients, choice of corticosteroid used, timing of initiation of treatment, and duration of treatment.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Aged , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
17.
PeerJ ; 8: e9578, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693307

ABSTRACT

Background: In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) broke out in Wuhan, China; however, the factors affecting the mortality of COVID-19 remain unclear. Methods: Thirty-two days of data (the growth rate/mortality of COVID-19 cases) that were shared by Chinese National Health Commission and Chinese Weather Net were collected by two authors independently. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the difference in the mortality of confirmed/severe cases before and after the use of "Fangcang, Huoshenshan, and Leishenshan" makeshift hospitals (MSHs). We also studied whether the above outcomes of COVID-19 cases were related to air temperature (AT), relative humidity (RH), or air quality index (AQI) by performing Pearson's analysis or Spearman's analysis. Results: Eight days after the use of MSHs, the mortality of confirmed cases was significantly decreased both in Wuhan (t = 4.5, P < 0.001) and Hubei (U = 0, P < 0.001), (t and U are the test statistic used to test the significance of the difference). In contrast, the mortality of confirmed cases remained unchanged in non-Hubei regions (U = 76, P = 0.106). While on day 12 and day 16 after the use of MSHs, the reduce in mortality was still significant both in Wuhan and Hubei; but in non-Hubei regions, the reduce also became significant this time (U = 123, P = 0.036; U = 171, P = 0.015, respectively). Mortality of confirmed cases was found to be negatively correlated with AT both in Wuhan (r =  - 0.441, P = 0.012) and Hubei (r =  - 0.440, P = 0.012). Also, both the growth rate and the mortality of COVID-19 cases were found to be significantly correlated with AQI in Wuhan and Hubei. However, no significant correlation between RH and the growth rate/mortality of COVID-19 cases was found in our study. Conclusions: Our findings indicated that both the use of MSHs, the rise of AT, and the improvement of air quality were beneficial to the survival of COVID-19 patients.

18.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 356, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689148

ABSTRACT

Faced with the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a global public health threat, psychiatric hospitals are under huge pressure to prevent and control nosocomial infection. The current research analyzed the COVID-19 infection control practices in a regional mental health center in China and addressed how this type of medical institutions could enhance their ability to prevent and control hospital transmission of major respiratory diseases and general management of nosocomial infection risks. Firstly, hospital-related risks of COVID-19 were analyzed, and targeted prevention and control measures were then established. Pre- and post-intervention theoretical knowledge of nosocomial infection control, hand hygiene compliance and accuracy, use of personal protective equipment, and disinfection and sterilization effectiveness were evaluated and compared. All the indexes displayed significant improvements following the implementation of the prevention and control measures. Up to the submission of this paper, the mental health center had obtained no suspected or confirmed case of COVID-19 infection due to hospital transmission. The findings provide empirical evidence for the effectiveness of the COVID-19 preventive strategies and have important implications for integrated and characterized infection control in mental health centers during a major epidemic. The establishment of the transitional isolation ward and air fumigation using traditional Chinese medicine for patients and staff are preventive measures worthy of further discussion and dissemination.

19.
J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. Med. Sci. ; 5(40): 559-565, 20200528.
Article in Chinese | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-647861

ABSTRACT

Objective • To explore the common clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2)-infected local patients in Shanghai and their related influencing factors. Methods • A total of 320 patients admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from January to March 2020 and diagnosed as having coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) were selected. Clinical data of the patients were collected to analyze their characteristics. Using the statistical operation formula of R language, the correlation analysis of hospitalization days, days of increased hypersensitive C-reactive protein concentration (allergic days), days of lung CT improvement (CT days), and days required for nucleic acid turning negative with the main clinical manifestations and laboratory data was carried out. The correlation factors affecting the above four variables were analyzed. Results • Among the 320 patients, the proportions of mild type, moderate type, serious type and critical type were 6.25%, 83.44%, 6.88% and 3.44%, respectively; 91.25% of them had a history of exposure to Hubei. The proportions of fever, cough, sputum and fatigue were 79.06%, 46.56%, 21.56% and 15.31%, respectively. Spearman correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase, interleukin-2(IL-2) and IL-6 were positively correlated with the above four variables, respectively (all P<0.05), albumin concentration was negatively correlated with allergic days (P=0.018), and CD4+ cell count was negatively correlated with CT days and days required for nucleic acid turning negative (both P<0.05). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis showed that procalcitonin (PCT) concentration was negatively correlated with hospitalization days, CT days and allergic days (both P<0.05), and disease type was positively correlated with hospitalization days, allergic days, CT days and days required for nucleic acid turning negative (all P<0.05). Conclusion • Moderate type is common in the local patients in Shanghai; fever, cough and fatigue are common symptoms, and most of the patients are accompanied by lung CT abnormalities. The therapeutic effect and prognosis of these patients are closely related to disease type, concentrations of PCT and IL-6, as well as CD4+ cell count.

20.
EBioMedicine ; 57: 102833, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus pneumonia COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection could lead to a series of clinical symptoms and severe illnesses, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and fatal organ failure. We report the fundamental pathological investigation in the lungs and other organs of fatal cases for the mechanistic understanding of severe COVID-19 and the development of specific therapy in these cases. METHODS: The autopsy and pathological investigations of specimens were performed on bodies of two deceased cases with COVID-19. Gross anatomy and histological investigation by Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained were reviewed on each patient. Alcian blue/periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining and Masson staining were performed for the examinations of mucus, fibrin and collagen fiber in lung tissues. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on the slides of lung tissues from two patients. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the infection of SARS-CoV-2. Flow cytometry analyses were performed to detect the direct binding of S protein and the expression of ACE2 on the cell surface of macrophages. FINDINGS: The main pathological features in lungs included extensive impairment of type I alveolar epithelial cells and atypical hyperplasia of type II alveolar cells, with formation of hyaline membrane, focal hemorrhage, exudation and pulmonary edema, and pulmonary consolidation. The mucous plug with fibrinous exudate in the alveoli and the dysfunction of alveolar macrophages were characteristic abnormalities. The type II alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages in alveoli and pulmonary hilum lymphoid tissue were infected by SARS-CoV-2. S protein of SARS-CoV-2 directly bound to the macrophage via the S-protein-ACE2 interaction. INTERPRETATION: Infection of alveolar macrophage by SARS-CoV-2 might be drivers of the "cytokine storm", which might result in damages in pulmonary tissues, heart and lung, and lead to the failure of multiple organs . FUNDING: Shanghai Guangci Translational Medical Research Development Foundation, Shanghai, China.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Lung/pathology , Macrophages, Alveolar/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hyperplasia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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